NIDAH 69 (3 Teves) - Today's Dafyomi material has been dedicated in memory of Hagaon Rav Yisroel Zev Gustman Ztz"L (author of "Kuntresei Shiurim") and his wife, Rebbetzin Sarah Gustman (daughter of Hagaon Rav Meir Bassin, a Dayan in Vilna) in honor of the Yahrzeit of the Rebbetzin. Sponsored by a Talmid of Rav Gustman (M. Kornfeld).

[69a - 41 lines; 69b - 45 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara and Rashi.

[1] Rashi 69a DH Tamnei l'Nidah ד"ה תמני לנדה:

The words "uv'Chol Yom ha'Shabbos" ובכל יום השבת

should be "v'Chol Yom ha'Shabbos" וכל יום השבת

[2] Rashi 69b DH v'Tamnei ד"ה ותמני:

The words "b'Shabbos Gufa Asai" בשבת גופא אתאי

should be "b'Shabbos Gufa d'Asai" בשבת גופא דאתאי

[3] Rashi DH b'Leilvasa ד"ה בלילותא:

The words "Tamnei l'Nidah" תמני לנדה are a new Dibur ha'Maschil

[4] Rashi DH Chad Yoma ד"ה חד יומא:

The words "Tevilos d'Shevi'i" טבילות דשביעי

should be "Tevilos d'Shemini" טבילות דשמיני (Rashash)

[5] Rashi DH Eima ד"ה אימא:

The words "v'Yom Shevi'i Nami Tavlah" ויום שביעי נמי טבלה

should be "v'Yom Shemini Nami Tavlah" ויום שמיני נמי טבלה (Rashash)


1)[line 11]שלישי שלהSHELISHI SHELAH- the third day on which she experienced bleeding

2)[line 15]כותאיKUSA'EI- the Kusim (Samaritans) (see Background to Nidah 56:12). It seems from the words of Rav Yirmeyah bar Aba that Rav rules like the Kusim who rule (according to the "Davar Acher" in the Beraisa of Rebbi Meir — Daf 33a) that a woman who becomes a Zavah Gedolah after three consecutive days of bleeding may count as her first day of Shiv'ah Nekiyim, the last day that she experienced bleeding.

3)[line 23]מתיב ר' יוסי ברבי חנינא "טועה"MASIV REBBI YOSI B'REBBI CHANINA "TO'AH"- Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina asked a question from the case of "the confused woman." It appears in its entirety on Daf 29b-30a. She was pregnant when she left, but returned without a child and not pregnant anymore. Since she arrived, three weeks passed in which she did not experience any bleeding. For the next ten weeks (4-13), she bled every day during the even-numbered weeks and not at all during the odd-numbered weeks. She does not know what happened to her before she arrived, and as a result must keep many laws of immersions and separations from her husband. See Charts: Nidah #5 (Daf 29b).

4)[line 25]ספורין לפנינוSEFURIN LEFANEINU- (lit. counted before us) days that were proven to be bloodless, and not days upon which she is not certain if she experienced bleeding (RASHI to Daf 29b DH Eima Yoledes Zachar b'Zov Hi)

5)[line 25]דילמא יולדת זכר בזוב היאDILMA YOLEDES ZACHAR B'ZOV HI (YOLEDES B'ZOV)

(a)A woman who has labor pains and experiences bleeding is not a Zavah as long as she gives birth due to the labor. The blood is known as "Dam Kishuy." If the labor pains stop after she bleeds on three consecutive days, it is possible that she will be "Yoledes b'Zov" when she gives birth. The Halachah understands that since the labor pains stopped, the three days of bleeding are considered Dam Zivus, as long as there is a prominent interval between the end of her flow and the day that she gave birth. The Tana'im argues as to how long the interval must be when she is not in labor for her to be considered a Yoledes b'Zov.

(b)By Torah Law, a woman who gives birth may immerse in a Mikvah after her Yemei Tum'ah (seven days upon the birth of a boy and fourteen days upon the birth of a girl). Blood that she experiences after the Yemei Tum'ah is Dam Tohar and she is Tehorah, until she experiences bleeding forty-one days after the birth of a boy or eighty-one days after the birth of a girl (see Background to Nidah 60:4).

(c)The laws of Yemei Taharah do not apply if she had been a Zavah before she gave birth. Under such circumstances, she remains Teme'ah after the birth until she counts seven clean days when she experiences no bleeding. According to some, a Yoledes b'Zov must begin her count of seven clean days after the Yemei Tum'ah have ended (Daf 29b and Daf 37a). Others rule that the count of clean days may begin during the Yemei Tum'ah, if the blood flow has stopped.

6)[line 32]האי דינא דלא דינא דייני בגלחיHAI DINA D'LO DINA DAINEI B'GALCHEI- this kind of unjust ruling (lit. a judgment that is not a judgment) is the type of ruling common to the city of Galchei (Sedom — ARUCH)

7)[line 33]דאית ליה תורא לירעי חד יומאD'IS LEI TORA LIR'EI CHAD YOMA- one who owns a bull must pasture all of the animals of the town for one day

8)[line 33]אתרמי להו יתמא בר ארמלתאISRAMI LEHU YASMA BAR ARMALTA- it happened to them that there was once an orphan, the son of a widow

9)[line 34]נכסינהוNACHSINHU- he slaughtered them

10)[line 35]לשקול חד משכאLISHKOL CHAD MASHCHA- he may take one hide


11)[line 21]עד שימוק הבשרAD SHE'YIMOK HA'BASAR- until decay has set in to the flesh

12)[line 27]אבן מסמאEVEN MESAMA

(a)RASHI (to Shabbos 82b) explains that Even Mesama is a stone that is set up on poles or supports, such that the clothes or utensils underneath it do not touch it.

(b)RASHI (to Nidah 55a) explains that it is a heavy stone that is used to press clothing. If a Nidah is on the stone while the stone is upon clothing or utensils, then they become Teme'im. Although the Nidah is on top of the clothing or utensils that are under the stone, since the stone is too heavy to carry, the normal Tum'as Masa does not apply to them.

(c)TOSFOS (to Shabbos ibid.), quoting RABEINU TAM, states that it is a stone that is so heavy that there is no recognizable pressure from the Nidah who is on it to the clothing or utensils under it.

13)[line 27]"והיתית אבן חדא ושומת על פום גובא""V'HEISAYIS EVEN CHADA, V'SUMAS AL PUM GUBA"- "And a stone was brought and placed on the opening of the pit (lion's den)" (Daniel 6:18)

14)[line 29]שמא יתעלפהSHEMA YIS'ALFAH- lest the person faint (O.F. pasmer) and those who see him think that he died. Before the Gezeirah, the clothes of a dead Zav and Zavah do not become Teme'im while the clothes of a live Zav and Zavah do become Teme'im. If one of them faints and appears dead, those present may decide that his clothes are Tehorim when they are in reality Teme'im.

15)[line 30]עד שיבקע כריסוAD SHE'YIBAKA KEREISO- until his belly splits

16)[line 35]אנשי אלכסנדריאANSHEI ALEKSANDRIA- the Jews of Alexandria, Egypt

17)[line 37]הגדהHAGADAH- Agadah (homiletic, non-Halachic parts of Torah)

18)[line 37]בורותBURUS- nonsense


(a)It is forbidden for any Jew to remarry his wife after divorcing her, if she married someone else in the interim (who subsequently divorced her or died), as the Torah states, "Lo Yuchal Ba'alah ha'Rishon Asher Shilechah, Lashuv l'Kachtah... Ki So'evah Hi..." (Devarim 24:4). This Isur applies only if she was married after the initial divorce; if she was raped, her ex-husband may remarry her.

(b)The Tana'im argue as to whether the ex-husband is prohibited from remarrying her if she became engaged (but not married) to someone else after the initial divorce (Yevamos 11b).

(c)If her first husband did remarry her, their daughter is called a Bas Meshulachas, who is permitted to marry a Kohen. The mother alone is restricted since the above-mentioned verse continues with the words "Ki So'evah Hi," which is taken to mean, "she (the mother) is an abomination" — and not her daughter (Daf 70a; see SEFER HA'CHINUCH #580).


The Torah (Vayikra 21:14) commands a Kohen Gadol not to marry a widow (Almanah) — whether she was widowed from Eirusin or from Nisu'in, a divorcee (Gerushah), prostitute ("Zonah" — see Background to Gitin 79:22) or Chalalah. Rather, a Kohen Gadol is commanded to marry only a Besulah (Vayikra 21:13). An ordinary Kohen (Hedyot) is permitted to marry a widow, but not any of the other women listed above. The child from one of the above-mentioned unions is invalidated from the Kehunah, and is called a "Chalal" (see below, entry #23). The Rabanan also prohibited all Kohanim from marrying a Chalutzah (see Background to Nidah 55:25), and made the children of a Kohen from a Chalutzah Chalalim mid'Rabanan.

21)[line 42]אין איסורה שוה בכלEIN ISURAH SHAVEH BA'KOL- a prohibition that [applies only to Kohanim and] does not pertain to all Jews

22)[line 43]בנה פגוםBNAH PAGUM- her child is disqualified [to serve as a Kohen if he is male or to be married to Kohanim if she is female]

23)[last line]היא עצמה מתחללתHI ATZMAH MISCHALELES (CHALAL)

(a)The Torah (Vayikra 21:14) commands a Kohen Gadol not to marry a widow (Almanah), divorcee (Gerushah), prostitute ("Zonah" — see Background to Gitin 79:22) or Chalalah. An ordinary Kohen (Hedyot) is permitted to marry a widow, but not any of the other women listed above. The child from one of the above-mentioned unions is invalidated from the Kehunah, and is called a "Chalal" or "Chalalah" (fem.). The Rabanan also prohibited all Kohanim from marrying a Chalutzah (see Background to Nidah 55:25), and made the children of a Kohen from a Chalutzah into Chalalim mid'Rabanan.

(b)A Kohen who marries one of the women who are forbidden to him is liable to Malkus (lashes) (RAMBAM Hilchos Isurei Bi'ah 17:2). The Kohen himself does not become a Chalal as a result of the union (Rambam ibid. 19:1). However, he may not perform the Avodah of the Beis ha'Mikdash until he makes a vow not to marry these women again (and divorces the prohibited woman) (Bechoros 45b, Rambam Hilchos Bi'as Mikdash 6:9).

(c)A Chalal may not serve in the Beis ha'Mikdash, and according to some sources he is Chayav Misah bi'Yedei Shamayim if he does (MINCHAS CHINUCH 275:5). A Chalal does not eat Terumah or the Kodshim reserved for Kohanim (Terumos 8:1), and is not restricted with regard to the women that he is allowed to marry. Chalalim are not prohibited from coming into contact with corpses. Chalalim are not considered Kohanim with regard to the other privileges and restrictions pertaining to Kohanim, as well.