1)

HOW TO DESTROY CHAMETZ

(a)

R. Yehudah: I can learn differently:

1.

"Lo Sosiru" applies to Chametz (one may not leave it in his house), and to Nosar (one may not leave Kodshim past the allotted time to eat it) - just like Nosar must be burned, also Chametz!

(b)

Chachamim: Asham Taluy (a Korban brought for one who is unsure whether or not he transgressed an Isur Kares) and Chatas ha'Of brought on account of a Safek disprove this, according to you - Bal Sosiru applies to them - we say that they are burned, but you say that they are buried! (see note in Appendix)

(c)

R. Yehudah could not answer.

(d)

Rav Yosef: This is like people say - the spoon the craftsman made will burn his mouth with mustard (R. Yehudah's own opinion about Asham Taluy refutes him)!

(e)

Abaye: The carpenter made the stockade, and he himself [transgressed and] was locked inside his own handiwork.

(f)

Rava: One who makes arrows was killed by an arrow, his own handiwork.

(g)

(Mishnah - Chachamim): One may even crumble it and cast it into the wind or the sea.

(h)

Question: What does this mean?

1.

Does it mean that one must crumble it, and then cast it into the wind or sea;

2.

Or, does it mean that he may crumble it and cast it into the wind, or may cast it intact into the sea?

(i)

We have a similar question regarding idolatry:

1.

(Mishnah - R. Yosi): One grinds up [idols] and throw the dust to the wind, or casts to the sea.

2.

Question: Does it mean that one grinds them, and then casts the dust to the wind or sea - or, does it mean that he may grind them and cast the dust to the wind, or he may cast idols intact into the sea?

(j)

Answer #1 (Rabah): Presumably, since idols are cast to the Dead Sea (the Mishnah did not specify this, but we know that idolatry generally goes there), they need not be ground up (ships do not go there, we are not concerned lest someone find them) - but Chametz may be cast to any sea, so it must be crumbled.

(k)

Objection (and Answer #2 - Rav Yosef): Just the contrary! Idols do not dissolve in water, so they must be ground up - Chametz dissolves in water, so it need not be crumbled!

(l)

Support (for Rabah - Beraisa #1): If one was in the Midbar [at the time of Bi'ur Chametz], he crumbles it and casts it into the wind; if he was in a boat, he crumbles it and casts it into the sea.

(m)

Support (for Rav Yosef - Beraisa #2): If one was in the Midbar [and had idolatry to destroy], he grinds it up and casts [the dust] to the wind; if he was in a boat, he strews it and casts it to the sea.

(n)

Questions: Beraisa #2 is difficult for Rabah - it requires grinding [up idolatry before casting to the sea], and Beraisa #1 is difficult for Rav Yosef - it requires strewing (crumbling Chametz before casting it to the sea! The Beraisos do not contradict each other - no Tana'ic source explicitly permits casting idolatry or Chametz intact to the sea!)

(o)

Answer - part 1 (for Rabah): Beraisa #2 requires grinding up idolatry to cast to other seas - the Mishnah discusses the Dead Sea, there it may be cast intact.

(p)

Answer - part 2 (for Rav Yosef): Beraisa #1 discusses a sack of wheat that fermented - one must strew, i.e. scatter it [so no one will be able to retrieve it] - the Mishnah discusses bread, it may be cast intact.

2)

WHEN DO THE LAVIM OF CHAMETZ APPLY?

(a)

(Mishnah): One may benefit from Chametz that a Nochri owned on Pesach;

(b)

Chametz that a Yisrael owned on Pesach is Asur b'Hana'ah, for it says "V'Lo Yera'eh Lecha."

(c)

(Gemara) Question: Our Mishnah is not like R. Yehudah, R. Shimon, or R. Yosi ha'Gelili!

(d)

(Beraisa - R. Yehudah): One who eats Chametz [from midday on the 14th, when it becomes forbidden] before the time [nightfall, which starts Pesach] or after the time [the end of Pesach] transgresses a Lav; during the time [Pesach itself] he transgresses a Lav with Kares;

28b----------------------------------------28b

(e)

R. Shimon says, before the time or after the time he does not transgress (Tosfos - a Lav, but it is forbidden mid'Oraisa before the time); during the time he transgresses a Lav with Kares;

(f)

From the time one may not eat it, it is Asur b'Hana'ah;

(g)

This last clause is according to R. Yehudah (the Gemara interjected this in the middle of the Beraisa).

(h)

R. Yosi ha'Gelili: How can you say that Chametz is Asur b'Hana'ah all seven days of Pesach?!

(i)

Question: What is the source that one who eats Chametz after six hours [on the 14th] transgresses a Lav?

(j)

Answer (R. Yehudah): "Lo Sochal Alav (from the time you may slaughter Korban Pesach) Chametz."

(k)

R. Shimon: You cannot say so - it says "Lo Sochal Alav Chametz Shiv'as Yomim Tochal Alav Matzos" (the verse discusses the time one may eat Korban Pesach, [which is eaten with Matzah], i.e. night)!

(l)

Question: If so, what do we learn from "Lo Sochal Alav Chametz"?

(m)

Answer: The Lav "Lo Sochal Alav Chametz" and the Ase "Tochal Alav Matzos" apply at the same time (i.e. starting at night).

3)

DIFFERENT WAYS TO EXPOUND THE VERSES

(a)

Question: What is R. Yehudah's reason?

(b)

Answer: There are three verses [forbidding Chametz] - "V'Lo Ye'achel Chametz," "Kol Machmetzes Lo Sochelu," and "Lo Sochal Alav Chametz" - one applies before the time, one during the time, and one after the time.

(c)

R. Shimon says that one applies during the time;

1.

Kol Machmetzes Lo Sochelu" teaches the following:

i.

(Beraisa) Question: "Chametz" forbids something that became Chametz by itself (surely this includes Chametz leavened by other Chametz (Se'or), this is the ultimate Chametz) - what is the source to forbid Chametz leavened through other things?

ii.

Answer: "Kol Machmetzes Lo Sochelu."

2.

"Lo Yochal Chametz" teaches the following:

i.

(Beraisa - R. Yosi ha'Gelili) Question: What is the source that during Pesach [at the time of Yetzi'as] Miztrayim, Chametz was forbidden only one day?

ii.

Answer: It says "V'Lo Ye'achel Chametz; Ha'Yom Atem Yotz'im."

(d)

Question: What is R. Yehudah's source to forbid something that became Chametz on account of something else?

(e)

Answer: We learn from the word "Machmetzes" itself.

(f)

Question: What is his source for R. Yosi ha'Gelili's teaching?

(g)

Answer #1: He learns from the Semichus [adjacency] of "Ha'Yom'" right after "V'Lo Ye'achel Chametz."

(h)

Answer #2: [He argues with R. Yosi's teaching, for outside of Sefer Devarim] he does not expound Semuchim.

(i)

(Beraisa) Question: What is the source that one who eats Chametz after six hours transgresses a Lav?

(j)

Answer (R. Yehudah): "Lo Sochal Alav Chametz."

(k)

R. Shimon: You cannot say so - it says Lo Sochal Alav Chametz Shiv'as Yomim Tochal Alav Matzos (implying that Chametz is forbidden only when Matzos must be eaten, i.e. at night)!

(l)

Question: How does R. Yehudah answer this?!

(m)

Answer: The verse commands to eat Matzah even nowadays [when we cannot offer Korban Pesach, by equating eating Matzah to the Isur of Chametz, which is for all generations].

(n)

Question: What is R. Shimon's source for this?

(o)

Answer: He learns from "Ba'Erev Tochlu [Matzos]".

(p)

R. Yehudah says that this is needed for one who was Tamei or far from the Mikdash;

1.

One might have thought that since he cannot eat Pesach, he need not eat Matzah or Maror - the verse teaches that this is not so.

(q)

R. Shimon does not need a verse for a Tamei or someone far from the Mikdash - he holds that there is no reason to exempt them more than one who is Arel (uncircumcised) or a Ben Nechar (a wanton sinner):

1.

"V'Chol Arel Lo Yochal Bo" - he may not eat it (Korban Pesach), but he eats Matzah and Maror (Chidushei. ha'Ran - the Gemara mentioned Maror along with Matzah, but really [mid'Oraisa] the only Mitzvah to eat Maror is with Korban Pesach.)

(r)

R. Yehudah holds that there are verses for both of them.

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