12TH CYCLE DEDICATIONS:

PESACHIM 58 (16 Adar) - dedicated by Avi Berger of in memory of his father, Reb Pinchas ben Reb Avraham Yitzchak, on the day of his Yahrzeit.

1)

WHEN WE OFFER THE TAMID

(a)

(Mishnah): The [afternoon] Tamid is slaughtered at eight and a half hours of the day and it is offered (i.e. the Hakravah is finished) at nine and a half hours;

(b)

On Erev Pesach it is slaughtered at seven and a half hours and it is offered at eight and a half hours [to allow more time for Pesach, which is offered after the Tamid], whether Erev Pesach is on a weekday or Shabbos;

(c)

[The only exception is] when Erev Pesach is on Friday (the Pesach must be offered earlier, to allow time to cook it before Shabbos -] the Tamid is slaughtered at six and a half hours and it is offered at seven and a half hours, and afterwards Korban Pesach.

(d)

(Gemara) Question: What is the source of this (to offer the Tamid between eight and a half and nine and a half hours)?

(e)

Answer #1 (R. Yehoshua ben Levi): "Es ha'Keves Echad Ta'aseh ba'Boker v'Es ha'Keves ha'Sheni Ta'aseh Bein ha'Arbayim" - the plural suggests splitting the afternoon [before and after offering it] into two equal parts:

1.

We allow two and a half hours beforehand, two and a half afterwards, and one hour to offer it.

(f)

Objection (Rava - Mishnah): On Erev Pesach it is slaughtered at seven and a half and it is offered at eight and a half hours, whether Erev Pesach is on a weekday or Shabbos;

1.

If the Torah requires the Tamid to be at eight and a half hours, we could not make it earlier!

(g)

Answer #2 (Rava): Mid'Oraisa, the Tamid may be offered from when shadows point east (after six hours; mid'Rabanan we wait another half hour, until they clearly point east - see note 36 in Appendix);

1.

We learn from Bein ha'Arbayim - from when the sun is in Ma'arav (the west);

2.

On other days we delay the Tamid two hours until eight and a half hours, to allow more time to offer Nedarim and Nedavos (voluntary Olos or Shelamim), for they cannot be offered after the Tamid (Tosfos - we do not delay more, lest we finish [Hadlakas ha'Menorah and Ketores] close to sundown);

i.

"V'Hiktir Aleha Chelvei ha'Shelamim" - Aleha (by offering the afternoon Tamid) Hashlem (finish) all the Korbanos [of the day].

3.

On Erev Pesach, when Pesach is offered after the Tamid, it is slaughtered one hour earlier than usual, at seven and a half hours;

4.

When Erev Pesach is on Friday, the Pesach must be [offered and also] roasted before Shabbos - roasting does not override Shabbos - therefore, we offer the Tamid as early as possible, at six and a half hours.

2)

THE ARGUMENT OF R. YISHMAEL AND R. AKIVA

(a)

(Beraisa - R. Yishmael): We offer the Tamid on Shabbos the same [time] as during the week;

(b)

R. Akiva says, it is offered like it is on Erev Pesach.

(c)

Question: What does this mean?

(d)

Answer #1 (Abaye): R. Yishmael teaches that we offer the Tamid on Erev Pesach on Shabbos the same as when Erev Pesach is on a weekday (seven and a half hours);

1.

R. Akiva says, it is offered like when Erev Pesach is on Erev Shabbos (six and a half hours - there is no reason to delay it, since Nedarim and Nedavos may not be brought on Shabbos).

2.

Our Mishnah equates Erev Pesach on a weekday and on Shabbos (we offer at seven and a half hours) - it is like R. Yishmael.

3.

Question: What do they argue about?

4.

Answer: They argue about whether or not Musafim are offered before or after Bazichei Levonah (spoons of frankincense on Lechem ha'Panim that are offered on Shabbos. We do not offer Musafim before six hours, for the Torah says "Uv'Yom ha'Shabbos," it does not mention morning):

i.

R. Yishmael holds that Musafim are offered before the Levonah - the Musafim are offered at six hours, the Levonah is offered at seven, and the Tamid at seven and a half;

ii.

R. Akiva holds that Musafim are offered after the Levonah - the Levonah is offered at five hours, the Musafim at six, and the Tamid at six and a half.

(e)

Objection (Rava): R. Akiva did not say that it is offered like when Erev Pesach is on Erev Shabbos - he only said 'like on Erev Pesach'!

(f)

Answer #2 (Rava): R. Yishmael teaches that we offer the Tamid on Erev Pesach on Shabbos the same as on a regular weekday (eight and a half hours);

1.

R. Akiva says, it is offered like on a regular Erev Pesach (seven and a half hours, to allow time to offer all the Pesachim afterwards).

2.

Our Mishnah equates Erev Pesach on a weekday and on Shabbos - it is like R. Akiva.

3.

Question: What do they argue about?

4.

Answer: R. Yishmael is concerned lest the meat rot if left too long in the heat (we may not roast it until Motza'ei Shabbos; even though one of the miracles in the Mikdash was that Kodesh meat never rotted (Avos 5:5), we do not rely on miracles);

i.

R. Akiva is not concerned.

58b----------------------------------------58b

(g)

Question: If we are not concerned, we should offer it at six and a half hours (there are no Nedarim and Nedavos to wait for)!

(h)

Answer: R. Akiva holds that Musafim are offered before the Levonah - the Musafim are offered at six hours, the Levonah at seven, and the Tamid at seven and a half.

(i)

Objection (Rabah bar Ula): R. Yishmael did not say 'it is offered on Erev Pesach on Shabbos like on a weekday' - he only said 'it is offered on Shabbos...'!

(j)

Answer #3 (Rabah bar Ula): R. Yishmael teaches that we offer the Tamid on a regular Shabbos like on a regular weekday (eight and a half hours);

1.

R. Akiva says, it is offered like on a regular Erev Pesach (seven and a half hours).

2.

Our Mishnah equates Erev Pesach on a weekday and on Shabbos - it is like both of them.

3.

Question: What do they argue about?

4.

Answer: R. Yishmael decrees not to offer it earlier lest it be offered earlier on a weekday, and people will not be able to offer Nedarim and Nedavos afterwards (R. Chananel; Rashi - perhaps they will offer them afterwards and they will be Pesulim); R. Akiva does not decree.

(k)

Question: If we do not decree, we should offer it at six and a half hours!

(l)

Answer: R. Akiva holds that Musafim are offered before the Levonah - the Musafim are offered at six hours, the Levonah at seven, and the Tamid at seven and a half.

(m)

Question (Beraisa - R. Yishmael): All year round the Tamid is slaughtered at eight and a half hours and it is offered at nine and a half; on Erev Pesach it is slaughtered at seven and a half and offered at eight and a half; when it falls on Shabbos, it is like when it is on Monday;

1.

R. Akiva says, it is like on Erev Pesach.

2.

We understand according to Abaye (R. Yishmael teaches that when Erev Pesach falls on Shabbos, it is like when it is on Monday) - but this is difficult for Rava (he says that R. Yishmael delays it, lest the Pesach rot)!

(n)

Answer: It does not mean [when it falls on Shabbos,] it is like when it falls on Monday, rather, it is like a regular Monday.

(o)

Question (Beraisa - R. Yishmael): When it falls on Shabbos, it is like a regular day of the year;

1.

R. Akiva says, it is like a regular Erev Pesach.

2.

We understand according to Rava - but this is difficult for Abaye!

(p)

Answer: R. Yishmael does not mean it is like a regular day of the year, rather, it is like a regular year [when Pesach is on a weekday]; R. Akiva says, it is like an Erev Pesach on Erev Shabbos.

3)

THE FIRST AND LAST KORBANOS OF THE DAY

(a)

(Beraisa) Question: What is the source that no Korban may precede the morning Tamid?

(b)

Answer: "V'Orach Aleha ha'Olah" - the morning Tamid goes [directly] on the wood, no Korban precedes it.

(c)

Question: How does the verse show this [that the Olah is the morning Tamid]?

(d)

Answer (Rava): "Ha'Olah" refers to the first Olah [that the Torah discusses].

(e)

(Beraisa) Question: What is the source that no Korban may follow the afternoon Tamid?

(f)

(g)

Question: How do we learn this from the verse?

(h)

Answer #1 (Abaye): [Chalavim of] Shelamim may be offered on (after) it (the afternoon Tamid), not after another Korban [offered afterwards. We must say that Zerikah of the Shelamim preceded the Tamid; the Chelev may be offered later, even at night.]

(i)

Objection: According to this, Olos [or other Korbanos] may be offered after the Tamid, as long as we do not offer Shelamim!

(j)

Answer #2 (Rava): We read "ha'Shelamim" like Hashlem - Aleha (by offering the afternoon Tamid) Hashlem (finish) all the Korbanos.