[58a - 44 lines; 58b - 43 lines]
PEREK #5 TAMID NISHCHAT
1)[line 1]תמידTAMID (KORBAN TAMID)
(a)The Korban Tamid consists of two male sheep which are less than one year old. One sheep, known as the Tamid Shel Shachar, is offered in the morning, and the second — called the Tamid Shel Bein ha'Arbayim — is offered in the afternoon. One tenth of an Eifah (approx. two quarts) of flour, mixed with one quarter of a Hin (approx. one quart) of hand pressed olive oil, is offered with each sheep as a Minchah (meal offering). One quarter of a Hin of wine is offered with each sheep as a wine libation (Bamidbar 28:5). The Korban Tamid is an Olah, and is therefore offered in its entirety upon the Mizbe'ach.
(b)The Tamid referred to in our Mishnah is the Tamid Shel Bein ha'Arbayim, which our Mishnah informs us was normally slaughtered halfway through the ninth hour of the day. This would be 2:30 P.M. of a twelve hour day beginning at 6:00 A.M. and ending at 6:00 P.M.
2)[line 9]חלקהו לבין שני ערביםCHILKUHU L'BEIN SHNEI ARAVIM- split the evening (the second half of the day) into two. From that which the verse does not simply state to offer the Tamid Shel Bein ha'Arbayim "ba'Erev," we understand that its offering must be centered in the middle of the afternoon.
3)[line 15]משינטו צללי ערבMISHE'YINATU TZELALEI EREV- from when the afternoon shadows begin to form (lit. tilt); i.e. from half-an-hour after midday
4)[line 17]מעידנא דמתחיל שמשא למערבME'IDNA D'MASCHIL SHIMSHA L'ME'AREV- from the time that the sun begins to incline westward
5)[line 18]נדרים ונדבותNEDARIM U'NEDAVOS- various types of voluntary Korbanos
6)[line 19]"[והאש על המזבח תוקד בו לא תכבה ובער עליה הכהן עצים בבקר בבקר וערך עליה העלה והקטיר] עליה חלבי השמים""[VEHA'ESH AL HA'MIZBE'ACH TUKAD BO LO SICHBEH, U'VI'ER ALEHA HA'KOHEN ETZIM BA'BOKER BA'BOKER; V'ARACH ALEHA HA'OLAH, V'HIKTIR] ALEHA CHELVEI HA'SHELAMIM"- "[And the fire on the altar shall be lit upon it and not be extinguished, and the Kohen shall kindle wood upon it each and every morning; on it (this wood) he shall arrange the Olah (the Korban Tamid) and he shall burn] upon it fats of the Shelamim" (Vayikra 6:5).
7)[line 20]ליה השלם כל הקרבנות כולםALEHA HASHLEM KOL HA'KORBANOS KULAM- complete all the Korbanos of the day upon offering the Korban Tamid Shel Shachar — that is, as opposed to the Tamid Shel Bein ha'Arbayim. From this we learn that the blood of the afternoon Tamid was the last to be sprinkled on the Mizbe'ach with the lone exception of the blood of the Korban Pesach (and possibly the Korban Pesach Sheni - TOSFOS to Yoma 29a DH Ela, TOSFOS to Menachos 49a DH Talmud Lomar).
8)[line 26]אדיניהADINEI- on [the letter of] its law
(a)The Lechem ha'Panim (Showbread) refers to the 12 loaves arranged in two stacks (Sedarim) — six loaves to a stack — on the Golden Table of the Mishkan or Beis ha'Mikdash. The loaves are one Tefach thick and may not be Chametz. Fresh loaves are arranged on the Table every Shabbos and are left there through the following Shabbos. The loaves are eaten by Kohanim after their removal (Vayikra 24:5-9).
(b)A Kometz (that held between one's middle three fingers and his palm) of Levonah (frankincense) is placed alongside each stack in a Bazach (bowl). The Levonah is offered upon the Mizbe'ach when the loaves are removed. Only after this stage may the Lechem ha'Panim be eaten by the Kohanim.
(c)One hour was necessary to perform the Avodah of offering and changing the Levonah in the Bazichim. This procedure is the subject of the Machlokes between Rebbi Yishmael and Rebbi Akiva.
10)[line 36]עבד להו למוספין בששAVAD LEHU L'MUSAFIN B'SHESH- the Korban Musaf must not be offered before midday, since the Torah describes the time at which it must be offered as "Yom" — day, as opposed to "Boker" — morning.
11)[line 43]במכמר בשראMICHMAR BISRA- heating (spoilage) of the meat [of the Korban Pesach (which may only be roasted at night)
12)[line 22]כסידרו בערב הפסחK'SIDRO B'EREV HA'PESACH- (According to Abaye, this means that if Erev Pesach is Shabbos the Tamid is brought the same time of day as when Erev Pesach is Erev Shabbos. According to Rabah bar Ula, Rebbi Akiva is arguing with the first statement of Rebbi Yishmael and saying that the on a normal Shabbos the Tamid is brought the same time it is brought on a normal Erev Pesach, and not the same time it is brought during the week. -TOSFOS DH Ela)
(a)Ketores refers to the incense mixture burned on the golden Mizbe'ach in the Heichal of the Beis ha'Mikdash. It is burned twice each day; in the morning when a Kohen cleans out the lamps of the Menorah, and in the evening when a Kohen lights the Menorah. It consists of the following eleven ingredients:
1.70 Maneh (app. 160 kg / 350 lb.) of TZARI ("Sraf ha'Notef me'Atzei ha'Ketaf") - balsam tree sap
2.70 Maneh (app. 160 kg / 350 lb.) of TZIPOREN ("Shecheles") - the root of a certain annual plant. Some identify Tziporen as a species of rock-rose — Cistus ladaniferus — which has fingernail-like petals. Alternatively, Tziporen may be onycha, a kind of flower.
3.70 Maneh (app. 160 kg / 350 lb.) of CHELBENAH - a) galbanum; a yellow-brown gum resin obtained from a plant that grows in Persia; b) some maintain that Chelbenah is the gum of the common storax tree
4.70 Maneh (app. 160 kg / 350 lb.) of LEVONAH - frankincense, otherwise known as oliban; a gum resin produced by certain trees in Arabia and India. The gum is yellowish and semi-transparent, with a bitter, nauseating taste. The gum is hard; when pulverized, it produces a powder. When burned, this powder produces a strong aromatic odor.
5.16 Maneh (app. 36.3 kg / 80 lb.) of MOR - myrrh
6.16 Maneh (app. 36.3 kg / 80 lb.) of KETZI'AH - cassia
7.16 Maneh (app. 36.3 kg / 80 lb.) of SHIBOLES NERD - spikenard
8.16 Maneh (app. 36.3 kg / 80 lb.) of KARKOM - saffron
9.12 Maneh (app. 27.3 kg / 60 lb.) of KOSHT - costus
10.3 Maneh (app. 6.8 kg / 15 lb.) of KILUFAH - cinnamon bark
11.9 Maneh (app. 20.5 kg / 45 lb.) of KINAMON - cinnamon
(b)In addition, the following ingredients were added as incinerating agents:
1.9 Kav (9 quarts) of BORIS KARSHINAH - vetch lye
2.3 Se'ah and 3 Kavim (app. 21 quarts) of YEIN KAFRISIN - a) the fermented juice of the caper-berry; alt., b) wine made from grapes that grow in Cyprus. If Yein Kafrisin is not available, then CHAMAR CHIVARYAN ATIK — very old strong white wine — is added instead.
3.One quarter Kav (1 cup) of MELACH SEDOMIS - Sodomite salt
4.A small amount of MA'ALEH ASHAN - an ingredient that caused the smoke to rise straight up in the air; probably Leptadenia Pyrotechnica (due to the nitric acid it contains)
(c)Rebbi Nasan ha'Bavli says that a small amount of Kipas ha'Yarden (probably cyclamen) was added as well.
(a)Every evening, a Kohen lights the Menorah in the Beis ha'Mikdash. This is called Hadlakas ha'Neros. One half of a Log of olive oil, enough to burn through the entire night (even the long winter nights), is placed into the lamps of the Menorah to burn until the morning.
(b)In the morning, a Kohen cleans out the leftover oil and used wicks remaining in the lamps and replaces them with fresh oil and wicks. The term used by the Torah and Mishnah for this procedure is Hatavas ha'Neros, or Dishun ha'Menorah. The used wicks are placed in the pile of ashes near the ramp of the Mizbe'ach into which the Terumas ha'Deshen was placed.
(c)The cleaning of the lamps was accomplished in two stages. First, the Kohen cleaned five of the lamps of the Menorah. Only after the other services of the Mikdash were finished would he complete the job and clean out the remaining two lamps of the Menorah.
(d)The above is based upon the opinion of the majority of the Rishonim. Some, however, assert that some or all of the lamps of the Menorah were lit in the morning as well, or that the Menorah was cleaned in a single step according to some Tana'im. Also, the process we have described is slightly altered if any of the lamps are still lit in the morning.
(e)The Tana'im argue as to which parts of the service are performed between the cleaning of the first five and the last two lamps of the Menorah. For more information, see Yoma Chart #2.