[50a - 37 lines; 50b - 44 lines]
1)[line 2]"... על פיהם יהיה כל ריב וכל נגע""… AL PIHEM YIHEYEH KOL RIV V'CHOL NAGA."- "[And the Kohanim, the sons of Levi, shall come near, for HaSh-m, your G-d, has chosen them to minister to Him, and to bless in the name of HaSh-m;] by their word shall every controversy and every affliction [be tried]." (Devarim 21:5)
2)[line 3]ריביםRIVIM- controversies, court cases
(a)When a Jew develops a mark on his body the size of a Gris (a Cilician bean, approximately the size of a dime) that looks like the skin disease of Tzara'as, a Kohen must be summoned to ascertain whether or not it is a Nega Tzara'as. (Depending on the type of mark, this is determined by different factors - see (b) below.) The Kohen inspects the mark during the day, but not in bright sunshine and not under conditions that obstruct the sunlight, such as a cloudy day or a darkened room. If it is indeed a Nega Tzara'as, the Kohen pronounces him Tamei, initiating a one or two-week period of quarantine or "Hesger" (depending on the type of blemish). During this period, he is known as a Metzora Musgar. If no "Simanei Tum'ah" (signs of Tum'ah - see Background to Nidah 19:15a) appear in the mark during that time, the Kohen pronounces the Metzora Musgar to have become Tahor. If Simanei Tum'ah do appear in the mark at the end of the first or second week of Hesger, or even when the Kohen first sees the Nega or after the Metzora has become Tahor, the Kohen pronounces him a Metzora Muchlat. A Metzora Muchlat remains Tamei until his Simanei Tum'ah go away, after which the Kohen pronounces him to have become Tahor.
(b)There are four types of blemishes that constitute Nig'ei Tzara'as that affect a Jewish person: Nig'ei Basar, Shechin or Michvah, Nesek, Karachas or Gabachas. (For a detailed description of the Halachos of a Metzora, a person afflicted with Tzara'as, see Background to Nidah 19:15a. For a full discussion of the process by which a Metzora becomes Tahor, see Background to Chulin 82:5.)
4)[line 4]מה נגעים ביוםMAH NEGA'IM BA'YOM- just like Nega'im must be inspected by the Kohen during the day (see previous entry, (a))
5)[line 4]"וביום הראות בו [בשר חי יטמא]""UV'YOM HERA'OS BO [BASAR CHAI YITMA]"- "But on the day that [healthy flesh] appears in him, [he shall be unclean.]" (Vayikra 13:14)
6)[line 5]סומאSUMA- a blind person
7)[line 6]"... לכל מראה עיני הכהן""… L'CHOL MAR'EH EINEI HA'KOHEN."- "[And if Tzara'as breaks out in the skin, and the mark covers all the skin of the one who has the disease from his head to his foot,] wherever the Kohen looks." (Vayikra 13:12) - This verse excludes blind Kohanim and even a Kohen who is a Suma b'Achas me'Einav (blind in one eye) from checking Nega'im.
8)[line 10]"[אדם כי יהיה בעור בשרו שאת או ספחת או בהרת והיה בעור בשרו לנגע צרעת] והובא אל אהרן הכהן או אל אחד מבניו הכהנים""[ADAM KI YIHEYEH V'OR BESARO SE'ES O SAPACHAS O VAHERES, V'HAYAH V'OR BESARO L'NEGA TZARA'AS,] V'HUVA EL AHARON HA'KOHEN O EL ACHAD MI'BANAV HA'KOHANIM."- "[When a man shall have on his skin a swelling, a scab, or bright spot, and it looks like the disease of Tzara'as,] then he shall be brought to Aharon the Kohen, or to one of his sons, the Kohanim." (Vayikra 13:2)
9)[line 13]ההוא סמיא דהוה בשבבותיה דרבי יוחנןHA'HU SAMYA D'HAVAH B'SHIVEVUSEI D'REBBI YOCHANAN- the blind man who lived in the neighborhood of Rebbi Yochanan (the RIF, and RASHI cited by the CHIDUSHEI HA'RAN write that he was only blind in one eye - see MARGOLIYOS HA'YAM to Sanhedrin 34b #16-17)
10)[line 14]דהוה קדיין דינאD'HAVAH KA'DAYIN DINA- who judged court cases
11)[line 15]הלכה כסתם משנהHALACHAH K'STAM MISHNAH- the Halachah follows the anonymously-authored Mishnah
12a)[line 20]דניןDANIN- the judges open the case and discuss it
b)[line 20]גומריןGOMRIN- the judges conclude the case
13)[line 21]?מאי אולמיה דהאי סתמא מהאי סתמאMAI ULMEI D'HAI STAMA ME'HAI STAMA?- and why is this Stam Mishnah more preferable (lit. stronger) than that one? (See MELO HA'RO'IM to Sanhedrin 34b.)
14)[line 23]גבי הלכתא דדיניGABEI HILCHESA D'DINEI- together with the laws of court matters
(a)After a crop that is grown in Eretz Yisrael is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated Ma'aser Rishon, and given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.
(b)The produce may not be eaten until both Terumos have been separated from it. Until the Terumos have been separated, the produce is called Tevel. The punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (Sanhedrin 83a).
(c)A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.
(d)The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought to Yerushalayim and eaten there by its owner. Anyone who eats Ma'aser Sheni produce outside of the walls of Yerushalayim (without Pidyon, redemption - see (e) below) receives Malkus (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aser Sheni 2:5). Once the Ma'aser Sheni produce enters the walls of Yerushalayim, it may not be redeemed. It is considered "Niklat," "captured" by the walls.
(e)Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed (Pidyon), in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is exempt from the additional fifth.
16)[line 25]טומאת אוכליןTUM'AS OCHLIN
(a)See Background to Me'ilah 17:13.
(b)All foods become Tamei if they touch a source of Tum'ah, but only after they first become wet. From then on, even after they dry, they can still become Tamei. Seven liquids can enable foods to become Tamei: water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and bee's honey. Nivlas Of Tahor is an exception. It does not have to become wet or touch any source of Tum'ah to be called Muchshar (ready to become Tamei - see below, entry #33).
(b)The minimum amount of food that can become Tamei is a k'Beitzah (RASHI). The modern equivalent of a Beitzah is 0.05, 0.0576 or 0.1 liter, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.
(c)In order for something edible to receive Tum'as Ochlin, it has to be considered food. A person's intention to eat the item and treat it as a food gives it the status of a food and it can receive Tum'as Ochlin. Once food becomes Tamei, it cannot become Tahor by immersing it in a Mikvah.
(a)The corner, or end, of the harvest of grain must be left in the field for the poor, as it states "Lo Sechaleh Pe'as Sadecha Liktzor... le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam" - "Do not completely harvest the corner of your field... you shall leave them (the gifts of Pe'ah, Leket, Olelos and Peret) for the poor and the stranger." (Vayikra 19:9-10).
(b)The requirement to leave Pe'ah for the poor applies to trees as well, as Chazal learn from the verse, "Ki Sachbot Zeisecha, Lo Sefa'er Acharecha; la'Ger, la'Yasom vela'Almanah Yiheyeh" - "When you beat your olive trees to shake off the fruit, do not remove all of its splendor; it (the amount that you leave as Pe'ah - Chulin 131b) shall be for the convert, the orphan and the widow" (Devarim 24:20).
(c)The Mishnah (Pe'ah 1:4) states that Pe'ah applies to any food that grows from the ground, is kept in one's possession (i.e. not Hefker), is harvested at one time and stored. Our Gemara explains which items are excluded by this rule.
18)[line 29]תאנהTE'ENAH- figs
19)[line 29]ירקYARAK- vegetables
20)[line 30]אוכלOCHEL- a food item
21)[line 30]נשמרNISHMAR- it is kept in one's possession
22)[line 30]לקיטתו כאחדLEKITASO K'ECHAD- the entire crop must be harvested in a single process, unlike the fig tree, the fruits of which ripen over an extended period of time. (This excludes not only the fig tree, but most other trees. In fact, only 8 trees are listed in the Mishnah as obligated in Pe'ah - TOSFOS Shabbos 68a DH ul'Bar)
23)[line 30]מכניסו לקיוםMACHNISO L'KIYUM- and it is put into storage
24)[line 31]ספיחי סטים וקוצהSEFICHEI SATIM V'KOTZAH- safflower (which produces a red dye) and woad (a plant that produces blue dye) which grew on their own from the remainder of the previous crop. The word "Sefichim" means "aftergrowth," i.e. that they grew by themselves and were not planted for harvesting this year. (RASHI Shabbos 68a explains that Setis usually grows this way, and is not planted year after year; TOSFOS ibid. DH Sefichei states that the ruling of the Mishnah only pertains to the Sefichim of Setis, and not to Setis itself.)
25)[line 32]כמהים ופטריותKEMEHIM U'PITRIYOS- types of boletes, such as mushrooms, morels and truffles
26)[line 35]אם היו בהם שומים ובצלין חייביןIM HAYU BAHEM SHUMIM U'VETZALIN, CHAYAVIN- if these Yerakos included garlic and onions, the garlic and onions are obligated in Ma'aser
27a)[line 35]מלבנות בצליםMALBENOS BETZALIM- (a) rectangular onion-patches; (b) rows of onions
b)[line 35]שבין הירקSHE'BEIN HA'YARAK- that are planted between vegetables
28)[last line]עולשיןULSHIN- endives
29)[last line]עולשין שזרען מתחילה לבהמהULSHIN SHE'ZAR'AN MI'TECHILAH L'VEHEMAH- endives that were originally planted with the intention of using them as animal food. Although this ruling is discussing Taharah and has nothing to do with our Mishnah, the sequel to this statement (on Daf 51a) is related to our Mishnah. This is why the Gemara discusses it here.
30)[line 1]צריכות מחשבהTZERICHOS MACHSHAVAH (TUM'AS OCHLIM: MACHSHAVAH)
In order for something edible to receive Tum'as Ochlin, it has to be considered food. A person's intention to eat the item and treat it as a food gives it the status of a food and it can receive Tum'as Ochlin. Once food becomes Tamei, it cannot become Tahor by immersing it in a Mikvah (see above, entry #16)
31)[line 1]מחשבת חבורMACHSHEVES CHIBUR- intention to eat the plant when it was still "attached" (i.e. in the ground)
32)[line 3]נבלת עוף טהורNIVLAS OF TAHOR
(a)Normally, items that are Tamei spread Tum'ah through touching them or carrying them ("Maga" or "Masa"). The only object that is Metamei mid'Oraisa while being eaten is Nivlas Of Tahor (the carcass of a kosher bird). Nivlas Of Tahor is a kosher bird that died or was killed without Shechitah. (This includes a bird that is unfit to be brought as a Korban upon which Melikah was performed.) It is only Metamei while in the Beis ha'Beli'ah (throat), during the process of being swallowed.
(b)A Nivlas Of Tahor is Metamei the person eating it, as well as any clothes or utensils that he is touching at the time that it is in his throat, giving them the status of "Rishon l'Tum'ah." (Once it is swallowed, the person remains Tamei, but is only Metamei food and drinks, i.e. he is a Rishon l'Tum'ah).
33)[line 5]אינה צריכה הכשרEINAH TZERICHAH HECHSHER - and they become Tamei automatically without any preparation or outside cause (i.e. they do not have to become wet or touch anything Tamei) (HECHSHER / KI YUTAN)
(a)Foods may become Teme'im if they touch a source of Tum'ah only if they were wetted at some point in their history. Making foods wet in a manner that enables them to become Teme'im is called "Hechsher." From then on, even after they dry, they can become Teme'im. Wetting food with any of seven liquids, water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and honey, can enable the food to become Tamei.
(b)The food can become Tamei only if the owner of the food was pleased that his food became wet. This is learned from the verse, "v'Chi Yutan Mayim Al Zera..." - "If water has been placed on seed and then the dead body [of a Sheretz] fell upon it, the seed is Tamei" (Vayikra 11:38). The word "Yutan" in the verse is written without a Vav, just like the word "Yiten" - "he places." However, according to the Mesorah, it is read "Yutan" - "it was placed." From this we learn that when water or other liquids fall on the food it is considered Hechsher only if their presence is desirable to the owner of the food (i.e. it is as though he himself applied them).
(c)It is necessary only for the owner to desire the liquid; he need not desire that the liquid come into contact with the food. That is, even if the owner desires the liquid for an entirely different purpose, if the liquid later comes into contact with food it will enable the food to become Tamei. On the other hand, if the owner only intended to dispose of the liquid it does not enable the food to become Tamei, since only liquids that are significant can cause Hechsher.
(d)Besides the term "Hechsher" referring to the item becoming wet, our Gemara also uses this term to refer to the source of Tum'ah that touches the item, such as a Sheretz.
34)[line 7]גוזלGOZAL- a young pigeon
35)[line 8]הרוםHA'ROM- the sky
36)[line 9]תרנגולת שביבנהTARNEGOLES SHEB'YAVNEH- the hen that died in Yavneh, which the Chachamim were Metamei because of the Machshavah of the Kusim (or Nochrim - see below, entry #44)
37)[line 10]תרנגול ברא הוהTARNEGOL BARA HAVAH- it was a species of wild chicken
38)[line 10]אחיכו עליהACHICHU ALEI- they laughed at him
39)[line 13]תרנגולת שמרדהTARNEGOLES SHE'MARDAH- a hen that flew off to the wild
40)[line 14]איבראי ממרהIVRA'I MI'MARAH- it became wild regarding its master (i.e. it ran away)
41)[line 15]תרנגולתא דאגמאTARNEGOLTA D'AGMA- "the hen of the marshes"
42)[line 20]גירותאGIRUSA- a bird that is definitely Tamei, probably the moor-hen
43)[line 20]גתGAS- a winepress
44)[line 21]כותיKUSI (KUSIM, SAMARITANS)
(a)See Background to Nidah 31:36 for a discussion of the Kusim.
(b)Since the Gemara mentions the intentions of the owner of the winepress, that the (non-kosher) dead pigeon be used as food for the Kusim or for the dogs, it is apparent that the original Girsa of the Gemara was not "Kusim," but "Nochrim" or the like. The Kusim were converts, and feeding them Neveilos would be a problem of "Lifnei Iver Lo Siten Michshol" - "You shall not put a stumbling block before the blind" (Vayikra 19:14).
45)[line 26]שכן אינה יורדת לכךSHE'KEN EINAH YOREDES L'CHACH- "because such a law does not apply to it" (the Gemara will explain whether we are referring to a law of Machshavah or Hechsher)
46)[line 33]החלבHA'CHELEV- and Chelev of a slaughtered kosher animal does not need Hechsher, since the blood of its Shechitah is Machshir it (TOSFOS DH Lo Garsinan Gabei)
47)[line 34]אלא בכפרים, ומי איכא למאן דאמר?ELA B'KEFARIM, U'MI IKA L'MAN D'AMAR?- It is clear from the words of Rebbi Yochanan Ben Nuri that he does not require Machshavah for a bird even in Kefarim. The Gemara is asking, why do the Chachamim mention that the bird fell into a Gas? Since it was in a Kefar, it should require Machshavah regardless.
48)[line 39]גתו מאסתוGATO ME'ASATU- and the winepress into which it fell made it loathsome