[54a - 26 lines; 54b - 46 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara and Rashi.
 Gemara 54b [lines 36]:
The words "l'Tamei Adam ul'Tamei Vegadim" לטמא אדם ולטמא בגדים
should be "l'Tamei Adam l'Tamei Vegadim" לטמא אדם לטמא בגדים (as is found at the end of the Amud. Tosfos (Eruvin 27a DH Kol) also quotes this Girsa.)
1)[line 9]גרגרן דתנן, אסורGARGERAN D'TNAN, ASUR- the blood that a woman experiences on the last (eleventh) day of Yemei Zivah and on the following (twelfth) day do not combine with each other, since the bleeding on the twelfth day is the beginning of a new Nidus period. Nevertheless, the Mishnah (Daf 72a) states that a man who has relations with her on the following (twelfth) day, after she immerses in a Mikvah, is a "Gargeran" (glutton). The normal practice for a Zavah Ketanah is to wait for a full day ("Shomeres Yom k'Neged Yom" — see Background to Nidah 30:5) after she experiences bleeding before she may have relations. Rav Sheshes derives from our Beraisa that when the Mishnah states that such a person is a Gargeran, it implies that his action is prohibited.
PEREK #7 DAM HA'NIDAH
2)[line 19]בשר המתBESAR HA'MES
(a)A k'Zayis of the flesh of a Mes (corpse) is an "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah" and is Metamei through Maga (contact), Masa (carrying), and Ohel (being in the same room (lit. tent). An Ohel is defined as a covered space that is at least one Tefach in length, width and height. If a person becomes Tamei with Tum'as Mes, he must wait seven days to go to the Mikvah. Furthermore, on the third and seventh days he must have Mei Chatas (water mixed with ashes of the Parah Adumah — see Background to Nidah 52:32) sprinkled on him.
(b)A Mes that is in a house is Metamei (with Tum'as Ohel) all people, utensils and food that are in the house. Maga and Masa of a Mes can be Metamei people, utensils and food with Tum'as Mes. Our Mishnah states that there is an argument among the Tana'im as to whether the flesh of a Mes is Metamei even when it is dried up (Tana Kama) or only when it is fresh, moist (Rebbi Yosi).
3)[line 20]ניעNI'A- (a) (O.F. crac) mucus of the nose (RASHI); (b) phlegm from the throat (RASHI and TOSFOS to Daf 55b)
4)[line 21]שרץSHERETZ (TUM'AS SHERETZ)
(a)A Sheretz (a crawling pest — see Vayikra 11:29-38 for a list of the eight Sheratzim, and Background to Chulin 122:7), even if it or a part of it is only the size of an Adashah (lentil bean), is an Av ha'Tum'ah (Chagigah 11a, Ohalos 1:7). It makes a person or object Tamei at the level of a Rishon l'Tum'ah through Maga (contact), whether the Sheretz was touched willingly or unwillingly. The person who becomes Tamei by touching a Sheretz may not eat Terumah or Kodshim or enter the Azarah of the Beis Ha'Mikdash. However, he can immediately immerse in a Mikvah. After nightfall he becomes Tahor and may eat Terumah or Kodshim or enter the Azarah.
(b)Our Mishnah states that a Sheretz is Metamei only when it still contains its bodily fluids. Once it has dried out, it can no longer be Metamei. The Gemara (Chulin 74a) derives from the verse, "v'Chol Asher Yipol Alav Mehem b'Mosam Yitma..." - "Anything on which these creeping things (Sheratzim) fall when they die shall become Tamei..." (Vayikra 11:32). The word "b'Mosam" indicates that the Sheretz is Metamei only when it is in a state similar to that at the time that it dies — that is, containing its bodily fluids and not dried up.
5)[line 21]נבלהNEVEILAH (TUM'AS NEVEILAH)
(a)A Neveilah is a carcass of a Kosher animal that died without a Halachic slaughtering (or that was slaughtered improperly). A k'Zayis or more of a Neveilah makes a person or an object Tamei through Maga (contact). It is Metamei a Keli Cheres (an earthenware utensil) if it enters the utensil's interior and is Metamei a person with Tum'as Masa (by carrying it) to cause him, in turn, to be Metamei the clothes that he is wearing (RAMBAM Hilchos She'ar Avos ha'Tum'ah 1:1).
(b)If a person became Tamei through Tum'as Neveilah, he can immediately go to the Mikvah. He becomes Tahor at sundown and may eat Terumah or Kodshim.
6)[line 24]וכמה היא שרייתן בפושרין?V'CHAMAH HI SHERIYASAN B'FOSHRIN?- And how long are they soaked in warm water [to test whether they return to their original state, indicating that they can still be Metamei]?
7)[line 25]מעת לעתME'ES L'ES- for a twenty-four hour period
8)[line 28]"והדוה בנדתה""VEHA'DAVAH B'NIDASAH"- "And the woman who is ailing in her separation" (Vayikra 15:33).
9)[line 29]מדוהMADVAH- her flow
10)[line 31]"[דם] יהיה [זובה בבשרה]""[DAM] YIHEYEH [ZOVAH BI'VESARAH]"- "[blood] will be [her flow from her flesh]" (Vayikra 15:19).
11)[line 31]בהויתו יהאB'HAVAYASO YEHEI- in its state (of being Tamei while it was moist) it shall be (when it dries out)
12)[line 33]ותו הא דתנן המפלתV'SU, HA DI'TENAN, HA'MAPELES...- and furthermore, the Mishnah states, "ha'Mapeles..." This is not really a new question. It is a proof to the previous question, that even dried blood is Metamei (TOSFOS DH v'Su).
13)[line 33]המפלתHA'MAPELES (YOLEDES / MAPELES)
14)[line 33]קליפהKELIPAH- a [red] peel
15)[line 34]עפרAFAR- [red] earth
16)[line 34]שערהSA'ARAH- a [red] hair
17)[line 34]יבחושיןYAVCHUSHIN- Drosphilla, a small fly whose larvae feed on fruit and decaying plants; fruit fly
18)[line 35]נמוחוNIMOCHU- they dissolve
19)[line 36]משכב ומושבMISHKAV U'MOSHAV
(a)A Nidah (see Background to Nidah 11:3), Yoledes (see Background to Nidah 53:12), Zav (see Background to Nidah 43:13), or Zavah (see Background to Nidah 30:5), can cause objects (other than Klei Cheres, earthenware objects) that are under them to become Avos ha'Tum'ah whether they touch them or not. The objects become Tamei Midras (lit. an object that is treaded upon). Two examples of Midras are known as Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav, ha'Zavah, etc. (or the Tachton, of a Zav, etc.). An object that is under these people becomes a Midras only if it was made for lying, sitting, or leaning upon.
(b)A person who touches (Maga) or carries (Masa) either a Midras or a Zav, Zavah, Nidah or Yoledes themselves gets the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah, and so do the clothes he is wearing and other utensils (except for earthenware utensils) that he is touching at the time.
(c)Utensils or clothes that lie above the Zav, etc. also get the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether he touches them or not. These are called the Elyon of a Zav, Zavah, Nidah or Yoledes.
20)[line 40]אבן מנוגעתEVEN MENUGA'AS (NIG'EI BATIM)
A stone from a house that was dismantled after it was declared to be a Bayis ha'Menuga. (See Background to Nidah 19:15b for a description of a Bayis ha'Menuga and how it becomes Tamei).
21)[line 42]מטמא בביאהMETAMEI B'VI'AH (NIG'EI BATIM: METAMEI B'VI'AH)
(a)For a detailed description of how a house becomes a Bayis ha'Menuga, see Background to Nidah 19:15b.
(b)When a person is a Metzora (see Background to Nidah 50:3), he is Metamei the objects in the house that he is in. Similarly, a house that is declared a Bayis ha'Menuga is Metamei all the objects that are in it. If the stones of this house are brought into another house, they are Metamei the objects in the second house.
(c)Regarding a person who enters a house that has Tzara'as or has a Metzora in it, there are two Pesukim:
1."veha'Ba El ha'Bayis Kol Yemei Hisgir Oso, Yitma Ad ha'Erev." (Vayikra 14:46)
2."veha'Shochev ba'Bayis Yechabes Es Begadav, veha'Ochel ba'Bayis Yechabes Es Begadav." (ibid. 14:47)
(d)From the first verse we learn that any person (or thing) that comes into the house becomes Tamei. The clothes that he is wearing, however, do not become Tamei. From the second verse we learn that if someone lingers in the house for the amount of time it takes to eat a Pras (half of a loaf of wheat bread) dipped in relish, while he is reclining, then even the clothes that he is wearing become Tamei.
(e)The RASH (Keilim 1:4) lists four differences between the Tum'ah of the Ohel of a Mes and the Tum'ah of a house that has Tzara'as or that has a Metzora (or an article of clothing or a stone from a house that has Tzara'as) inside of it:
1.In an Ohel ha'Mes, a person becomes Tamei even if only a bit of his body enters. In a house that has Tzara'as or has a Metzora inside it, a person becomes Tamei only when most of his body enters the house.
2.In an Ohel ha'Mes, even when entering backwards, a person becomes Tamei when only a bit of his body enters the house. In a house that has Tzara'as or that has a Metzora inside it a person becomes Tamei when entering backwards only when his entire body enters.
3.In an Ohel ha'Mes, a Mechitzah (partition) only prevents the spread of Tum'ah if it reaches the ceiling. In a house that has Tzara'as or that has a Metzora inside it, a Mechitzah of ten Tefachim in height (or even a ditch of ten Tefachim in depth) is enough to prevent the spread of Tum'ah.
4.In an Ohel ha'Mes, the house or room becomes Tamei even if the Mes is passing through it and does not stop moving. In a house that has a Metzora (or an article that has Tzara'as, as mentioned above) inside it, the people in the house become Tamei only if the Metzora stops passing through and is stationary. (TOSFOS to Yevamos 103b, DH Keivan, maintains that the people in the house do become Tamei even if the Metzora is just passing through it. However, if a Metzora or an article with Tzara'as passes under an unenclosed tree or canopy, the people under the tree or canopy do not become Tamei unless the Metzora or article with Tzara'as stops and is stationary.)
(f)A Zav (see Background to Nidah 43:13) is not Metamei b'Vi'ah at all.
22)[line 45]ומינהU'MINAH- using the reasoning of the Beraisa itself, I can prove that blood is not Metamei Mishkav and Moshav