[15a - 32 lines; 15b - 38 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, the Tzon Kodashim and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 15a [line 13]:
The words: "Kodshei Bedek ha'Bayis v'Olah" קדשי בדק הבית ועולה
should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #5 who omits the word "v'Olah." Tosfos DH Mechavarta has the Girsa "v'Olah" ועולה (but concludes that even if this Girsa is correct, we do not learn Olah from this verse; see Tosfos).
 Rashi 15a DH Kodshei Bedek ha'Bayis ד"ה קדשי בדק הבית:
The words "u'Kedushas Damim Ninhu וקדושת דמים נינהו
should be "d'Kedushas Damim Ninhu" דקדושת דמים נינהו
 Rashi DH Ela Peshita ד"ה אלא פשיטא:
Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #14
 Mishnah 15b [line 37]:
The words "ha'Shekatzim" השקצים
should be "ha'Sheratzim" השרצים (this is the Girsa of Rashi and Tosfos)
 Rashi 15b DH Ela Tani b'Olah ד"ה אלא תני בעולה:
Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #11
PEREK #4 KODSHEI MIZBE'ACH
1a)[line 1]קדשי מזבחKODSHEI MIZBE'ACH- objects dedicated to be offered on the Mizbe'ach as sacrifices
b)[line 3]קדשי בדקהביתK ODSHEI BEDEK HA'BAYIS- objects dedicated to become the property of the Mikdash (see Background to Me'ilah 12:8)
2)[line 12]מחוורתאMECHAVARTA- it is clear (see Insights 15:1)
3)[line 3]תודהTODAH (KORBAN TODAH)
(a)The Todah (thanksgiving offering) is a form of Shelamim that is eaten for only one day and one night (Vayikra 7:15). Korbenos Shelamim that are offered by an individual may be brought from male or female sheep, cows or goats. They are Kodshim Kalim, and may therefore be slaughtered in the entire Azarah (and not only in its northern part).
(b)Before its slaughter, the owner presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah). The blood of the Todah is cast on the northeastern and southwestern corners of the Mizbe'ach ("Shenayim she'Hen Arba"). Nesachim (a flour offering consisting of flour and oil and a wine libation) are brought as part of the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The flour offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar (ibid.).
(c)An animal that was sacrificed as a Todah was brought together with forty loaves of bread, ten each of the following:
1.Chalos Matzos - Matzos mixed with oil;
2.Rekikin - flat Matzos saturated with oil;
3.Soles Murbeches - Matzos made of boiled flour mixed with oil;
4.Loaves of leavened bread. (Vayikra 7:12-13)
(d)One loaf of each type of bread was given to the Kohen who performed the Zerikas ha'Dam of the Todah (Vayikra 7:14). (These four loaves were known as Terumas Lachmei Todah.) The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (the two upper sections of the right hind leg, until the hip joint) of the Todah were given to the Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the Korban were offered on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10, 14-15). The owner and his guests (men or women) eat the rest of the Korban inside the borders of the city of Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in any fashion and is eaten on the day that it is slaughtered and the following night.
4)[line 10]להעלותן בחוץL'HA'ALOSAN B'CHUTZ (HA'ALA'AS CHUTZ)
The Torah obligates a person to bring to the Beis ha'Mikdash all Kodshim that are fit to be offered as sacrifices, as it states in Vayikra 17:1-7. Besides the Mitzvas Aseh, there is a Lav prohibiting slaughtering them outside of the Azarah ("Shechutei Chutz") and burning them or parts of them outside of the Azarah ("Ha'ala'as Chutz"). In addition, the Tana'im learn (Sanhedrin 34b) that Zerikas ha'Dam (casting the blood) of a sacrifice outside of the Azarah is also prohibited. The punishment for transgressing these prohibitions is Kares (ibid. 17:9; SEFER HA'CHINUCH #186), and the animal remains Asur b'Hana'ah (i.e. it is prohibited to derive any benefit from it).
5)[line 27]מנחת נסכיםMINCHAS NESACHIM
6)[line 28]תרומת מעשרTERUMAS MA'ASER (MA'ASROS: TERUMAS MA'ASER)
(a)After a crop that is grown in Eretz Yisrael is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated Ma'aser Rishon, and given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.
(b)The produce may not be eaten until both Terumos have been separated from it. Until the Terumos have been separated, the produce is called Tevel. The punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (Sanhedrin 83a).
(c)A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.
(d)The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought to Yerushalayim and eaten there by its owner. Anyone who eats Ma'aser Sheni produce outside of the walls of Yerushalayim (without Pidyon, redemption — see (e) below) receives Malkus (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aser Sheni 2:5). Once the Ma'aser Sheni produce enters the walls of Yerushalayim, it may not be redeemed. It is considered "Niklat," "captured" by the walls.
(e)Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed (Pidyon), in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is exempt from the additional fifth.
(a)Produce bought from an Am ha'Aretz (an unlearned Jew who is lax in his Torah-observance; see Berachos 47b) is referred to as Demai ("Da Mai?" — "What is this?").
(b)Yochanan Kohen Gadol decreed that Terumas Ma'aser and Ma'aser Sheni must be separated from this produce since a minority of Amei ha'Aretz cannot be trusted to have separated them before selling the produce. Terumah Gedolah, however, because of its stringency, is presumed to have been separated. Ma'aser Rishon and Ma'aser Ani are separated from the produce, but they are eaten by the owner and not given to the Levi or the Ani (in keeping with the principle "ha'Motzi me'Chaveiro Alav ha'Re'ayah").
8)[line 30]החומשHA'CHOMESH (TASHLUMEI TERUMAH)
(a)After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, the owner must separate Terumah from the crop, which he gives to a Kohen. Kohanim and members of their households are allowed to eat Terumah, as long as they are Tehorim.
(b)If a non-Kohen eats Terumah without knowing that it is Terumah, he must replace what he ate in the form of a food that becomes Terumah (Tashlumei Terumah). He returns the amount of Terumah that he ate to the Kohen who owned the Terumah (see Insights to Pesachim 32:1). In addition, he is fined another Chomesh (fifth) of the ensuing total (i.e. a quarter of the value of what he ate). This Chomesh may be paid to any Kohen (Terumos 6:2), and is not necessarily given to the Kohen who owned the Terumah that was eaten.
(c)If the person ate Terumah in an abnormal fashion, such as by drinking olive oil, he only pays the value of the Terumah that was destroyed (i.e. the normal Halachah of damages applies to him and not the laws of Tashlumei Terumah).
(d)A non-Kohen who eats or benefits from Terumah b'Mezid (intentionally) pays the value of the Terumah destroyed (i.e. the normal Halachah of damages applies to him, and not Tashlumei Terumah), and incurs the punishment of Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (according to the Beraisa brought in the Gemara (Sanhedrin 83a). According to Rav (Sanhedrin 83b) — he is punished with lashes).
9)[line 37]הנבילותHA'NEVEILOS (ISUR ACHILAS NEVEILAH / TUM'AS NEVEILAH)
A Neveilah is a carcass of a Kosher animal that died without a Halachic slaughtering (or that was slaughtered improperly). The Torah states, "You shall not eat anything that dies by itself (Neveilah). You shall give it to the stranger who is in your gates, that he may eat it, or you may sell it to a Nochri, for you are a holy people to HaSh-m, your Elokim." (Devarim 14:21). A person who eats a k'Zayis of Neveilah is liable to Malkus (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 4:1) and a k'Zayis or more of a Neveilah makes a person or an object Tamei through Maga (contact). It is Metamei a Keli Cheres (an earthenware utensil) if it enters the utensil's interior and is Metamei a person with Tum'as Masa (by carrying it) to cause him, in turn, to be Metamei the clothes that he is wearing (RAMBAM Hilchos She'ar Avos ha'Tum'ah 1:1).
10)[line 37](השקצים) [השרצים](HA'SHEKATZIM) [HA'SHERATZIM] (ACHILAS SHERETZ/ TUM'AS SHERETZ)
(a)A Sheretz (a crawling pest — see Vayikra 11:29-38 for a list of the eight Sheratzim, and Background to Chulin 122:7), even if it or a part of it is only the size of an Adashah (lentil bean), is an Av ha'Tum'ah (Chagigah 11a, Ohalos 1:7). It makes a person or object Tamei at the level of a Rishon l'Tum'ah through Maga (contact), whether the Sheretz was touched willingly or unwillingly. The person who becomes Tamei by touching a Sheretz may not eat Terumah or Kodshim or enter the Azarah of the Beis Ha'Mikdash. However, he can immediately immerse in a Mikvah. After nightfall he becomes Tahor and may eat Terumah or Kodshim or enter the Azarah.
(b)In addition to Tum'as Maga, a dead Sheretz that is found in an earthenware oven makes the oven and all food or drink items that are in it Teme'im, whether the Sheretz touches them or not.
(c)It is forbidden to eat the abovementioned Sheratzim that generate Tum'ah, as well as all other creeping pests, as the verse states, "v'Chol ha'Sheretz ha'Shoretz Al ha'Aretz, Sheketz Hu, Lo Ye'achel." - "And all creeping things that creep on the ground are an abhorrence, they shall not be eaten" (Vayikra 11:41). If a person eats a k'Adashah of a dead Sheretz (of the eight Sheratzim that generate Tum'ah) or a k'Zayis of a live Sheretz (or of all other types of Sheratzim, dead or alive) b'Mezid (intentionally) after Hasra'ah (being forewarned), he is punished with Malkus (lashes). (Chulin 122a; SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #162).