[72a - 48 lines; 72b - 48 lines]
1)[line 3]מאי טעמא?MAI TAIMA?- What is the source? (a) According to the Lishna Kama of RASHI to Daf 71a, DH Kotzrin Mipnei ha'Neti'os (see Background to Menachos 71:17:a), this question refers to only Beis ha'Evel and Beis ha'Midrash. The source for Neti'os is brought on Daf 71a, that it is permitted to cut the grain that is unfit to use for the Minchas ha'Omer; (b) according to the Lishna Acharina ibid. (see Background to Menachos 71:17:b) this question also refers to Neti'os (RASHI)
2)[line 6]לא טרחינןLO TARCHINAN- we do not toil (that is, (a) we do not toil to reap in the normal way, as a Shinuy (RABEINU GERSHOM); (b) since the reaping is only permitted for the purpose of a Mitzvah, therefore it is not proper to toil to tie up bundles in the normal way that grain is harvested; it will look like "Ketziras Reshus," reaping for one's private purposes — KEREN ORAH, cited by YOSEF DA'AS)
3)[line 7]"וְאִם תַּקְרִיב מִנְחַת בִּכּוּרִים ...""V'IM TAKRIV MINCHAS BIKURIM ..."- "And when you bring a Minchah that is a first-offering" (Vayikra 2:14) - This verse commands Benei Yisrael to bring the Minchas ha'Omer.
4)[line 14]שאם נקצר ביוםSHE'IM NIKTZAR BA'YOM- if it was reaped during the day (and for the purpose of this Halachah, which is b'Di'eved, it makes no difference whether it was reaped during the day of the sixteenth, the fifteenth, the fourteenth, etc. — see TOSFOS DH Af)
5)[line 16]מ''מMI'KOL MAKOM- from any place, even far from Yerushalayim (RASHI)
6)[line 19]ולהקטיר חלבים ואבריםUL'HAKTIR CHALAVIM V'EIVARIM (HEKTER CHALAVIM V'EIVARIM)
Most of the Avodos of the Korbanos of the Beis ha'Mikdash were performed during the day. The main Avodos of animal Korbanos are Shechitah (slaughtering), Zerikas ha'Dam (casting the blood on the Mizbe'ach) and placing upon the bonfire of the Mizbe'ach the Chalavim (certain fats) and Eivarim (limbs), depending on the specific Korban. When many Korbanos were offered in a single day, as long as the Zerikas ha'Dam was performed before nightfall, the Korban was Kosher. The Chalavim and Eivarim could then be placed on the bonfire throughout the night, until dawn.
7)[line 25]ונטמאתV'NITMEIS- and it became Tamei (while he was holding the Minchas ha'Omer)
8)[line 27]הוי פקחHEVEI PIKE'ACH- be wise
9)[line 33]כל מלאכה שאפשר לו לעשותה מערב שבת אינה דוחה את השבתKOL MELACHAH SHE'EFSHAR LO LA'ASOSAH ME'EREV SHABBOS EINAH DOCHAH ES HA'SHABBOS- any Melachah that it is possible to perform on Erev Shabbos does not Docheh ("push aside") Shabbos (see Mishnah Shabbos 130a and SHULCHAN ARUCH OC 331:6)
10)[line 35]קצירת העומר מצוהKETZIRAS HA'OMER MITZVAH- reaping the barley for the Minchas ha'Omer is a Mitzvah, and if the sixteenth falls on a Shabbos, the reaping is Docheh Shabbos
11)[line 36]מה חריש רשות, אף קציר רשות; יצא קציר העומר שהיא מצוהMAH CHARISH RESHUS, AF KATZIR RESHUS; YATZA KETZIR HA'OMER SHE'HI MITZVAH - just as plowing is optional, so, too, is reaping optional; this excludes the reaping of the Omer, which is a Mitzvah
(a)One of the verses that commands us regarding Shabbos observance singles out two specific Melachos of Shabbos. The verse states, "... be'Charish uva'Katzir Tishbos." - "[Six days you shall work, but on the seventh day you shall rest;] in plowing and in harvesting you shall rest." (Shemos 34:21)
(b)The Tana'im (Rosh Hashanah 9a) argue as to the reason why these Melachos are specified. Rebbi Yishmael, whose opinion is recorded in our Gemara, compares reaping to plowing with regard to the fact that they do not push aside the Halachos of Shabbos, as follows: There is no Mitzvah mid'Oraisa to plow. Hence, the verse must be teaching us that just as plowing is optional, so, too, is reaping optional; this excludes the reaping of the Omer, which is a Mitzvah.
12)[line 43]תקועTEKO'A- a place in Nachalas Asher know for the quality of its oil. It is postulated that it was located on the mountain across from Meron, in a place called Charvas Shama, where Jewish ruins were found
13)[line 43]היינו מעלין לוHAYINU MA'ALIN LO- we would bring up to him
14)[line 44]שמןSHEMEN- oil
15)[line 44]אלונטיתALONTIS- a towel
16)[line 44]מחצר לגג ומגג לקרפיף ומקרפיף לקרפיף אחרME'CHATZER L'GAG UME'GAG L'KARPIF UME'KARPIF L'KARPIF ACHER (ECHAD GAGOS V'ECHAD KARPIFOS V'ECHAD CHATZEIROS RESHUS ACHAS HEN)
(a)King Shlomo decreed that transferring objects from a Reshus ha'Yachid owned by one person or group to a Reshus ha'Yachid owned by another person or group is forbidden, unless an Eruv Chatzeiros is created on Friday, before Shabbos begins (Shabbos 14b, Eruvin 21b).
(b)Besides houses, there are three categories of Reshus ha'Yachid: Gagos (privately owned roofs), Chatzeiros (jointly owned courtyards) and Karpifos (private fenced-in areas that are used for storage or corrals, but not lived in). Tana'im argue as to whether it is permitted to carry from one of these types of Reshus ha'Yachid to another, even if they have different owners. Rebbi Meir (Mishnah Eruvin 89a) rules that it is prohibited to transfer between these different types of Reshuyos. Rabanan (ibid., and Gemara 91a) prohibit transferring from a Karpaf to one of the other two, and Rebbi Shimon (ibid.) rules that it is permitted to transfer between these Reshuyos. (All of these opinions agree that it is prohibited to carry from houses to courtyards or Karpifos, or to roofs and houses owned by another person, since houses are used on a very regular basis and are therefore considered separate from all other Reshuyos ha'Yachid. — Rashi to Eruvin 91a DH v'Karpifos.)
(c)The above argument only applies to utensils that were in a roof, courtyard, or Karpaf when Shabbos begins. Utensils that were in a house when Shabbos begins and were taken out on Shabbos to a Chatzer through the use of an Eruv Chatzeiros, may not be transferred to one of the other two Reshuyos even according to Rebbi Shimon.
17a)[line 16]שנאמר בהן "במועדו"; במועדו ואפילו בשבתSHE'NE'EMAR BAHEN "B'MO'ADO"; B'MO'ADO V'AFILU B'SHABBOS...- in which it states the word "b'Mo'ado"; b'Mo'ado [means that the Korban should be sacrificed] even on Shabbos... (With regard to Pesach, the word b'Mo'ado appears in Bamidbar 9:2; with regard to the Korban Tamid, in Bamidbar 28:2)
b)[line 16]"[וְיַעֲשׂוּ בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת הַפָּסַח] בְּמוֹעֲדוֹ.""[... ES HA'PASACH] B'MO'ADO."- "[Bnei Yisrael shall offer the Pesach] at its set time." (Bamidbar 9:2) - This verse refers to the Korban Pesach.
c)[line 16]"[... תִּשְׁמְרוּ לְהַקְרִיב לִי] בְּמוֹעֲדוֹ.""[... TISHMERU L'HAKRIV LI] B'MO'ADO."- "[... you shall guard in order to offer it to Me] at its set time." (Bamidbar 28:2) - This verse refers to the Korban Tamid.
18a)[line 20]והקרב עמוVEHA'KAREV IMO- and that which is offered with it, i.e. the lamb that is offered along with the Minchas ha'Omer (Vayikra 23:12)
b)[line 20]והקרב עמהןVEHA'KAREV IMAHEN- and that which is offered with them, i.e. the lambs that are offered along with the Shtei ha'Lechem (Vayikra 23:20)
19a)[line 23]טחינהTECHINAH- grinding
b)[line 24]הרקדהHARKADAH- sifting
20)[line 26]תנור מקדשTANUR MEKADESH- the oven of the Beis ha'Mikdash consecrates the Shtei ha'Lechem
21)[line 27]לינהLINAH (PESULEI KORBAN: LINAH)
Linah is the term used when any parts of the Korbanos were not placed on the Mizbe'ach until the following morning. They become disqualified and may never be placed on the Mizbe'ach. Nosar, a type of Linah, defines parts of Korbanos that were not eaten during their allotted time (see Background to Menachos 46:18), that become disqualified and may never be eaten. Our Sugya refers to the Shtei ha'Lechem, which, had they been baked and consecrated before the day of Shavu'os, would be disqualified by Linah.
22)[line 28]לשמןLISHMAN- for their sake
23)[line 30]קדוש ואינו קדושKADOSH V'EINO KADOSH- see Background to Menachos 47:4
24a)[line 32]הוקבעוHUKBE'U- they (the Shtei ha'Lechem and the Kivsei Atzeres) become "bound" to each other (when the Kivsei Atzeres are slaughtered Lishman and the Zerikas ha'Dam is performed Lishman) (a) such that the Shtei ha'Lechem cannot be offered with any other animals as Kivsei Atzeres (RASHI); (b) such that the Shtei ha'Lechem become disqualified if they leave the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash (TOSFOS to Menachos 46a DH v'Eizo)
b)[line 32]לא הוקבעוLO HUKBE'U- they (the Shtei ha'Lechem and the Kivsei Atzeres) do not become "bound" to each other (when the Kivsei Atzeres are slaughtered Lishman and the Zerikas ha'Dam is performed she'Lo Lishman), but they become consecrated in the oven
PEREK #7 ELU MENACHOS NIKMATZOS
25a)[line 34]מנחת הסלתMINCHAS HA'SOLES (MENACHOS / MINCHAS HA'SOLES)
(a)The Torah records five types of Minchas Nedavah, voluntary flour offerings (Vayikra 2:1-13). They are: Minchas Soles, Minchas Chalos, Minchas Rekikin, Minchas Machavas and Minchas Marcheshes.
(b)All of these Menachos require one Log of olive oil and a Kometz of Levonah. The oil is used in the kneading and the baking of the flour. A Kometz (separating a handful of the Minchah in a process called Kemitzah - see Background to Menachos 2:1:I:b) of the Minchah itself is burned on the Mizbe'ach, and the Sheyarei ha'Minchah are eaten in the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash by male Kohanim (since they have the status of Kodshei ha'Kodashim).
(c)The Minchas Soles is the only Minchah in which the Kometz is removed before the Minchah is baked (hence the Minchah is still in the state of Soles, fine flour, from which this Minchah receives its name). The oil and flour are mixed and Levonah is placed on one side of the mixture, and then the Kohen performs HAGASHAH, KEMITZAH and HAKTARAH. In Hagashah, the owner brings the Minchah to a Kohen who touches the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach with the utensil that contains the Minchah. In Kemitzah, the Kohen removes a Kometz from the Minchah, puts it into another utensil and places the Kometz of Levonah upon it. In Haktarah, the Kohen walks up to the top of the Mizbe'ach, salts the Kometz and burns it on the bonfire. The Sheyarei ha'Minchah are eaten by the Kohanim before the following sunrise (Vayikra 2:1).
(a)See above, entry #25a:a-b.
(b)The Minchas Machavas consists of ten Matzos baked in an oven on a pan called a Machavas, which has ten raised sections. The portions of dough lie on the elevated parts of the pan so that most of the olive oil drains off, causing the dough to bake into brittle Matzos. Levonah is added, Hagashah, Kemitzah and Haktarah are performed (see above, entry #25a:c). The Sheyarei ha'Minchah are eaten by the Kohanim (Vayikra 2:5).
(a)See above, entry #25a:a-b.
(b)The Minchas Marcheshes consists of ten Matzos baked in an oven in a pan called a Marcheshes, which has ten deep sections filled with olive oil. The portions of dough lie in the deep parts of the pan and are baked in the olive oil, causing the dough to bake into soft Matzos. Levonah is added, and Hagashah, Kemitzah and Haktarah are performed (see above, entry #25a:c). The Sheyarei ha'Minchah are eaten by the Kohanim (Vayikra 2:7).
26)[line 35]החלות והרקיקיןHA'CHALOS VEHA'REKIKIN (MINCHAS MA'AFEH TANUR)
(a)See above, entry #25a:a-b.
(b)The Minchas Chalos is one type of Minchas Ma'afeh Sanur, the Menachos that are baked upon the floor of a metal oven without a pan. A dough of flour and oil is kneaded with lukewarm water (TOSFOS to Menachos 47a DH Minchas, RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 12:21, CHAZON ISH Menachos 34:1). It is then divided into ten Chalos (which are not Chametz) and baked. Next, the Chalos are folded and broken into pieces (Pesisah). Levonah is added, and Hagashah, Kemitzah and Haktarah are performed (see above, entry #25a:c). The Sheyarei ha'Minchah are eaten by the Kohanim (Vayikra 2:4).
(c)The Minchas Rekikin is the other type of Michas Ma'afeh Sanur. It differs from the Minchas Chalos in that the Rekikin are smeared with oil after the baking, before the Pesisah. Otherwise, its preparation is exactly like the Minchas Chalos (Vayikra 2:4).
27)[line 35]מנחת עובדי כוכביםMINCHAS OVDEI KOCHAVIM
A voluntary Korban Minchah that is brought by a Nochri is exactly the same as a voluntary Korban Minchah of a Jew (see above, entries #25-26). This is the opinion quoted in the Mishnah, which the Gemara shows (Daf 73b) is the opinion of Rebbi Yosi ha'Gelili. Rebbi Akiva argues, stating that the only Korbanos that Nochrim may offer are Korbenos Olah. The RAMBAM (Peirush ha'Mishnayos 5:3) rules according to the opinion of Rebbi Akiva, that Nochrim may not offer any Korbanos except for Olos Behemah, which are entirely burned upon the Mizbe'ach.
28)[line 35]מנחת נשיםMINCHAS NASHIM
A voluntary Korban Minchah that is brought by a woman is exactly the same as a voluntary Korban Minchah of a man (see above, entries #25-26).
29)[line 35]מנחת העומרMINCHAS HA'OMER
(a)There is a Mitzvah to bring the Minchas ha'Omer on the second day of Pesach. A large quantity of barley is reaped after nightfall after the first day of Pesach. At this time the grain is still moist, and the process of extracting one Omer (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of fine barley flour is extremely difficult. The flour is baked and offered on the 16th of Nisan. It is also referred to as the Minchas Bikurim — Vayikra 2:14-16). Levonah is added, and Tenufah (waving portions of Korbanos, see Background to Sanhedrin 82:60), Hagashah, Kemitzah and Haktarah are performed (see above, entry #1a:c).
(b)The Sheyarei ha'Minchah, also called the Mosar ha'Omer, are eaten by the Kohanim. In addition, a lamb is offered as an Olah, as it states in Vayikra 23:12. The Minchas ha'Omer is the first offering of the new grain of the year (Chadash). Until it is offered, there is a prohibition to eat Chadash (Kidushin 37a, RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 10:2), which is removed after it is offered.
30)[line 36]מנחת חוטאMINCHAS CHOTEI (KORBAN OLEH V'YORED B'DALEI DALUS)
(a)A person brings a Korban Oleh v'Yored to atone for sins in three specific cases: Shevu'as ha'Edus (see Background to Shevuos 30:1), Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (see Background to Shevuos 2:2) and Shevu'as Bituy (see Background to Shevuos 2:1).
(b)What constitutes a Korban Oleh v'Yored varies based on the means of the penitent. If he is wealthy, he brings a female sheep or goat as a Chatas (Korban Ashir). If he cannot afford this, he brings two Torim or two Benei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas (Korban Oleh v'Yored b'Dalus). If he cannot even afford the birds, he brings one tenth of an Eifah of fine flour as a Minchas Chotei (Korban Oleh v'Yored b'Dalei Dalus). (Vayikra 5:6-13)
(c)The Minchas Chotei is not mixed with oil, and Levonah (frankincense) is not sprinkled on top of it (Vayikra 5:11). When a non-Kohen brings a Minchas Chotei, a Kometz of the flour alone is burned on the Mizbe'ach and the Kohanim receive the Shirayim (the rest of the flour, which they must eat before the following sunrise — RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 10:7).
31)[line 36]מנחת קנאותMINCHAS KENA'OS (SOTAH)
(a)A Sotah is a woman who is suspected of committing adultery because she was warned by her husband not to seclude herself with a certain man and she violated the warning. The process of warning her in front of witnesses is called Kinuy. The witnesses who see her seclude herself with the suspected adulterer are called Eidei Stirah. The time of seclusion must be at least for the time that it takes to roast an egg and swallow it. The woman is forbidden to her husband and the alleged adulterer until she drinks Mei Sotah (see (d), below). If she committed adultery after not heeding the warning of two witnesses, she is put to death by Chenek (choking), as it states in the Torah (Devarim 22:22). One witness to adultery ("Ed Tum'ah) prevents her from drinking the Mei Sotah.
(b)After Kinuy and Stirah, the husband must bring his wife to the Beis ha'Mikdash to perform the ceremony of the Mei Sotah. On the way there, Beis Din appoints two Torah scholars to accompany them to make sure that they do not engage in marital relations, which are forbidden to them. Moreover, if the couple does have marital relations at this point, the Mei Sotah will not work, since the husband must be "Menukeh me'Avon," clear (lit. cleaned) of sin for the ceremony to work. The Gemara (Sotah 47b) explains that this means that he did not have relations with his wife from the time that she became prohibited to him, or with any other woman (ever) who was prohibited to him (RASHI to Sotah ibid.)
(c)The husband brings a sacrifice consisting of 1/10 of an Eifah (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of barley flour as a Minchah offering. Oil and Levonah are not added (Bamidbar 5:15), and Hagashah, Kemitzah and Haktarah are performed (as above, entry #1a:c). The Sheyarei ha'Minchah are eaten by the Kohanim. In the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash, a Kohen reads Parshas Sotah, the portion of the Torah describing the curses with which a Sotah is cursed, out loud (in any language that the Sotah understands) and makes the Sotah swear that she has been faithful to her husband.
(d)An earthenware jug is then filled with half a Lug of water from the Kiyor, and dirt from the floor of the Azarah is placed on top of the water. Parshas Sotah (that contains numerous appearances of Hash-m's name) is written on parchment and then immersed in the water, which causes the ink to dissolve, erasing the Holy Names. The Sotah afterwards drinks from the water. If she was unfaithful to her husband and allowed herself to become defiled, the water would enter her body and poison her, causing her belly to swell out and her thigh to rupture. If she was faithful to her husband, she remained unharmed and would be blessed that she would become pregnant (Bamidbar 5:11-31). In times when there is no Mei Sotah such as in the present day, a Sotah must be divorced and does not receive her Kesuvah.
32)[line 36]מנחת חוטא של כהניםMINCHAS CHOTEI SHEL KOHANIM
A Korban Minchas Chotei (see above, entry #30) that is brought by a Kohen does not need Kemitzah (but Rebbi Shimon argues). The entire Minchah is burned on the Mizbe'ach. This is learned from the verse, "v'Chol Minchas Kohen, Kalil Tiheyeh, Lo Se'achel." - "And every meal-offering of a Kohen shall be entirely offered; it shall not be eaten" (Vayikra 6:16).
33)[line 37]כל היכא דתנן, עשר תנןKOL HEICHA DI'TENAN, ESER TENAN- (a) in every Mishnah (specifically our Mishnah, the Mishnah on Daf 59a and the Mishnah on Daf 60a) [in which the five voluntary Menachos are] taught, it is taught [that they consist of] ten [baked Matzos] (RASHI to Daf 59a DH Kol Heicha, 1st explanation, RASHI KESAV YAD to Menachos 76a. However, it is apparent from RASHI to Menachos 74b DH Minchas Soles and RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 13:10 that the Minchas Soles is not baked into ten Matzos, but rather the remainder of the flour is given to the Kohanim to bake in any fashion); (b) in every Mishnah (specifically our Mishnah, the Mishnah on Daf 59a and the Mishnah on Daf 60a) [in which a list of Menachos are] taught, the Mishnah [first] teaches [a list of] ten [Menachos] (RASHI to Daf 59a DH Kol Heicha, 2nd explanation)
34)[line 38]מחצה חלות ומחצה רקיקין, יביאMECHETZAH CHALOS U'MECHATZAH REKIKIN, YAVI- (a) one may bring a Minchas Ma'afeh Sanur that consists of ten Matzos, where part of them are Chalos and part of them are Rekikin (according to the Tana Kama, one may only bring either ten Chalos or ten Rekikin) (RASHI to Daf 59a DH l'Afukei, 1st explanation); (b) [since] one may bring a Minchas Ma'afeh Sanur that consists of ten Matzos, where 1. part of them are Chalos and part of them are Rekikin [or 2. they are all Chalos or 3. they are all Rekikin, (i) there are eleven Menachos that require Shemen and Levonah (according to the Tana Kama, there are ten) (RASHI to Daf 59a DH l'Afukei, 2nd explanation); (ii) there are nine Menachos that require Shemen and Levonah, since #'s 1, 2, and 3 are the same Minchah, called the "Minchas Ma'afeh Sanur" (according to the Tana Kama, there are ten)] (CHIDUSHIM U'BI'URIM 7:13)
35)[line 39]מנלן? [מנלן?!]MENALAN? [MENALAN?!]- What is the source [that states that these Menachos are Nikmatzos and that their Sheyarim are eaten by the Kohanim]? What is the source?! [Those that have verses to this effect have verses and those that do not are learned from the general teaching from the verse (Vayikra 6:7) "v'Zos Toras ha'Minchah..."]
36)[line 45]"וְכָל מִנְחָה בְלוּלָה בַשֶּׁמֶן, וַחֲרֵבָה, לְכָל בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן תִּהְיֶה, אִישׁ כְּאָחִיו.""V'CHOL MINCHAH VELULAH VA'SHEMEN VA'CHAREIVAH, L'CHOL BNEI AHARON TIHEYEH, ISH K'ACHIV."- "And any flour offering mixed with oil, and dry, shall be for all the sons of Aharon, for one as much as for the other." (Vayikra 7:10)
37a)[line 46]בלולה של שעוריןBELULAH SHEL SE'ORIN- i.e. the Minchas ha'Omer (see above, entry #29)
b)[line 47]חרבה של שעוריןCHAREIVAH SHEL SE'ORIN- i.e. the Minchas Kena'os (see above, entry #31)