1)

TOSFOS DH v'Arba'ah Leilos Mitoch Yud-Ches

תוספות ד"ה וארבעה לילות מתוך י"ח

(SUMMARY: Tosfos derives that to become a Zavah Gedolah she must see three consecutive days.)

משמע כאן בהדיא דאין נעשה זבה גדולה ולא צריכה ז' נקיים עד שתראה ג' ימים רצופין בי"א יום

(a)

Inference: This connotes that she does not become a Zavah Gedolah, and she does not need seven clean days, until she sees three consecutive days during the 11 days [of Zivah];

ודלא כאותם שכתבו בשם רבינו סעדיה שצריכה שבעה נקיים אפילו ראתה בי"א ג' ימים מפוזרים.

1.

This is unlike those who wrote in the name of Rabbeinu Sadya [Gaon] that she needs seven clean days even if she saw three scattered days among the 11.

2)

TOSFOS DH Teshamesh b'Tishsar

תוספות ד"ה תשמש בתשסר

(SUMMARY: Tosfos discusses when the 10th needs Shimur.)

וא"ת כיון דקס"ד דעשירי לא בעי שימור תקשה ליה רישא אמאי לא משמשת אלא ד' מתוך י"ח

(a)

Question #1: Since we are thinking that the 10th day does not need Shimur (guarding), we should challenge the Reisha. Why may she have relations only [the entire eighth day and the following night, and another] four [nights] of the 18 [days]?

דכי ראתה בי"ז תשמש בי"ח

1.

When she saw on the 17th (which is the 10th day of Zivah, which does not require Shimur), she should [be permitted to] have relations on the 18th!

ותו דפלוגתא היא בפרק בתרא (לקמן עב:) לרבי יוחנן עשירי בעי שימור ולר"ל לא בעי שימור

(b)

Question #2: Amora'im argue about this below (72b)! R. Yochanan says that the 10th day needs Shimur, and Reish Lakish says that it does not need Shimur!

ויש לומר דהא דקאמר רבי יוחנן עשירי בעי שימור היינו בימי זיבה שאסורה לשמש ביום י"א אפילו פסקה

(c)

Answer: R. Yochanan said that the 10th needs Shimur, i.e. during the days of Zivah. She may not have relations on the 11th, even if she ceased [seeing];

ולר"ל מותרת דעשירי כיון דאינה יכולה להיות זבה גדולה לא בעי שימור

1.

Reish Lakish permits [on the 11th]. The 10th, since it cannot [join to] make her a Zavah Gedolah, it does not need Shimur.

ולהכי ברישא ניחא דאסורה בי"ח דהוו בימי זיבה דאפילו ר"ל מודה דמדרבנן אסור

2.

Therefore, in the Reisha it is fine that the 18th is forbidden, since it is among the days of Zivah. Even Reish Lakish agrees that mid'Rabanan it is forbidden;

אבל בימי נדה סבר המקשה דאפילו רבי יוחנן מודה דלא בעי שימור ולכך פריך תשמש בתשסר

i.

However, during the days of (i.e. when blood would make her a) Nidah, the Makshan holds that even R. Yochanan holds that it does not need Shimur. Therefore he asks that she should [be permitted to] have relations on the 19th.

ומשני רב ששת גרגרן אסור דאפילו בראיית י"א צריכה שימור מדרבנן ביום י"ב לכ"ע

(d)

Answer (cont.): Rav Sheshes answered that Gargaran (one who have relations with a Shomeres Yom k'Neged Yom after Tevilah) is forbidden. Even the 11th needs Shimur mid'Rabanan on day 12 according to everyone;

ורב אשי אמר דאינו אסור אלא משום שראתה בעשירי וצריכה שימור לרבי יוחנן אף בימי נדה מן התורה כמו בימי זיבה ולר"ל מדרבנן.

1.

Rav Ashi said that it is forbidden only because she saw [also] on the 10th, and it needs Shimur according to R. Yochanan even during the days of Nidah mid'Oraisa, just like during the days of Zivah, and according to Reish Lakish, mid'Rabanan.

3)

TOSFOS DH Hani Arbeisar Havu

תוספות ד"ה הני ארביסר הוו

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains that we ask that day 26 should be forbidden.)

פ"ה דפריך אמאי משמשת יום מ"ח דשמונה חמישיים שהן טמאין הן ד' ימי זיבה וד' ימי נדה

(a)

Explanation #1 (Rashi): We ask why she may have relations on day 48. The fifth set of eight days, which are Teme'im (i.e. she sees blood then), are four days of Zivah and four days of Nidah;

ושמונה טהורין שאחריהם ג' בימי נדה וחמש בימי זיבה וג' ימים הראשונים דימי נדה לא יעלו לה לספירת זיבה דאין ימי נדה עולין לספירתה

1.

The eight Tahor days after them, three are in days of Nidah and five are in days of Zivah, and the first three days of Yemei Nidah do not count towards Sefiras Zivah (counting seven clean days), for days of Nidah do not count towards her Sefirah.

דאע"ג דאינה נדה שהרי אינה חוזרת לפתח נדתה עד שתספור ז' נקיים

2.

Implied question: She is not a Nidah, for she does not return to Pesach Nidah (a state in which the next blood she sees makes her a Nidah) until she counts seven clean days!

מ"מ כיון דבימים הראוים לימי נדה הן אין עולין לספירת זיבתה

(b)

Answer: In any case, since the days are proper to be days of Nidah, they do not count towards Sefirah of her Zivah.

וקשה לפירוש זה דא"כ תקשה ליה רישא דקתני משמשת רביע ימיה מתוך כ"ח

(c)

Question #1: According to this, if so, we should challenge him from the Reisha, which taught that [if she alternates seven days of blood, and seven clean days,] she may have relations on a quarter of her days amidst the 28;

הלא ז' שלישיים שהן טמאין היו ד' בימי זיבה וג' בימי נדה וא"כ ז' ימים טהורין שאחריהם לא יעלו לספירת זיבתה

1.

The third set of seven, which are Teme'im, four are during the days of Zivah, and three are during the days of Nidah. If so, the seven Tahor days after them will not count for Sefiras Zivah [since four are during the days of Nidah]!

והיאך תחזור חלילה מכ"ח לכ"ח דאסורה לשמש בז' ימים טהורין של כ"ח שניים

i.

How does she return to a cycle of 28 days? She is forbidden to have relations during the [first] seven Tahor days of the second [cycle of] 28 days! (She must count them for Sefirah of her Zivah.)

ועוד קשה דמשמע דאי הוה תני ומשמשת י"ד הוה ניחא ליה

(d)

Question #2: It connotes that had it taught [in the Seifa, regarding one who alternates eight Tamei days, and eight clean days,] that she may have relations 14 days [from every 48], it would be fine;

והא עד ס"ג יום לא יעלו לה ז' לספירתה כדפירש"י וא"כ היאך חוזרת חלילה ממ"ח למ"ח

1.

She will not fulfill Sefirah of her Zivah until 63 days, like Rashi explained. If so, how does she return to a cycle of 48 days?

לכן נראה דה"פ הני י"ד הוו דבח' רביעיות אינה משמשת רק ו' דהא ח' שלישיים שהיו טמאים היו ב' בימי זיבה וששה אחריהן ימי נדה

(e)

Explanation #2: Therefore, it seems that it means that as follows. There are 14 [permitted] days, because in the fourth set of eight days she may have relations only on six days, for the third set of eight days, which are Teme'im, two are in days of Zivah, and six after them are days of Nidah;

ויום ראשון מרביעיות שהן טהורין לא תשמש דהוי מז' ימי נדה

1.

The first day (25) of the fourth [set of eight days], which are Tehorim, she may not have relations, for it is among the seven days of Nidah;

ויום שני נמי לא תשמש לרב אשי דאמר לעיל עשירי בעי שימור והרי יום שני הוה שימור ליום י"ז שהוא עשירי

2.

Also on the second day, she may not have relations, according to Rav Ashi, who said above that the 10th needs Shimur, and the second day is Shimur for day 17, which is the 10th [day of Zivah].

ויום ראשון אע"ג דטהור הוי

(f)

Implied question: The first [of these eight days] was Tahor! (It should be Shimur for day 10.)

סבר המקשה דלא הוי שימור כיון דהוי מימי נדה וימים שהיא נדה גמורה אינן עולין לספירת זיבה קטנה

(g)

Answer: The Makshan holds that it is not Shimur, since it is among the days of Nidah, and days of absolute Nidah do not count towards Sefiras Zivah Ketanah. (She truly became Nidah on day 19);

אבל מיום מ"ח לא פריך דכיון דאינה נדה גמורה עד שתספור ז' נקיים עולין לה שפיר לכ"ע אע"פ שהן ראויין לימי נדה

1.

However, we do not ask from day 48, since she is not a total Nidah until she counts seven clean days. All agree that [the clean days before it] properly count for her [Sefirah], even though they are proper to be days of Nidah.

ולכך ניחא ליה רישא דמשמשת רביע ימיה מתוך כ"ח

(h)

Support: This is why the Reisha was not difficult. [If she alternates seven Tamei days, and seven clean days,] she may have relations on a quarter of her days amidst the 28.

ומה שפרש"י דעד ס"ג לא ישלמו ימי ספירה (הגהת בארות המים) נראה דלא דק דאינה טובלת עד ליל פ'

(i)

Question: Rashi explained that she will not complete Sefirah until 63 days. This is not precise. She may not immerse until the 80th night!

שהרי ח' ימים שביעיים הם ששה ימי זיבה ושני ימי נדה ושמיניים הטהורים הן ה' בימי נדה וג' בימי זיבה

1.

The seventh set of eight days, six are days of Zivah, and two are days of Nidah. The eighth [set of eight days], which are Tehorim, five are days of Nidah, and three are days of Zivah;

ותשיעיים הטמאות כל ח' ימי זיבה והעשיריים ז' לספירת נקיים.

2.

The ninth [set of eight days] are Teme'im. All eight are days of Zivah. The 10th [set of eight days], seven are clean days of Sefirah. (After them, on night 80, she may immerse.)

4)

TOSFOS DH ul'Mai

תוספות ד"ה ולמאי

(SUMMARY: Tosfos points out that if R. Tam held like Rashi, sometimes seven clean days would not suffice for women nowadays.)

דמשוה (הגהת מהר"ב רנשבורג) הש"ס ימי לידה וימי נדה

(a)

Implied question: Since the Gemara equates Yemei Leidah and Yemei Nidah...

1.

Note: Rav Ada bar Yitzchak concluded that Yemei Nidah [in which she does not see] count for Sefiras Zivah, and the Gemara connects this to the question of whether Yemei Leidah, in which she does not see, count. Also on 37a, a Beraisa says that the Torah equates them. However, one opinion there says that this is only according to R. Eliezer, who learns the impossible from the possible.

i.

Note: The Bach and Maharam say that this is not a new Dibur. It is a continuation of the previous Dibur.

א"כ לר"ת דפסק דימי לידתה שאינה רואה בהן אין עולין לספירת זיבתה

2.

If so, according to R. Tam, who ruled (above, 37a DH Abaye) that Yemei Leidah in which she does not see [blood] do not count for Sefiras Zivah...

i.

Note: Our Sugya connotes that they count! Rav Ada bar Yitzchak derived from the Beraisa that Yemei Nidah count. The Gemara did not give another explanation of the Beraisa! Rav Huna brei d'Rav Yehoshua proved that Yemei Leidah count. Rav Papa rejected his proof, but Rav Huna refuted his rejection, and Rav Papa did not answer this! Even so, Tosfos relies on the Gemara's explicit Pesak like Abaye in Ya'AL KeGaM, and according to R. Tam, the "Lamed" refers to Yemei Leidah, i.e. that they do not count. Perhaps the Gemara accepts Abaye's proof from the Beraisos there, and rejects Rava's rebuttals, and they override the Beraisos here that Rav Ada and Rav Huna rely on.

(הגהת מהר"ם) ולפרש"י דימים הראויים לימי נדה אין עולין אין תקנה לנשים בזמן הזה דהוי כלהון ספק זבות וצריכות ז' נקיים ופעמים דקיימי בימים הראויים לנדה ולא עלו לה לספירתה

3.

And according to Rashi, who says that days proper to be days of Nidah do not count, if so, there is no solution for women nowadays, that they are all [stringent to consider themselves] Safek Zavos, and they need seven clean days, and sometimes they are in days proper to be days of Nidah, and they do not count for her Sefirah!

i.

Note: Surely, they have a solution, i.e. to count 14 consecutive clean days. At most seven are proper for Nidah, so seven count for Sefiras Zivah! Tosfos means that they have no solution through counting only seven clean days (Aruch l'Ner). Maharam deleted "and the same applies" from the text, for there is no question against Rashi himself. Rashi rules that Yemei Leidah count, like Tosfos says below, so also Yemei Nidah count! Rashash and Aruch l'Ner defend the original text. They explain that now Tosfos assumes that Rashi rules like R. Tam, and the problem is even more extensive according to Rashi. Below, Tosfos answers that Rashi rules unlike R. Tam.

ומיהו לפירוש רש"י אתי שפיר דהוא פסק דימי לידה עולין לימי ספירתה

(b)

Answer: However, according to Rashi, this is fine. He rules that Yemei Leidah count for her Sefirah;

1.

Note: Rashi did not explicitly rule like this, but he explains that the "Lamed" of Ya'AL KeGaM refers to a Lechi, so he has no source to rule like Abaye. Even if the rule that "everywhere else, the Halachah follows Rava against Abaye" does not apply here, because also others argue about this, our Sugya connotes that the days count.

ולר"ת נמי ימי נדה דווקא אין עולין אבל ימים הראויין עולין שפיר.

2.

Also according to R. Tam, only days of Nidah do not count, but days proper [for days of Nidah] count.

i.

Note: Still, R. Tam leads to a big stringency. If a woman sees blood today, perhaps the next six days are truly days of Nidah, so even if they are clean, she may not start counting her clean days until the eighth day. R. Tam did not explicitly teach this stringency. Tosfos inferred it! Perhaps R. Tam was not stringent, due to mi'Mah Nafshach: if she is not a Zavah Gedolah, she needs at most one clean day (i.e. if she was a Shomeres Yom k'Neged Yom), and at least one of the seven clean days she counts is not a day of Nidah. And if she is a Zavah Gedolah, the blood she saw today does not make her a Nidah, so the coming days are not truly days of Nidah! (PF)

54b----------------------------------------54b

5)

TOSFOS DH Ela Shma Minah Olin Shma Minah

תוספות ד"ה אלא ש"מ עולין ש"מ

(SUMMARY: Tosfos justifies the inference.)

וטעמא דרב הונא בריה דרב יהושע אע"ג דהוי ספק ספקא

(a)

Implied question: What is Rav Huna brei d'Rav Yehoshua's reason? It is a Sefek-Sefeka! (Perhaps she was not Yoledes, and even if she was Yoledes, perhaps it was a male. How can he infer that the days count when there is no Safek? Aruch l'Ner discusses whether we may rely on this Sefek-Sefeka, for there is a contradictory Sefek-Sefeka.)

מ"מ אי בעלמא אין עולין הכא נמי הוה לן למגזר אטו בעלמא.

(b)

Answer: In any case, if normally they do not count, also here we should have decreed due to a regular case.

6)

TOSFOS DH v'Chen l'Me'ah v'Chen l'Elef

תוספות ד"ה וכן למאה וכן לאלף

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains why the two counts are the same.)

ימי שמושה כימי (הגהת הב"ח) זיבתה

(a)

Explanation: The days relations are permitted are like (the same number as) her days of Zivah;

דמאחר ז' ימי נדה כל הימים שתראה אפילו מאה או אלף מקרו ימי זיבתה עד שתספור ז' נקיים.

1.

After the seven days of Nidah, all the days she sees, even (e.g. in all) 100 or 1000, are called Yemei Zivasah, until she counts seven clean days. (Afterwards she is permitted 93 or 993 days, like Yemei Zavasah.)

7)

TOSFOS DH Dam ha'Nidah, Minah Hani Mili

תוספות ד"ה דם הנדה, מנא הני מילי

(SUMMARY: Tosfos discusses whether we can learn from Zov from Dam Nidah.)

לרבא דאמר בפ' בנות כותים (לעיל לה.) לאחרים גורם טומאה לעצמו לא כ"ש ולית ליה דשעיר המשתלח יוכיח הכא לא צריך קרא

(a)

Explanation: According to Rava, who said above (35a) "if it causes Tum'ah to others, all the more so it itself is Tamei!", and he holds that Se'ir ha'Mishtale'ach is not Yochi'ach (does not disprove this), here we do not need a verse;

ומיהו לדם נדה של מצורעת אצטריך שפיר קרא דהדם אינו גורם טומאה

1.

However, for Dam Nidah of a Metzora'as, we properly need a verse, for the blood does not cause Tum'ah.

ולקמן דמצריך קרא לטומאת זובו במגע ובמשא ולא יליף מדם הנדה דהכא משום דאיכא למפרך מה לדם הנדה שכן מטמא באונס

2.

Below, we require a verse for Tum'ah of his Zov through Maga and Masa, and we do not learn from Dam Nidah here, for one can ask that [we cannot learn from it, for] Dam Nidah is Metamei through Ones.

ואם תאמר וכיון דלא ילפינן מהכא אמאי אצטריך לקמן קרא למעוטי זוב יבש מהיכא תיתי לטמא

(b)

Question: Since we do not learn from here, below why do we need a verse to exclude dry Zov? What would be the source to be Metamei?

ויש לומר כיון דהשוה הכתוב דם נדה וזוב לטומאה ממילא ילפינן מהדדי דגילוי מילתא בעלמא הוא.

(c)

Answer: Since the Torah equated Dam Nidah and Zov for Tum'ah, automatically we learn them from each other, for it is a mere Giluy Milsa.

8)

TOSFOS DH v'Su Ha d'Tanan ha'Mapeles v'Chulei

תוספות ד"ה ותו הא דתנן המפלת כו'

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains how this adds to the first question.)

תימה דהיינו ההיא קושיא גופיה

(a)

Question: This is the same question!

וי"ל דה"ק וכ"ת דאין הכי נמי דיבש מעיקרא טהור והתנן המפלת כו'

(b)

Answer #1: It means as follows. If you will say that indeed, what is dry from the beginning is Tahor, a Mishnah [disproves this, for it says that] one who miscarries...

אי נמי י"ל ותו יבש משונה כמין יבחושין או כמין קליפה מנלן.

(c)

Answer #2: We ask further, extraordinary dry [blood], like the form of mosquitoes (or worms) or shells, what is the source [that they are Teme'im]?

9)

TOSFOS DH Yachol Tehei Even Menuga'as v'Chulei

תוספות ד"ה יכול תהא אבן מנוגעת כו'

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains why we need a verse.)

אבן מנוגעת שמטמאה בביאה כו'

(a)

Explanation: An Even Menuga'as (rock from a house with Tzara'as), which is Metamei through entering [a room]...

וא"ת מת יוכיח שמטמא בביאה ואינו עושה משכב ומושב

(b)

Question #1: A Mes disproves this! It is Metamei through entering, but it does not make a Mishkav u'Moshav!

ועוד מצורע גופיה מפרש ר"ת בריש אלו דברים (פסחים דף סז:) דלא עביד משכב ומושב אלא לטמא אוכלין ומשקין

(c)

Question #2: A Metzora himself, R. Tam explains in Pesachim (67b) that he makes a Mishkav u'Moshav only to be Metamei food and drink!

ויש לומר דמקרא דהכא ממעטינן להו הזב ולא המצורע ולא המת.

(d)

Answer: From the verse here we exclude them. A Zav [makes a Mishkav u'Moshav to be Metamei people], but a Metzora or Mes does not.

10)

TOSFOS DH Af Madveh Nami Metamei b'Even Misma (pertains to the coming Daf)

תוספות ד"ה אף מדוה נמי מטמא באבן מסמא (שייך לדף הבא)

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains why we needed an exclusion for this.)

ואם תאמר כיון דממעטינן מדוה מהיא מלטמא (הגהת הב"ח) משכב ומושב ממעטינן נמי מאבן מסמא

(a)

Question: Since from "Hi", we exclude from Madveh from being Metamei Mishkav u'Moshav, we should exclude also from Even Misma!

דהא מכח משכב ומושב הוי טומאה לאבן מסמא כדתנן בת"כ

1.

Tum'as Even Misma is due to Mishkav u'Moshav, like it teaches in Toras Kohanim;

מנין לרבות עשר מצעות זו על גב זו ועל גביהן אבן מסמא תלמוד לומר כל המשכב

i.

Citation (Toras Kohanim): What is the source to include 10 mattresses, one on top of another, and an Even Misma is on them? We learn from "Kol ha'Mishkav"!

ואור"י דאבן מסמא נפקא לן משום דרשא דלא מטמא אלא אוכלין ומשקין ולהכי איצטריך למעוטי מדוה אף מבאבן מסמא שהיא טומאה קלה.

(b)

Answer (Ri): From some Drashah, we learn that Even Misma is Metamei [a Mishkav or Moshav to be Metamei] only food and drink. Therefore, we need to exclude Madveh even from Even Misma, which is light Tum'ah.

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