1)

WORDS OF PRAISE

(a)

(Mishnah): Therefore, we are obligated [...and we will say Halleluyah].

(b)

(Rav Chisda): Each of the following is one word (we do not say that the 'Yud-Kei' at the end is a separate word) - Halleluyah, Kesyah (Hash-m's throne), at the end of Parashas Beshalach) and Yedidyah (the name Noson called Shlomo - Shmuel 2:12:25);

(c)

(Rav): Kesyah and [ba']Merchavyah (an expanse - Tehilim 118:5) are each one word;

(d)

(Rabah): Only Merchavyah is one word.

(e)

Question: What does Rav Chisda say about Merchavyah?

(f)

This question is not resolved.

(g)

Question: What does Rav say about Yedidyah?

(h)

Answer: Rav taught that Yedidkah is two words - therefore, Yedid is profane and Kah is Kodesh.

(i)

Question: What does Rav say about Hallelukah?

(j)

Answer: Rav said that he saw Sefer Tehilim in R. Chiya's house - Hallelu was written at the end of a line, and Kah at the beginning of the next line.

(k)

He argues with R. Yehoshua ben Levi:

1.

(R. Yehoshua ben Levi): Halleluyah means, praise Him with many praises (it is one word).

(l)

R. Yehoshua ben Levi contradicts himself! (R. E. M. Horowitz - he holds that sometimes it is one word, and sometimes two.)

1.

(R. Yehoshua ben Levi): Tehilim uses 10 words to denote praise - Nitzu'ach, Nigun, Maskil, Mizmor, Shir, Ashrei, Tehilah, Tefilah, Hoda'ah, and Hallelukah;

2.

Hallelukah is the greatest - it combines praise and Hash-m's name itself.

2)

WHO WROTE HALLEL?

(a)

(Rav Yehudah): Surely, Shiras ha'Yam was first sung by Moshe and Yisrael when they left Yam Suf;

1.

Question: Who enacted saying Hallel [on Rosh Chodesh and festivals]?

2.

Answer: Nevi'im enacted to say it at every festival and every time Yisrael are saved from distress.

(b)

(Beraisa - R. Meir): David wrote all the praises in Tehilim - "Kalu Tefilos David Ben Yishai" - we read this 'Kol Elu'.

(c)

Question: Who composed Hallel?

(d)

Answer #1 (R. Elazar ben R. Yosi): Moshe and Yisrael sang it when they left Yam Suf;

(e)

Answer #2 (Chachamim): David wrote it.

1.

R. Yosi: Presumably, my son is right - surely, [even before David] Yisrael sang Hallel while offering Pesach or taking the Lulav!

2.

Also - Yisrael would not [begin to] say Hallel [which demeans idolatry] when Michah's idol was in Bechi [in the days of David! Rather, they started saying it in the days of Moshe, and never ceased.]

(f)

(Beraisa - R. Eliezer): David said all songs and praises in Tehilim on account of events in his own life;

(g)

R. Yehoshua says, he said them for Yisrael [to request redemption from their future exile];

(h)

Chachamim say, some are for Yisrael, and others are on account of himself:

1.

Those in the singular (e.g. "Koli El Hash-m Ez'ak") were on account of himself; those in the plural (e.g. "Az Yimalei Sechok Pinu") are for Yisrael.

2.

'Nitzu'ach' and 'Nigun' (e.g. "La'Mnatze'ach bi'Nginos," Tehilim 4,6,...) allude to the future.

3.

"Maskil" means that David would whisper to one who would broadcast his words to a multitude.

4.

"L'David Mizmor" teaches that the Shechinah (Ru'ach ha'Kodesh) rested on David, then he sang;

5.

"Mizmor l'David" teaches that he sang, then Shechinah rested on him.

6.

This teaches that Shechinah does not rest [on a person] amidst laziness, sadness, frivolity, lightheadedness or idle words, only amidst Simchah of a Mitzvah - "Kechu Li Menagen...va'Tehi Alav Yad Hash-m."

(i)

(Rav Yehudah): The same applies to Halachah (one must learn amidst Simchah).

1.

(Rav Nachman): [Going to sleep amidst] Simchah is also the means to a good dream.

(j)

Question (against Rav Yehudah): But Rav Gidal taught that if a Talmid learns from his Rebbi and his lips are not dripping with bitterness [on account of awe], his lips should be burned!

1.

It says "Sifsosav Shoshanim Notfos Mor Over" - we read this 'she'Shonim Notfos Mar' (learning lips drip with bitterness).

(k)

Answer #1: The Rebbi should teach amidst Simchah, the Talmid must be in awe.

(l)

Answer #2: The Rebbi should begin amidst Simchah, afterwards he must be in awe.

1.

Rabah would begin with something amusing to make the Talmidim jovial - afterwards he would teach amidst awe.

(m)

(Beraisa) Question: Who said Hallel (Rashbam - first)?

(n)

Answer #1 (R. Eliezer): Moshe and Yisrael said it when they left Yam Suf;

1.

They said "Lo Lanu Hash-m Lo Lanu" (Maharsha - not for our sake do we request salvation, for we lack merit - rather, save us for Your honor); Hash-m answered "L'Ma'ani l'Ma'ani E'eseh."

(o)

Answer #2 (R. Yehudah): Yehoshua and Yisrael said it when the kings of Eretz Yisrael opposed them - they said "Lo Lanu..." and Hash-m answered "L'Ma'ani..." [and similarly for the coming answers].

(p)

Answer #3 (R. Eliezer ha'Moda'i): Devorah and Barak said it when Sisera attacked;

(q)

Answer #4 (R. Elazar ben Azaryah): Chizkiyah and his contemporaries said it when Sancheriv attacked;

(r)

Answer #5 (R. Akiva): Chananyah, Misha'el and Azaryah said it when Nebuchadnetzar threw them into the furnace;

(s)

Answer #6 (R. Yosi ha'Gelili): Mordechai and Esther said it when Haman decreed to destroy Yisrael;

(t)

Answer #7 (Chachamim): Nevi'im enacted to say it at every festival and every time Yisrael are saved from distress.

3)

HALLELUYAH BETWEEN PERAKIM

(a)

(Rav Chisda): [When it says "Halleluyah" once between chapters of Tehilim,] Halleluyah ends the previous Perek;

(b)

(Rabah bar Rav Huna): It begins the next Perek.

(c)

Rav Chisda: I saw Sefer Tehilim in Rav Chanin bar Rav's house - Halleluyah was written in the middle of a Perek;

1.

Rav Chanin was unsure whether it ends the previous Perek or begins the next Perek.

(d)

(Rav Chanin bar Rava): All agree that Halleluyah following "Tehilas Hash-m Yedaber Pi...l'Olam va'Ed" (the last verse of Tehilim 145 - in prayer, we say "Va'Anachnu Nevarech Kah..." afterwards, but this is from a different Perek) begins the next Perek;

(e)

The Halleluyah following "Rasha Yir'eh v'Cha'as...Ta'avas Resha'im Toved" begins the next Perek, also the one after "She'Omdim b'Veis Hash-m...";

(f)

Experts in written Torah add the ones after "Mi'Nachal ba'Derech Yishteh..." and "Reishis Chachmah Yir'as Hash-m..."

(g)

Suggestion: Tana'im argue about this (our Tana and the Tana of a Beraisa):

1.

(Mishnah) Question: How much of Hallel do we say [before the meal]?

2.

Answer #1 (Beis Shamai): We say until "Em ha'Banim Semechah";

3.

Answer #2 (Beis Hillel): We say until "Chalamish l'Mayno Mayim."

4.

(Beraisa) Question: How much of Hallel do we say [before the meal]?

5.

Answer #1 (Beis Shamai): We say until "B'Tzeis Yisrael mi'Mitzrayim";

6.

Answer #2 (Beis Hillel): We say until "Lo Lanu Hash-m..."

117b----------------------------------------117b

7.

Suggestion: Our Tana says 'until "Em ha'Banim Semechah" [and omits "Halleluyah"]' because he holds that Halleluyah begins the next Perek; the Tana of the Beraisa says 'until "B'Tzeis Yisrael mi'Mitzrayim" [and omits "Halleluyah"]' because he holds that Halleluyah ends the previous Perek!

(h)

Rejection #1 (for Rav Chisda): All agree that it ends the previous Perek - we understand the Tana who says 'until "B'Tzeis Yisrael mi'Mitzrayim'";

1.

Our Tana says 'Ad (until) "Em ha'Banim Semechah'" because he holds Ad v'Ad Bichlal ('Ad' connotes up to and including - he could not say 'until "B'Tzeis Yisrael'," for this would include "B'Tzeis Yisrael").

(i)

Objection: He should have said 'until Halleluyah' [if it really ends the Perek]!

1.

Suggestion: He did not, for we would not know which Halleluyah he refers to.

2.

Rejection: He could have specified, the Halleluyah after "Em ha'Banim Semechah"!

(j)

This is left difficult.

(k)

Rejection #2 (for Rabah bar Rav Huna): All agree that it begins the coming Perek - we understand the Tana who says 'until "Em ha'Banim Semechah"';

1.

The other Tana says 'Ad "B'Tzeis Yisrael'" because he holds Ad v'Lo Ad Bichlal (up to but not including - he could not say 'until "Em ha'Banim Semechah'," for this would exclude these very words).

(l)

Objection: He should have said 'until Halleluyah' [if it really begins the Perek]!

1.

Suggestion: He did not, for we would not know which Halleluyah he refers to.

2.

Rejection: He could have specified, the Halleluyah before "B'Tzeis Yisrael!"

(m)

This is left difficult.

4)

VARIANT VERSIONS OF BERACHOS

(a)

(Mishnah): We end Hagadah with redemption.

(b)

(Rava): The following end with 'Go'al (redeemed - this is praise for the past) Yisrael' - the Berachah after Kri'as Shma and the Berachah of Hallel (at the end of Hagadah);

1.

In Shemoneh Esre, we say 'Go'el (redeems) Yisrael'.

(c)

Question: What is the reason?

(d)

Answer: This is a request for mercy [to redeem Yisrael now].

(e)

(R. Zeira): In Kidush, we say 'Asher Kidshanu (past tense) b'Mitzvosav'; in Shemoneh Esre, we say 'Kadshenu (imperative) b'Mitzvosecha'.

(f)

Question: What is the reason?

(g)

Answer: This is a request for mercy [to sanctify Yisrael].

(h)

(Rav Acha bar Yakov): One must mention Yetzi'as Mitzrayim in Kidush ha'Yom [also in Shemoneh Esre at night]:

1.

It says "Lema'an Tizkor Es Yom [Tzeischa me'Eretz Mitzrayim]," just like "Zachor Es Yom ha'Shabbos Lekadsho." (We learn other Yomim Tovim from Pesach (Rashbam) or Shabbos (Ran).)

(i)

(Rabah bar Shila): In Shemoneh Esre we say 'Matzmi'ach Keren Yeshu'ah' (a request); after reading the Haftorah, the [third] Berachah ends 'Magen David'.

(j)

(Rav Yosef): "V'Asisi Lecha Shem Gadol k'Shem ha'Gedolim" - [David was promised that] Yisrael will say 'Magen David' (similar to 'Magen Avraham').

(k)

(Reish Lakish): "V'E'escha l'Goy Gadol" - [Avraham was promised that] Yisrael will say 'Elokei Avraham'; "Va'Avorchecha" - we will say 'Elokei Yitzchak'; "Va'Agadlah Shmecha" - we will say 'Elokei Yakov';

1.

Suggestion: Perhaps the Berachah will close with all the Avos!

2.

Rejection: "Ve'Hye Berachah" - it will close only with you.

(l)

(Elders of Pumbedisa): On Shabbos we say 'Mekadesh ha'Shabbos' in Shemoneh Esre and in Kidush; on Yom Tov [not on Shabbos] we say 'Mekadesh Yisrael veha'Zmanim' in both of them;

(m)

(Rava): No - on either day we say 'Mekadesh Yisrael' in Shemoneh Esre; in Kidush we say 'Mekadesh ha'Shabbos' on Shabbos, and 'Mekadesh Yisrael veha'Zmanim' on Yom Tov.

(n)

Rava: They hold that since Shabbos is fixed [independent of Yisrael], we say Mekadesh ha'Shabbos in prayer and Kidush;

1.

Yisrael decide the months (which day is Rosh Chodesh, and when to make leap) years, which determines Yomim Tovim, therefore we say Mekadesh Yisrael veha'Zmanim.

(o)

I hold that since prayer is in public, on either day we say Mekadesh Yisrael;

1.

Kidush is in private, so we say Mekadesh ha'Shabbos on Shabbos, and Mekadesh Yisrael veha'Zmanim on Yom Tov [like they say].

(p)

Rejection: This is not so! Even an individual says Shemoneh Esre; and Kidush can also be in public [e.g. in synagogue, or at a feast for a Chasan]!

1.

Rava held that we consider the usual case.

(q)

Ula bar Rav led the prayer in front of Rava and did like the elders of Pumbedisa - Rava did not comment.

1.

This shows that he retracted.

(r)

R. Noson the father of Rav Huna led the prayer in front of Rav Papa and did like the elders of Pumbedisa - Rav Papa praised him.

(s)

Ravina: I visited Sura - someone led the prayer in front of Mereimar and did like the elders of Pumbedisa - everyone silenced him!

1.

Mereimar told them to be quiet, for the Halachah follows the elders of Pumbedisa - they obeyed.

5)

A MITZVAH IS DONE WITH EACH CUP

(a)

(Mishnah): They mix the third cup of wine - we say Birkas ha'Mazon over it;

(b)

We finish Hallel over the fourth cup, and say Birkas ha'Shir (this will be explained);

(c)

One may drink between these cups (the first two and the last two); he may not drink between the third and fourth cups [lest he get drunk and will not be able to finish Hallel; drinking during the meal is permitted, for then it does not intoxicate. Rashbam - the same applies to between the first and second cups; Tosfos - it is good to drink then, to arouse appetite; Gra (473:3), citing Yerushalmi - it intoxicates, and is forbidden - the Mishnah did not mention it, for it is uncommon to drink then.]

(d)

(Gemara - Rav Chanan) Inference: This teaches that Birkas ha'Mazon must be said over a cup of wine [otherwise, three cups would suffice]!

(e)

Rejection (Rava): No - [it is obligatory only on Pesach, for] Chachamim enacted to drink four cups of wine like free men, and they associated each of them with a Mitzvah.

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