[52a - 56 lines; 52b - 55 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara and Rashi)

[1] Rashi 52a DH va'Afilu Bnah " :

The words "l'Inyan Znus"

should be "ul'Inyan Znus"


1)[line 1]REICHANEI- aromatic spices

2)[line 5] BEN SORER U'MOREH

(a)A Ben Sorer u'Moreh is the "stubborn and rebellious son." A boy can become a Ben Sorer u'Moreh (Devarim 21:18-21) from the time that he shows signs of puberty (when two hairs grow) until he reaches a further stage of development (approximately three months later). He becomes a Ben Sorer u'Moreh if he steals money from his father, buys fifty Dinars of meat, eats it rare outside his father's property and in bad company. He must also drink half a Log of wine with the meal. It is therefore forbidden for a boy of this age to eat such a meal at any time (SEFER HA'MITZVOS, Lo Sa'aseh #195)

(b)A Ben Sorer u'Moreh is punished with Sekilah (stoning). Rebbi Yosi ha'Gelili explains that since he is pursuing worldly pleasures, he will eventually deplete all of his father's assets, and when there is nothing left, he will become a highway robber. It is better to kill him when he is young and has few sins than to let him live and die a wicked man (Sanhedrin 72a).

(c)The Gemara (Sanhedrin 68b-72a) teaches that there are additional conditions necessary to become a Ben Sorer u'Moreh, which are so numerous and intricate that it never happened and never will happen.

3)[line 6] AD SHE'YAKIF ZAKAN- until his "beard" has surrounded

4)[line 6] , HA'TACHTON V'LO HA'ELYON, ELA SHE'DIBRU CHACHAMIM BI'LESHON NEKIYAH- the lower one (i.e., his pubic hair) and not the upper one, except that the sages spoke euphemistically

5)[line 9]HA'SHACHOR- the pubic hair

6)[line 12]"" "ISH" KASUV BA'PARSHAH- the word "man" is written in the Parshah [of Yibum (Devarim 25:7), indicating that the Yavam must be an adult]

7)[line 12] , AVAL ISHAH, BEIN GEDOLAH BEIN KETANAH- Rebbi Yosi's opinion is that a Ketanah may even perform Chalitzah. All opinions agree, however, that she can perform Yibum (Mishnah Nidah 44b).

8)[line 26] CHAVROHI D'RAV KAHANA- the colleagues of Rav Kahana

9)[line 32]? DAVAR SHE'AMAR OSO TZADIK, YIKASHEL BO ZAR'O?- Could it be that the descendant of that Tzadik (Rebbi Yishmael) would stumble on the Halachah that he taught? The RAMBAN and RAN explain (arguing with RASHI) that Rebbi Yishmael's Halachah only applies to Kedushei Ta'us and not to Kedushei Ketanah. As such, the mistake of Rebbi Yishmael's daughter was that she assumed that his Halachah also applied to her case. The sages then ruled ("Nimnu v'Gamru") that even Rebbi Yishmael is of the opinion that a Ketanah can only perform Mi'un until two pubic hairs grow. Rashi explains that Rebbi Yishmael's Halachah does apply to Kedushei Ketanah (and the sages ruled against him), but the words "Yikashel Bo Zar'o" are difficult to understand. However, the Yerushalmi (Yevamos 1:2, 13:1) records this incident with regard to the daughter-in-law of Rebbi Yishmael. If so, the "Kishalon" could have occurred to Rebbi Yishmael's son, when he (almost) lost his wife because of his father's teaching.

10)[line 34]"... "" V'HI LO NISPASAH"- "... and she was not seized." (Bamidbar 5:13)

11)[line 37] KIDUSHEHA KIDUSHEI TA'US- that is, her husband was Mekadesh her with a Tenai (Rashi to Kesuvos 51b)

12)[line 37] BNAH MURKAV AL KESEIFAH- that her son is being carried on her shoulder

13)[line 44]BALSHA- (a) a military troop (RASHI); (b) a group of students (ME'IRI)

14)[line 48] HA'MAKIFOS MI'SAFAH L'SAFAH- [two hairs] that are long enough to span the width of Oso Makom

15)[line 49]GUMOS- follicles, cavities

16a)[line 50]SHPUD- a spit. A spit that was used on Yom Tov becomes Muktzah. Rav Malchiyo permits moving it indirectly to the side.

b)[line 50]SHEFACHOS- maidservants. Rav Malchiyo (or Rav Malchiya, according to Rav Papa) rules that the Halachah follows the opinion of Rebbi Eliezer quoted in the Mishnah in Kesuvos (5:5, Daf 59b), that even a bride who brings one hundred maidservants into the new household must do productive physical work, because idleness only leads to immorality.

17a)[line 51]BELURIS- the long hair grown at the back of the head by the Romans and Greeks in honor of their gods, that was offered to their gods once a year. Rav Malchiya qualified the Beraisa (Avodah Zarah 29a) explaining that the distance around the Beluris that must be left by a Jewish barber cutting an idol worshipper's hair is three Etzba'os (fingerbreadths).

b)[line 51] EFER MAKLEH- ashes of burned wood. Rav Malchiya (or Rav Malchiyo, according to Rav Papa RASHI; Rashi to Makos 21a and to Avodah Zarah 29a explains like TOSFOS here) prohibited placing Efer Makleh on a wound because of its similarity to tattooing (Makos 21a).

c)[line 51]GEVINAH- and cheese. Rav Malchiya explained (Avodah Zarah 35b) that the reason for the prohibition of the Mishnah (ibid. 29b) against cheeses made by Nochrim is because they smear pig fat on them.

18a)[line 52] SIMANA MASNISA MALKESA- the mnemonic device to know which statements were made by Rav Malchiya and which by Rav Malchiyo, is that those Halachos that are mentioned in a Misnah or Beraisa were stated by Rav Malchiya (a) and the other three Halachos were stated by Rav Malchiyo (RASHI); (b) as well as the Halachic teaching regarding Efer Makleh. Only the Halachos of Shefud and Gumos were stated by Rav Malchiyo (RASHI to Makos 21a and to Avodah Zarah 29a, TOSFOS DH Ika)

b)[line 52] MASNISA MALKESA- (lit. "the Mishnah is the queen") (a) The Mishnayos and the Beraisa'os are the more important teachings, and were authored by the sage whose name is similar to the word for "queen," Rav Malchiya; (b) The words "Mishnah" and "Beraisa" are in the feminine gender, and the name of Rav Malchiya is also similar to the feminine gender

19)[line 53] ...?LO LISHTAMIT TANA...?- Why did the Tana not "escape" and record the Halachah of Gumos?

20)[line 55]" ""ASHER BI'SE'ARAH YESHUFENI V'HIRBAH FETZA'AI CHINAM"- "For in the storm wind (this word is spelled like the word for hair in the singular) it crushes me, and He increases my wounds for no reason." (Iyov 9:17)

21)[line 55]CHEREF- he blasphemed using the word "Se'arah"


22)[line 1]" ""MIN HA'SE'ARAH"- "[And HaSh-m answered Iyov] from the storm wind / from the hair" (Iyov 38:1)

23)[line 2]NIMIN- hairs

24)[line 3]GUMA- a hair follicle (a hole in the skin from which a single hair grows)

25)[line 5] MAKCHISH ME'OR EINAV SHEL ADAM- it would darken the light of the eyes (i.e. the eyesight) of a person

26)[line 9]HA'KAF- the protrusion of flesh above the female genital area


(a)Simanim are the physical signs of maturity that confer the status of adulthood to a Jewish boy or girl with regard to their obligation in Mitzvos.

(b)From the time a child grows two pubic hairs, he is no longer considered to be a minor, and he is obligated in Mitzvos like a full-grown adult. The pubic hairs must fit certain criteria of length and location, and the child must also have reached a certain minimum age. The minimum age for a boy is twelve years, and for a girl is eleven years. If the hairs grew before the age of twelve for a boy and eleven for a girl, they are assumed to be the result of a wart or mole and not pubic hair (Nidah 46a). If they grow between the ages of twelve and thirteen for a boy, and between the ages of eleven and twelve for a girl, the Amora'im argue as to whether they confer the status of adulthood or not ("Toch Zeman k'Lifnei ha'Zeman" and "Toch Zeman k'Le'achar ha'Zeman" ibid. 45b).

(c)If, however, a person reaches the age of twenty and still has no pubic hairs, then if he has signs of a "Saris" (see Background to Nidah 47:35) or she has the signs of an "Ailonis" (see Background to Nidah 47:33), he or she is considered to be an adult.

28a)[line 11] ACHAS B'GABAH- (a) one pubic hair below her genital area (RASHI; see ARUCH LA'NER to Sanhedrin 30b); (b) one pubic hair above her genital area, on the "Kaf" (RASHBA); (c) one hair on her back (RASHBAM to Bava Basra 56b); (d) one hair on her knuckles (lit. back, referring to the back side of her fingers, where they meet the hands); if the hair has grown on the back of the hands, it is certain that she has reached puberty (RASHI to Sanhedrin 30b and to Bava Kama 70b);

b)[line 11] V'ACHAS BI'KEREISAH- (a) and one pubic hair above her genital area, on the "Kaf" (RASHI); (b) one pubic hair below her genital area (RASHBA)

29)[line 19] AD SHE'TAKIF HA'ATARAH- (a) when the Ukatz gets thicker and taller, as it is surrounded (by flesh). This refers to a stage of the development of the breasts (see Daf 47a) (MAHARSHA); (b) until there are hairs surrounding Oso Makom (RASHASH, citing NIMUKEI YOSEF to Yevamos)

30)[line 20]TECHALKEL- until much pubic hair grows

31)[line 26] , KILKUL ZEH, EINI YODE'A MAHU- I argue with the ruling that she may be Mema'enes until much pubic hair grows

32)[line 29]PARAH (PARAH ADUMAH)

(a)The Parah Adumah, an exclusively red-haired cow, is burned on Har ha'Zeisim and its ashes are used for making a person Tahor if he is Tamei Mes (Bamidbar 19:1-22). Only a cow that has not had a yoke placed upon it and has had no other work done with it is fit to be used as a Parah Adumah (Bamidbar 19:2). A cow is invalid to be used as a Parah Adumah if it has two black hairs in the same place (Parah 2:5).

(b)A place is prepared for its slaughter on Har ha'Zeisim, opposite the gate to the Azarah (the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). The Kohen Gadol and all of the Kohanim who help him in the preparation of the Parah Adumah exit from this gate. After it is slaughtered, its blood is sprinkled in the direction of the Beis ha'Mikdash seven times.

(c)Sereifas ha'Parah (burning the cow) is also performed on Har ha'Zeisim. A cedar branch, some Ezov branches and a piece of crimson wool, are thrown into the carcass of the cow while it is burning (Bamidbar 19:6).

(d)If a person (or utensil) became Tamei through touching Tum'as Mes or being in the same room as a corpse or something that is Metamei b'Ohel, he must wait seven days to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days he must have spring water mixed with the ashes of the Parah Adumah (Mei Chatas) sprinkled on him. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov branches that have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person who is Tamei. On the seventh day, he immerses in a Mikvah after the mixture is sprinkled on him in order to complete his Taharah (Bamidbar 19:17-19).

33)[line 29]NEGA'IM

See Background to Nidah 50:3.

34)[line 30] LA'CHOF ROSHAN L'IKARAN- the hairs must be long enough to bend over so that their tips touch their roots

35)[line 31] LI'KROTZ BA'TZIPOREN- to be pinched by the nails

36)[line 32] NITALOS BA'ZUG- cut with a scissors

37)[line 35] HAREI ZO MEKULKELES- this woman's situation is abnormal since she does not know when her days of Nidah end and her days of Zivah begin

38)[line 41] RA'ASAH SHENEI YAMIM V'CHALUK ECHAD- she experienced bleeding for two consecutive days and on the third day she wore a clean garment and found a stain on it

39)[line 42] LAV MI'GUFAH KA'CHAZYA- she did not experience bleeding from her body

40)[line 44]ZAKANHU- defeated them

41)[line 47] AGAV ZUHAMA DAM MA'ACHOLES HU- it is the blood of a squashed louse that was attracted to the filth [of the blood of Nidah]