[57a - 43 lines; 57b - 8 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara [line 31]:
The words "Yishmael ben Pi'achi" ישמעאל בן פיאכי
should be "Yishmael ben Pi'abi" ישמעאל בן פיאבי (as is found in the manuscript of the Shitah Mekubetzes printed by Rav Ilan, and in Rabeinu Chananel, Pesachim 57a. As the Mishnah states (Sotah 49a), "When Rebbi Yishmael ben Pi'abi passed away, the splendor of the priesthood ceased to exist."
1)[line 3]ומאי אף? אקמייתאU'MAI AF? A'KAMAISA- and what [do Rebbi Yosi and Rebbi Shimon mean when they say] Af? [They are only adding to] the first [vegetable mentioned by the Tana Kama; that is, Lefes.]
2)[line 4]בן בוהייןBEN BOHAYAN- the son of Bohayan
3)[line 5]טעוניןTO'ANIN- loading
4)[line 9]למה ליה למימרא להו...LAMAH LEI L'MEIMRA LEHU...?- why did he need to mention to them that the reason why he was taking the vegetables from them was not due to stinginess on his part? [It was obvious, as he offered to double what he took as a replacement!]
5)[line 12]בלשכת בית הפרוהLISHKAS BEIS HA'PARVAH
(a)The Kohanim receive the hides of Korbenos Olah. They are allowed to use salt belonging to Hekdesh in order to preserve their hides. The room in the Azarah in which the tanning was accomplished is named the Lishkas ha'Parvah.
(b)The Rishonim suggest various reasons for how this room received its name:
1.According to the RASH (Midos 5:3), the word "Parvah" is related to "Parim" (cows), the hides of which were tanned there.
2.Alternatively, a Mikvah located on the roof of this room was used by the Kohen Gadol on Yom ha'Kipurim (as the Mishnah explains in Yoma 34b); Parvah is related to the word "Kipur" (RASH ibid.).
3.The Gemara (Yoma 35a) says that Parvah was the name of a sorcerer. Some explain this to mean that a Jewish sorcerer named Parvah built the room (ROSH Midos 5:3 based on Rashi in Yoma), or that a Nochri by that name designed the ingenious system that was used to bring water to its roof, as if through sorcery (ibid., as explained by TIFERES YISRAEL based on the RASH ibid.).
4.Others explain the Gemara in Yoma to mean that a non-Jewish sorcerer named Parvah built a tunnel from Yerushalayim which emerged within the walls of this Lishkah, for the purpose of observing the Kohen Gadol while he performed the Avodah on Yom Kippur. He was caught and put to death on the spot, and the event was memorialized through the name of the Lishkah. (RAMBAM in Peirush ha'Mishnayos and ROSH, Midos 5:3; TOSFOS DH Parvah and RABEINU CHANANEL Yoma 35a based on ARUCH)
6)[line 13]לאנשי בית אבANSHEI BEIS AV
(a)Every family of Kohanim belongs to one of 24 shifts (Mishmaros). Each Mishmar serves in the Mikdash for one week at a time, meaning that each one performs the Avodah for at least two weeks out of the year. The Mishmaros change on Shabbos, when the outgoing Mishmar performs the Avodah in the morning and the incoming Mishmar performs the Avodah in the afternoon.
(b)Every Mishmar is further divided into six Batei Avos. Each Beis Av serves on a different day of the week. On Shabbos, the Kohanim of all of the Batei Avos perform the Avodah together (RASHI Menachos 107b). Some contend that the Mishmaros are divided into seven groups, and only one group serves on Shabbos (RASHI Ta'anis 26a; see Insights to Shekalim 18:1).
(c)On the Shalosh Regalim (the holidays of Pesach, Shavuos, and Sukos) all the Mishmaros Kehunah come to Yerushalayim to fulfill the Mitzvah of Aliyah l'Regel. At those times, Kohanim from any Mishmar are permitted to perform the Avodah of the Regel.
7)[line 13]בעלי זרועותBA'ALEI ZERO'A- forceful people
8)[line 17]גדולי כהונהGEDOLEI KEHUNAH- distinguished Kohanim
9)[line 17]בעליםBA'ALIM- the owners (all of the Kohanim of all of the Mishmaros)
10)[line 19]שחיפוCHIFU- covered
11)[line 19]בטבלאותTAVLA'OS- tiles
12a)[line 21]ולרגל היו מקפלין אותןUL'REGEL HAYU MEKAPLIM OSAN- and on Pesach, Shavu'os, and Sukos they would remove the tiles
b)[line 21]ומניחין אותן על גב מעלהU'MANICHIM OSAN AL GAV MA'ALEH- and place them upon [one of] the step[s leading to the courtyard outside of the Heichal]
13)[line 23]דלםDELEM- defect
14)[line 28]מבית בייתוס מבית חנין מבית קתרוס מבית ישמעאל בן פיאכיBEIS BAISOS/BEIS CHANIN/BEIS KATROS/BEIS YISHMAEL BEN PI'ACHI
(a)These are the names of various Kohanim Gedolim (high priests). Although not all of them were wicked themselves, their family members and servants abused their positions to extort valuables and property from the Jewish people
(b)Baisos was the father of Marta bas Baisos, a wealthy Jewish noble woman who lived in Yerushalayim at the time of the Churban (see Yevamos 61a, Gitin 56a).
(c)Chanin and Katros are names of priestly families. During the excavations of the Jewish Quarter, the remains of a house which was burned down at the time of the Churban of Yerushalayim were discovered. A stone weight found inside bears the (nearly complete) name of Katros. The ruins are known as "The Burnt House - Beit Katros," and can be visited today. Also found inside were a spear and the arm of a woman.
(d)Yishmael ben (Pi'achi) [Pi'abi] - see Girsa section, and Insights to Pesachim 57: 2.
15)[line 28]מאלתןALASAN- their clubs
16)[line 29]מלחישתןLECHISHASAN- (lit. their whispers) (a) they would purposely give poor advice (RASHI); (b) they would slander people and report them to the government (ARUCH)
17)[line 30]מקולמוסןKULMUSAN- their styli (with which they transcribed evil reports about people)
18)[line 31]מאגרופןEGROFAN- their fists
19)[line 32]גיזבריןGIZBARIN- treasurers
20)[line 32]אמרכליןAMARKALIN- overseers [of the treasurers]
21)[line 32]חובטיןCHOVTIN- strike
22)[line 33]ארבע צווחות צוחה עזרהARBA TZEVACHOS TZAVCHAH AZARAH- the Azarah cried out four times
23)[line 33]בני עליBNEI ELI
(a)Eli was the Kohen ha'Gadol at the time when Shmuel ha'Navi first arrived at the Mishkan, when it was located in Shiloh. He had two sons, Chofni and Pinchas, who were two of the most righteous people in the history of Klal Yisrael. When Avraham Avinu gave seven of his sheep to Avimelech, king of the Pelishtim, without asking HaSh-m beforehand if such an action was appropriate (Bereishis 21:30), HaSh-m informed him that he would receive a punishment for doing so. Seven exemplary descendants of Avraham Avinu would be destined to meet their deaths at the hand of descendants of Avimelech. Chofni and Pinchas are two of the seven descendants listed (Bereishis Rabah 54:4). Furthermore, their names were engraved upon two golden stalks rising from a golden bowl containing pure olive oil for the Menoros of the throne of Shlomo ha'Melech (TARGUM SHENI to Megilas Esther).
(b)The verses state that these Tzadikim slept with married women (Shmuel I 14:3). The Gemara (Shabbos 55b) states that anyone who claims that the Bnei Eli sinned with married women is mistaken. Although the verse seems to state this clearly, what is meant is that they did not make themselves as available — as befitting those on such a lofty a spiritual level as they — to those who wished to offer sacrifices. This sometimes led to a delay in married women becoming permissible to their husbands following childbirth. Had they actually sinned with married women, the verse would never have associated them with those honorable Kohanim who descended from them, as it proudly does (Shabbos ibid.).
(c)Another verse seems to state that anyone who did not agree to first give Chofni and Pinchas a portion of the meat of the sacrifices to roast before the sacrifice was completed was threatened with bodily harm (Shmuel I 2:16). Although the verses state that it was the servants of the Kohanim ("Na'ar ha'Kohen," "Chatas ha'Ne'arim") who committed the offenses (see METZUDAS DAVID), the Gemara (Sanhedrin 58a) attributes them to the Bnei Eli themselves. This is either an alternate explanation, or an expression of the responsibility of Chofni and Pinchas for their servants. These great individuals certainly did not stoop to such low tactics. Either a slight irreverence for the Korbanos according to their lofty level, or that which they did not keep a close enough eye on the actions of their subordinates, causes the Navi to speak of them harshly.
(d)Aside from being made out as villains in the scandalous report of the verses, Chofni and Pinchas were also punished with death at the hands of the Pelishtim. In addition, a curse was placed upon their descendants such that without special efforts of piety, all of their male descendants were to die as young men (Rosh Hashanah 18a, based upon Shmuel I 2:33, 3:14).
24)[line 35]דהוה כריך ידיה בשיראי...D'HAVAH KARICH YADEI B'SHIRA'EI...- he would wrap his hand in silk and perform the Avodah. Such an action is prohibited, as the Kohen's hand must perform the Avodah directly. Additionally, this demonstrated his lack of regard for the service.
25)[line 38]וימלא כריסוV'YEMALEI KEREISO- and let him fill his stomach from them. Yochanan ben Narbai supported a household full of Kohanim, who were able to consume tremendous amounts of food.
26)[line 40]גרבי ייןGARBEI YAYIN- barrels of wine
27)[line 40]גוזלותGOZALOS- pigeons
28)[line 40]בקינוח סעודהKINU'ACH SE'UDAH- the appetizer of a meal
29)[line 41]מאי סלקא ביה?MAI SALKA BEI?- what was his outcome?
30)[line 42]גדיא יאיGADYA YA'I- (a) a goat tastes better than a lamb (RASHI); (b) a goat is more fit to be offered as a Korban than a lamb (Rabeinu Gershom to Kerisus 28b)
31)[last line]אימראIMRA- a sheep
32)[line 1]אחוי בידיהACHVI B'YADEI- he showed with his hand (that is, he waved dismissively)
33)[line 1]יסק לתמידאYEISAK L'TEMIDA- it should have been the choice for the Korban Tamid
34)[line 2]ניפסקו לימיניהNIFSEKU L'YAMINEI- cut off his right hand
35a)[line 3]בריך רחמנאBERICH RACHMANA- Blessed is HaSh-m
b)[line 3]דאשקליה ליששכר איש כפר ברקאי למיטרפסיה מיניה בהאי עלמאD'ASHKELEI L'YISACHAR ISH KEFAR BARKAI L'MITRAPSEI MINEI B'HAI ALMA- Who took away [the sin and its impending punishment] from Yisachar Ish Kefar Barkai [by giving him] his due in this world (as opposed to the World to Come)
36)[line 6]תלמוד לומר אם כבשTALMUD LOMAR "IM KEVES..."- the verse earlier states, "v'Hevi Es Korbano Se'iras Izim..." — "and he shall bring his sacrifice of a male goat..."