[60a - 44 lines; 60b - 49 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara and Rashi.

[1] Gemara 60a [last line]:

"Rav Ashi Amar, Ha v'Ha Raban Shimon ben Gamliel" רב אשי אמר הא והא רבן שמעון בן גמליאל

It appears from Rashi 60b DH "Kan l'Mafre'a" כן למפרע, that his Girsa was "Ha v'Ha b'Sheni" הא והא בשני. However, another source for this emendation has not been found (M. KORNFELD).


1)[line 2]כי ניים ושכיב רב אמרה להא שמעתאKI NAYIM V'SHACHIV RAV AMARAH L'HA SHEMAITA- Rav must have been dozing off or sleeping when he said this rule

2)[line 11]בשומרת יום כנגד יוםSHOMERES YOM KENEGED YOM

(a)The eleven days that follow the seven days of Nidah are "days of Zivah." If a woman experiences bleeding during these days for one or two consecutive days, whether the bleeding is b'Ones (due to an external cause, see Background to Nidah 43:13:b) or not, she becomes a Zavah Ketanah and is Teme'ah. She is prohibited to her husband and has the status of an Av Ha'Tum'ah (see Background to Nidah 54:19).

(b)If she does not experience bleeding the following night and day, she may immerse in a Mikvah during the day to become Tehorah. She may even immerse on the morning immediately following the day on which she experienced bleeding, but her Tum'ah and Taharah are contingent upon whether or not she experiences bleeding afterwards on that day. She is called a Shomeres Yom k'Neged Yom, because she must watch the following day to confirm whether or not she experiences bleeding.

(c)If a woman experiences bleeding for three consecutive days during her eleven days of Zivah, she becomes a Zavah Gedolah. In order for her to become Tehorah, she must count "Shiv'ah Neki'im," seven "clean days" during which she verifies that she experiences no other bleeding. On the morning of the seventh day she immerses in a Mikvah. If she does not experience bleeding during the rest of the day she is Tehorah and no longer a Zavah. A Zavah Gedolah must bring a Korban Zavah to permit her to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or to eat Kodshim. The Korban is two Torim or two Bnei Yonah, one offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas (Vayikra 15:25-30).

3)[line 11]שני שלהB'SHENI SHELAH- her second day, i.e., the day after she experienced bleeding, when she is paying attention to whether she experiences bleeding or not (see previous entry)

4)[line 16]דם טוהרDAM TOHAR (YOLEDES: DAM TOHAR)

(a)In Vayikra 12:1-8, the Torah discusses the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah after childbirth. (The same Halachos apply to a woman who miscarries after the fetus has reached a certain stage of development.) After a woman gives birth, she must wait for a certain amount of time before she can enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Kodshim. That time period is divided into two stages:

1.During the initial stage, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood). If she gave birth to a male, this lasts for seven days. If a female was born, this stage lasts for two weeks. At the end of this period, she may go to the Mikvah after nightfall. After she has gone to the Mikvah, she is known as a "Tevulas Yom Aroch" (a "long" Tevulas Yom — see Background to Nidah 71:23b), and she is permitted to her husband and to eat Ma'aser Sheni.

2.During the second stage, any bleeding that she experiences does not give her the status of a Nidah as it normally would. This blood is called Dam Tohar. Nevertheless, during this period, she may not eat Terumah, Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. This lasts for thirty-three days for a male, and sixty-six days for a female. Thus, the total waiting period for a male is forty days and for a female, eighty days.

(b)Any bleeding that the woman experiences after the conclusion of the above two terms is the start of her regular cycle (Dam Nidah).

(c)At the end of the above two stages, the woman may eat Kodshim and enter the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash only after she brings a Korban Yoledes. Until then she is a Mechuseres Kaparah (see Background to Me'ilah 8:4). Her Korban includes a male sheep as an Olah and a Tor (turtledove) or a Ben Yonah (common dove) as a Chatas. If she could not afford a sheep, she brings two Torim or two Bnei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. (The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even if she experiences bleeding during the period of Dam Tohar — see Insights to Nidah 25a.)

5)[line 17]דמיה טהוריןDAMEHA TEHORIN- her virginal blood is not Metamei

6)[line 27]תלויTALUY- a person whose status of Tum'ah or Taharah is in doubt

7)[line 37]לפי שאין תוליןLEFI SHE'EIN TOLIN- (a) since the woman who borrowed the garment had not experienced bleeding but had only found (previously) a bloodstain on her clothing, the woman who lent the garment cannot assume that the bloodstain that she found came from her friend (RASHI); (b) is the accepted tradition that we do not make this assumption (ARUCH)


8)[line 2]השאילה חלוקה לנכרית בעלת כתם הרי זו תולה בהHISH'ILAH CHALUKAH L'NOCHRIS, BA'ALAS KESEM HAREI ZO TOLAH BAH- (note the comma) if she lent her garment to a Nochris, then the Jewish woman who owns the garment (and finds on it a bloodstain upon wearing it after it had been returned) may assume that the blood was from the Nochris (RASHI)

9)[line 8]"... ונקתה לארץ תשב""… V'NIKASAH, LA'ARETZ TESHEV"- "[Her doorways will lament and mourn,] and she shall be desolate, [she will have to] sit on the ground." (Yeshayah 3:26)

10)[line 10]אחורי כלי חרסACHOREI KLI CHERES (KLI CHERES)

(a)Klei Cheres are clay and earthenware utensils. They do not receive Tum'ah when an object of Tum'ah touches their outside. They only become Teme'im when Tum'ah enters them (even if the Tum'ah does not touch them). Therefore, when they are covered with a Tzamid Pesil (a tight seal) they cannot become Teme'im in the Ohel of a Mes, as is stated in Bamidbar 19:15. However, if the utensils are moved ("Tum'as Heset") by a Zav, Zavah, Nidah or Yoledes, they do receive Tum'ah (see Background to Nidah 7:5). If Klei Cheres become Teme'im, they make any food or drink items that enter them Teme'im, even if the items did not touch their inside surface.

(b)If the clay and earthenware utensils become Teme'im, they remain so until they are broken beyond use. Immersing them in a Mikvah does not change their status.

(c)If liquids that are a Rishon or Sheni l'Tum'ah come in contact with utensils, they make them Teme'im mid'Rabanan. In order to remember that the Tum'ah is only mid'Rabanan, the Chachamim stipulated that if the liquids only touched the outside of a wooden or metal utensil, only the outside becomes Tamei, and not the inside. In contrast, the Tum'ah of anything that is Tamei mid'Oraisa is not limited in this fashion. (If a liquid, or anything Tamei for that matter, touches the outside of an earthenware utensil, the utensil does not become Tamei at all — RASHI to Chagigah 22b)

(d)For a further discussion of the principles of Tum'os and Taharos, see Background to Nazir 54:13 and Insights to Pesachim 14:1.

11a)[line 11]גבוGABO- its outside

b)[line 11]תוכוTOCHO- its inside

12a)[line 12]מטלניותMATLANIYOS- pieces of cloth

b)[line 12]מטלניות שאין בהן שלש על שלשMATLANIYOS SHE'EIN BAHEN SHALOSH AL SHALOSH

(a)A cloth must be at least three Etzba'os square in order to become Tamei Mes (see Background to Nidah 52:32:d) or Tamei Sheretz (see Background to Nidah 54:4), since it is still fit for use by the poor. One Etzba = approximately 1.9, 2.0 or 2.4 cm, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions. A cloth that is smaller than this is Tahor, and not fit to become Tamei, due to its insignificance.

(b)With regard to Tum'as Midras (see Background to Nidah 54:19), the minimum size of a cloth must be three Tefachim square in order to become Tamei Midras. A cloth is the only material that has this distinction; the minimum sizes for all other materials are only measured in Tefachim, whether for Tum'as Mes, Midras, etc. (The word "Etzba'os" is feminine; therefore the Gemara uses Shalosh for Etzba'os. "Tefachim" is masculine, therefore the Gemara uses Sheloshah for Tefachim.)

13)[line 22]אמבטיAMBATI- a bathtub

14)[line 23]מסיקות את התנורMASIKOS ES HA'TANUR- to light the wood that is fuel for the oven

15)[line 33]שיעור וסתSHI'UR VESES- immediately (after the Kesem was found on the bed)

16)[line 35]אשם תלויASHAM TALUY

(a)If a person is in doubt whether or not he committed a transgression for which he must bring a Korban Chatas, he brings a Korban Asham Taluy, which is a ram worth two Sela'im (Vayikra 5:17-19). If he later discovers that he did indeed sin, he must offer a Korban Chatas; the Asham Taluy only provides temporary atonement during the period of doubt (see further details in Background to Kerisus 23:1).

(b)A person who has relations with a Nidah b'Shogeg is obligated to offer a Korban Chatas. The Gemara describes three possible situations that are a result of this Halachah:

1.If a woman wipes herself immediately after relations and finds blood on the cloth, she and her husband become Teme'im and become obligated to bring Korbenos Chatas.

2.If a woman checks internally and finds that she is bleeding immediately after relations, she and her husband are Teme'im mi'Safek and become obligated to bring Korbenos Asham Taluy, since it is possible that she experienced bleeding only after the relations.

3.If more time elapsed, they are Tehorim and do not bring any Korban.