(Mishnah): Even though Charoses is not a Mitzvah.
Question: If it is not a Mitzvah, why do we bring it?!
Answer (R. Ami): It is on account of Kapa.
(Rav Asi): The cure for [one who got sick from] Kapa of lettuce is [to eat] radish;
The cure for Kapa of radishes is leeks; the cure for Kapa of leeks and all vegetables is hot water;
In the meantime, he should say 'Kapa, Kapa - I remember you and your seven daughters and eight daughters-in-law.'
(Mishnah - R. Eliezer b'Ribi Tzadok): It is a Mitzvah.
Question: What Mitzvah is it?
Answer #1 (R. Levi): It [is made with apples, and] commemorates apple trees ("Tachas ha'Tapu'ach Orarticha" - in Mitzrayim, women gave birth painlessly to sextuplets under apple trees, out of sight of the Mitzriyim).
Answer #2 (R. Yochanan): It commemorates working in the mud.
(Abaye): Therefore [to fulfill both opinions], it must have [apples, which give a tinge of] sourness, to commemorate apple trees; and it must be thick, to commemorate mud.
Support (for R. Yochanan - Beraisa): Charoses is made with spices to commemorate the straw [used to make bricks; cinnamon and ginger resemble straw]; it is ground finely, to commemorate mud;
R. Eliezer b'Ribi Tzadok says, grocers in Yerushalayim used to say 'Come buy spices for the Mitzvah!'
THE FOUR QUESTIONS
(Mishnah): They mix a second cup of wine; the son asks his father [why we prepare to drink more before eating]; if the son does not know by himself, his father teaches him [the four questions]:
How different is tonight from all other nights! On all other nights we eat Chametz or Matzah - tonight we eat only Matzah!
On all other nights we eat other vegetables - tonight we eat Maror!
On all other nights we eat roasted, overcooked or cooked meat - tonight we eat only roasted! (This is asked when the Mikdash stands; it is like Ben Teima, who says that also Chagigah of the 14th is eaten roasted.)
On all other nights we dip once - tonight we dip twice!
His father teaches him according to what he can understand; we start with detriment, and end with praise (this will be explained); we expound from "Arami Oved Avi" (the account of Yetzi'as Mitzrayim one says when bringing Bikurim) until the end of the Parashah.
(Gemara - Beraisa): The son asks if he is clever; if not, the wife asks; if not, he asks himself;
Even two Chachamim who know laws of Pesach ask each other.
(Mishnah): On all other nights we dip once - tonight we dip twice!
Question (Rava): We do not necessarily dip even once on other nights!
Answer #1 (Rava): It means that, on other nights we need not dip even once - tonight we [must] dip twice!
Objection (Rav Safra): Also tonight dipping is not an obligation - it is merely to arouse children!
Answer #2 (Rav Safra): It should say, on other nights we do not dip even once - tonight we dip twice!
(Mishnah): We start with detriment, and end with praise.
Question: With what detriment do we begin?
Answer #1 (Rav): At the beginning our ancestors were idolaters.
Answer #2 (Shmuel): We were slaves.
Rav Nachman (to his slave Daro): If a master freed his slave and gave to him gold and silver, what must the slave say?
Daro: He must thank and praise him!
Rav Nachman: You have exempted us from asking the four questions!
Rav Nachman proceeded to say 'We were slaves...' (like Shmuel, his Rebbi).
(Mishnah - R. Gamliel): Anyone who did not say [why we eat] the following three things was not [properly] Yotzei [eating them, or Hagadah - see note 62 in Appendix] - Pesach, Matzah and Maror;
We eat Pesach because Hash-m Posach (skipped over; alternatively, had mercy - Rashi Shemos 12:23) on the houses of our ancestors in Mitzrayim [when He killed their firstborn] - "Va'Amartem Zevach Pesach Hu la'Shem Asher Posach..." ("Va'Amartem" commands to tell about Pesach; Matzah and Maror are equated to Pesach.)
We eat Matzah to commemorate the redemption of our ancestors from Mitzrayim - "Va'Yofu Es ha'Batzek Asher Hotzi'u mi'Mitzrayim [Ugos Matzos]." (It shows the speed of the redemption - the journey to Sukos was 120 Mil (Rashi Shemos 12:37), and Yisrael arrived before the dough fermented, i.e. within the time to walk one Mil!)
We eat Maror to commemorate how the Mitzriyim embittered the lives of our ancestors in Mitzrayim - "Va'YMaRaRu Es Chayeihem."
In every generation one must view (Rashbam - display) himself as if he left Mitzrayim - "V'Higadta l'Vincha...Ba'avur Zeh Asah Hash-m Li b'Tzeisi mi'Mitzrayim";
Therefore, we are obligated to thank, praise, exalt, glorify and bless He who did all these miracles for our ancestors and for us:
He took us from slavery to freedom, from sighing to joy, from mourning to a Yom Tov, from darkness to great light, and from slavery to freedom, and we will say Halleluyah [in Hallel].
Question: How much of Hallel do we say [before the meal]?
Answer #1 (Beis Shamai): We say until "Em ha'Banim Semechah."
Answer #2 (Beis Hillel): We say until "Chalamish l'Mayno Mayim."
We end Hagadah with [a Berachah of] redemption:
R. Tarfon says, [we bless] 'Who redeemed us and our ancestors from Mitzrayim' - there is no Chasimah (it does not end with Baruch...);
R. Akiva says, 'So Hash-m...will bring us to more festivals waiting to greet us in Shalom; we will rejoice in the building of Your city and in Your service and eat [Pesachim and Chagigah]...Baruch Atah Hash-m Go'al Yisrael'.
(Gemara - Rava): One must say 'And He took us out of there'.
(Rava): One must lift the Matzah and Maror for everyone to see [when he says 'this Matzah that we eat' and 'this Maror...'; nowadays, if one or both of the cooked foods are meat,] one need not lift the meat;
Moreover, one should not do so, for it looks like he eats Kodshim outside the Mikdash (Rashbam - it looks like he is Makdish the meat)!
(Rav Acha bar Yakov): A blind person is exempt from saying Hagadah - it says "[V'Higadta...] Ba'avur Zeh," like it says "Benenu Zeh" [regarding Ben Sorer u'Moreh, a son killed for theft and gluttony];
Just like there it excludes someone (a parent) who is blind ("Zeh" connotes that one can see the matter discussed), also here.
Question: But Ameimar was told that Rav Yosef and Rav Sheshes [who were blind] used to say Hagadah in their houses [and others were Yotzei through their recitation]!
Answer #1: They hold that nowadays the obligation of Hagadah is only mid'Rabanan [and it applies even to blind people].
Question: This implies that Rav Acha bar Yakov holds that nowadays it is mid'Oraisa - but he himself said that [not only Maror, but even] Matzah is mid'Rabanan today! (The Hagadah learns from "Ba'avur Zeh" that the Mitzvah of Hagadah is when Matzah and Maror are in front of you - if mid'Oraisa they do not apply, neither does Hagadah!)
Answer: He holds that mid'Rabanan laws are patterned after mid'Oraisa (Chachamim would not obligate one who is exempt mid'Oraisa).
Question: Surely, Rav Yosef and Rav Sheshes agree that mid'Rabanan laws are patterned after mid'Oraisa!
Answer #2: Regarding Ben Sorer u'Moreh, it should have said 'Benenu Hu' - rather, it says "Benenu Zeh" to exclude blind parents;
Regarding Hagadah, there was no alternative to "Ba'avur Zeh" - [it does not include a blind person, rather,] it explains why we eat Matzah and Maror.