[28a - 39 lines; 28b - 46 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 28a [line 7]:
The words "Kapa d'Chata Nagara b'Gavah" כפא דחטא נגרא בגווה
should be "Kapa d'Chat Nagara b'Gavah" כפא דחטא נגרא בגווה (Rashi in all early printings, Rabeinu Chananel, Aruch)
or "Kapa d'Chak Nagara b'Gavah" כפא דחק נגרא בגווה (the Oxford manuscript)
 Gemara 28a [line 9]:
The words "Gira b'Girei Maktil" גירא בגירי מקטיל
should be "Gira'ah b'Gireih (with a Heh at the end) Maktil" גיראה בגירה (early printings)
1)[line 3]אשם תלויASHAM TALUY
(a)An Asham Taluy is a Korban offered by one who is in doubt as to whether he committed a transgression for which he must bring a Korban Chatas (Vayikra 5:17-19). The Korban consists of a ram worth two Sela'im. If the Makriv later discovers that he did indeed sin, he must offer a Korban Chatas. The Asham Taluy provides only temporary atonement during the period of doubt.
(b)If the Makriv discovers after offering his Korban that he did not sin, or if some other Pesul (such as Nosar) occurs, the ram must be disposed of. How it is to be disposed of is the subject of a disagreement between Tana'im. According to the Chachamim, it must be burned. Rebbi Yehudah is of the opinion that it must be buried.
2)[line 3]וחטאת העוף הבא על הספקCHATAS HA'OF HA'BA AL HA'SAFEK
(a)One may not offer an animal as a sacrifice when it is unclear whether or not he is obligated to do so. This is because of the possibility that doing so would be transgressing the prohibition of slaughtering, offering and eating Chulin ba'Azarah.
(b)Unlike other Korbanos, a Chatas ha'Of is not slaughtered, nor is it offered upon the Mizbe'ach. Rather, Melikah (see Background to Pesachim 34:14) is performed, and then its blood is sprinkled on the Mizbe'ach. One may therefore offer a Chatas ha'Of even when he is not certain that he is obligated to do so; however, it may not be eaten. For example, if a woman is uncertain as to whether or not she miscarried a fully formed child, she may bring a Chatas ha'Of so that she may eat Kodshim. The bird, however, is not eaten.
(c)What one must do with the carcass of this Chatas is the subject of a Machlokes. The Rabanan rule that a Chatas ha'Of ha'Ba Al ha'Safek must be burned, while Rebbi Yehudah rules that Yatilenah la'Amah — it should be thrown into the Amah-wide channel of water which passed through the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash and emptied into the valley of Kidron.
3a)[line 7]כפא דחטא נגרא בגווהKAPA (D'CHATA) [D'CHAT] NAGARA B'GAVAH- with a wooden ladle that a carpenter hollowed out
b)[line 8]נשרוף חרדלאNISROF CHARDELA- (a) he (the carpenter) will burn his tongue and palate with mustard; (b) he will suck in mustard [(O.F. humer) to swallow while inhaling]
4a)[line 8]סדנא בסדני יתיבSADANA B'SADNEI YESEIV- a maker of wooden stocks [who violates the law] sits in his own stocks
b)[line 9]מדויל ידיה משתליםMI'DEVIL YADEI MISHTALIM- from his own handiwork he receives his deserts
5)[line 9]גירא בגירי מקטיל(GIRA) [GIRA'A] B'GIREI MIKTIL- the arrow-maker [when hunted] is killed by his own arrow
6)[line 14]בעיניהB'EINEI- as it is
7)[line 15]שוחקSHOCHEK- he must grind it
8)[line 19]דלים המלחYAM HA'MELACH- (O.F. mer betee) the Dead Sea (through which ships do not pass)
9)[line 22]ממיסהMIMISAH- dissolve in water
10)[line 32]הא בחיטיHA B'CHITI- Kernels of wheat which have become Chametz must be scattered across the water, and not gathered together in a bag or sack and thrown in together. This is because they do not dissolve, and someone may come to find them.
11a)[line 37]לפני זמנוLIFNEI ZMANO- from midday of Erev Pesach until Pesach starts
b)[line 38]לאחר זמנוL'ACHAR ZMANO- from when Pesach ends
c)[line 38]תוך זמנוTOCH ZMANO- during Pesach
12)[line 38]עובר עליו בלאוOVER ALAV B'LAV- the discussion here applies specifically to the Lav; as to how the Mitzvas Aseh of Tashbisu applies, see Insights.
13)[line 8]"לא תאכל עליו חמץ""LO SOCHAL ALAV CHAMETZ"- "Do not eat Chametz upon it" (the Korban Pesach — which may be slaughtered from midday of Erev Pesach)
14)[line 11]אם כן מה תלמוד לומר לא תאכל עליו חמץIM KEN, MAH TALMUD LOMAR LO SOCHAL ALAV CHAMETZ- that is, if the word "Alav" does not refer to the Korban Pesach, to what does it refer? (TOSFOS DH Im)
15)[line 19]שנתחמץ מאליוSHE'NISCHAMETZ ME'ELAV- that became leavened on its own (without the addition of a leavening agent)
16)[line 20]מחמת דבר אחרMACHMAS DAVAR ACHER- [if it became leavened] through the addition of a [non-Chametz] leavening agent (such as wine lees; TOSFOS)
17)[line 28]סמוכין לא דרישSEMUCHIN LO DARISH- Rebbi Yehudah does not derive exegeses from the proximity of two verses in any Chumash other than Devarim (Berachos 21b, Yevamos 4a). Therefore he does not agree with the statement of Rebbi Yosi ha'Gelili at all.
18)[line 34]שפיר קאמר ליה רבי שמעוןSHAPIR KA'AMAR LEI REBBI SHIMON- that is, why does Rebbi Yehudah not understand, as Rebbi Shimon does, that Chametz is forbidden for only seven days just as Matzah is?
19)[line 35]לקובעו חובהL'KOV'O CHOVAH- to establish the obligation to eat Matzah even when there is no Beis ha'Mikdash and no Korban Pesach, just as it is forbidden then to consume Chametz
20)[line 38]לטמא ושהיה בדרך רחוקהL'TAMEI VESHE'HAYAH B'DERECH RECHOKAH- one who is impure or too far [from the Beis ha'Mikdash on the fifteenth of Nisan, and therefore brings his Korban Pesach on the fifteenth of Iyar (i.e. one obligated in Pesach Sheni)]
21)[line 40]לא ניכולLO NECHOL- he would not be obligated to eat
22a)[line 42]מערלAREL- one who is not circumcised [due to the fact that he had two brothers who died from the procedure]
b)[line 42]ובן נכרBEN NECHAR- one whose actions are strange to his Father in heaven; one who transgresses some Aveiros, but not the entire Torah