MOED KATAN 22 (7 Elul) - Dedicated in memory of Esther Miryam bas Harav Chaim Zev and her husband Harav Refael Yisrael ben Harav Moshe (Snow), whose Yahrzeits are 7 Elul and 8 Elul respectively. Sponsored by their son and daughter in law, Moshe and Rivka Snow.

1)

(a)We ask what the Din will be if the oldest Avel follows the coffin to the Beis-Olam, arriving from there at the house of the Avelim in the middle of the Shiv'ah. What is the She'eilah? Why might the Din be different there than if he arrived there directly from his house?

(b)We resolve this She'eilah from a statement by Rebbi Chiya bar Aba Amar Rebbi Yochanan. What does R. Yochanan say?

(c)How do we reconcile this with the Beraisa, which rules that he proceeds to sit Shiv'ah on his own?

(d)What instructions did Rav issue to the people of Hatzalfoni?

(e)When does Avelus begin for the Avelim who accompany the Mes ...

1. ... all the way to the graveyard?

2. ... only part of the way? What did Rava tell the people of Mechoza?

1)

(a)We ask what the Din will be if the oldest Avel follows the coffin to the Beis-Olam, arriving from there at the house of the Avelim in the middle of the Shiv'ah. This may be better than if he came from a journey (where we just ascertained that he observes Shiv'ah on his own - even if he arrived during the first three days) - because, since he went to the Beis Olam on account of the Mes, it may well be considered as if he was in the house together with the Avelim when they began.

(b)We resolve this She'eilah from a statement by Rebbi Chiya bar Aba Amar Rebbi Yochanan - who says that even if the oldest sibling went to the Beis-Olam, he nevertheless only needs to observe the remaining days of Shiv'ah together with the other Avelim.

(c)We reconcile this with the Beraisa, which rules that he proceeds to sit Shiv'ah on his own - by establishing the latter when he returned after three days, and Rebbi Yochanan, when he returned within three days ...

(d)... in keeping with the instructions that Rav issued to the people of Hatzalfoni.

(e)For the Avelim who accompany the Mes ...

1. ... all the way to the graveyard - the Avelus begins as soon as the grave is covered.

2. ... only part of the way - it begins as soon as they turn away from the Mes to return home. Rava told the people of Mechoza, who used to accompany the Mes for part of its journey to Eretz Yisrael - that as soon as they turned their faces from the gates of the city to return home, they should begin observing the Shiv'ah.

2)

(a)According to Rebbi Shimon, even if an Avel arrived on the seventh day, he joins the Avelim for however much of the Shiv'ah remains. How does Rebbi Yosi bar Shaul Amar qualify Rebbi Shimon's ruling?

(b)Rav Anan asked what the Din will be if the Avel arrived as the visitors were getting up to leave. What do we answer?

(c)Like which Tana did Rebbi Yochanan rule?

2)

(a)According to Rebbi Shimon, even if an Avel arrived on the seventh day, he joins the Avelim for however much of the Shiv'ah remains. Rebbi Yosi bar Shaul Amar Rebbi qualifies this - by confining to where there are still visitors consoling the Avelim when he arrives.

(b)Rav Anan asks what the Din will be if the Avel arrived as the visitors were getting up to leave. This She'eilah - remains unresolved (Teiku).

(c)Rebbi Yochanan ruled - like Rebbi Shimon.

3)

(a)Rebbi Yochanan also rules like Raban Shimon ben Gamliel regarding Treifus. What does Raban Shimon ben Gamliel say?

(b)How does Rav Kahana define 'Leichah' mean?

(c)Someone went to Eretz Yisrael to hear these rulings direct from Rebbi Aba brei d'Rebbi Chiya bar Aba (who cited Rebbi Yochanan). What did Rebbi Aba reply, when he asked him whether he had really heard that ...

1. ... Halachah k'Raban Shimon ben Gamliel?

2. ... Halachah k'Rebbi Shimon b'Avel?

(d)Rav Nachman rules neither like Raban Shimon ben Gamliel by Treifus, nor like Rebbi Shimon by Avelus. On what grounds do we concur with Rav Chisda and Rebbi Yochanan, who rule like Rebbi Shimon by Avelus?

3)

(a)Rebbi Yochanan also rules like Raban Shimon ben Gamliel regarding Tereifus. He says - that if a hole in the intestines of an animal is stopped up with Leichah, the animal is nevertheless Kasher.

(b)Rav Kahana defines 'Leichah' as - a viscous substance known as glair that emerges from the intestines when they are squeezed.

(c)Someone went to Eretz Yisrael to hear these rulings direct from Rebbi Aba Brei d'Rebbi Chiya bar Aba (who cited Rebbi Yochanan). When asked whether he had really heard that ...

1. ... Halachah k'Raban Shimon ben Gamliel - he replied that, quite to the contrary, he had heard that the Halachah was not like him.

2. ... Halachah k'Rebbi Shimon b'Avel - he replied that this was a Machlokes between Rav Chisda and Rebbi Yochanan (who hold that it is) and Rav Nachman (who holds that it is not).

(d)Rav Nachman rules neither like Raban Shimon ben Gamliel by Treifus, nor like Rebbi Shimon by Avelus. We concur with Rav Chisda and Rebbi Yochanan, who rule not like Raban Shimon ben Gamliel regarding Treifus, but like Rebbi Shimon by Avelus - based on Shmuel's ruling that we always follow the lenient opinion in the area of Avelus.

4)

(a)The Beraisa in Semachos praises someone who hastens the burial of a Mes. What is the exception?

(b)It is praiseworthy to hasten even the burial of one's parents on Erev Shabbos or Erev Yom Tov. Under which other circumstances should one do so?

(c)An Avel has the option of minimizing work or of not minimizing work (see Tosfos quoted in Gilyon ha'Shas) for other relatives. What does the Tana say about someone who is mourning for his deceased father or mother?

4)

(a)The Beraisa in Semachos praises someone who hastens the burial of a Mes - with the exception of one's father or mother, where it is considered a despicable thing to do.

(b)It is praiseworthy to hasten even the burial of one's parents on Erev Shabbos or Erev Yom Tov - or if it is raining directly on to the stretcher on which they are being buried.

(c)An Avel has the option of minimizing work or of not minimizing it (see Tosfos quoted in Gilyon ha'Shas) for other relatives. For one's father or mother however - the Tana obligates him to do so.

22b----------------------------------------22b

5)

(a)For all other relatives, an Avel has the option of uncovering his shoulders or of not doing so. What does the Tana say about doing so for one's parents?

(b)Why did a certain Gadol ha'Dor refrain from uncovering his shoulders when his father died?

(c)Some say that the Avel in the previous case was Rebbi and the second Gadol ha'Dor was Rebbi Yakov bar Acha. What do others say?

(d)What (unresolved) problem do we have with the first Lashon?

5)

(a)For all other relatives, an Avel has the option of uncovering his shoulders or of not doing so. For one's father or mother however - the Tana obligates him to do so (Note: Nowadays, this Halachah is not practiced at all).

(b)A certain Gadol ha'Dor refrained from uncovering his shoulders when his father died - in deference to a second Gadol ha'Dor who was present.

(c)Some say that the Avel in the previous case was Rebbi and the second Gadol, Rebbi Yakov bar Acha - others say the other way round.

(d)The (unresolved) problem with the first Lashon is - that if Rebbi was the Gadol whose father died, then, seeing as Rebbi's father was Raban Shimon ben Gamliel, the Nasi, everyone was obligated to uncover his shoulders, even the second Gadol, (so why did Rebbi refrain from uncovering his shoulders)?

6)

(a)An Avel for all other relatives may have a haircut after thirty days. What is the Din regarding an Avel for his father and mother?

(b)An Avel for all other relatives may attend a Simchah after thirty days. Which kind of Simchah is the Tana talking about, according to Rabah bar bar Chanah? What is the Din by a regular Simchah, such as that of a wedding?

(c)What (unresolved) problem do we have with Rabah bar bar Chanah's distinction?

(d)in the second Lashon, Rabah bar bar Chanah permits a Simchas Mere'us immediately. We again ask from the Beraisa which equates a Simchas Mere'us with that of a wedding. How do we resolve this Kashya?

6)

(a)An Avel for all other relatives may have a haircut after thirty days - for his father and mother, he must wait until his friends scold him for having such long hair.

(b)An Avel for all other relatives may attend a Simchah after thirty days. According to Rabah bar bar Chanah - the Tana is talking about a friendly get-together (Simchas Mere'us), which friends tend to make for each other in rotation. By a real Simchah, such as that of a wedding - even an Avel for other relatives is forbidden to attend for a whole year.

(c)The (unresolved) problem that we have with Rabah bar bar Chanah's distinction is from a Beraisa - which distinctly includes both a Simchas Mere'us and that of a wedding in the Din of thirty days.

(d)In the second Lashon, Rabah bar bar Chanah permits a Simchas Mere'us immediately. We again ask from the Beraisa which equates a Simchas Mere'us with that of a wedding - but this time we answer that the restriction of thirty days (referred to in the Beraisa) applies to a member of the group of friends who is initiating the party; whereas Rabah bar bar Chanah is talking about a return-party when he is paying back, an obligation which cannot be avoided and which all the friends are expected to acknowledge (even the Avel).

7)

(a)When an Avel for all other relatives tears Keri'ah, he tears one Tefach. What is the Din regarding an Avel for his father or mother?

(b)What do we learn from the Pasuk in Shmuel 2 "va'Yechazek David bi'Vegadav va'Yikra'em"?

(c)What is the difference between the number of garments that an Avel for other relatives tears, and the number of garments that an Avel for one's father or mother tears?

(d)Which garment does the latter nevertheless not need to tear?

7)

(a)When an Avel for all other relatives tears Keri'ah, he tears one Tefach - an Avel for his father or mother, until he uncovers his heart.

(b)We learn from the Pasuk David bi'Vegadav va'Yikra'em" - that he minimum Shi'ur Keri'ah is one Tefach (because "Achizah" ["*va'Yechazek*"] implies at least a Tefach).

(c)An Avel for other relatives tears only the top garment - whereas an Avel for one's father or mother tears all the garments that he is wearing.

(d)The one exception to that is a sort of head-gear called 'Afekarsusa' (others define it as a vest, which is worn to absorb the sweat), which even the latter is not obligated to tear.

8)

(a)The Tana Kama obligates a woman to tear Keria'h just like a man. What does Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar say?

(b)The Tana Kama of the Beraisa says 'Ratzah Mavdil Kamei Safah, Ratzah Eino Mavdil'. What does this mean?

(c)To which Avelim does this not apply?

(d)What does Rebbi Yehudah learn from the Pasuk in Melachim 2 "va'Yechazek bi'Vegadav va'Yikra'em li'Shenayim Kera'im"?

8)

(a)The Tana Kama obligates a woman to tear Keria'h just like a man; whereas according to Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar - if she is an Avel for her father or mother, she first tears the innermost garment, folds it and then goes on to the next one (for reasons of Tzeniyus).

(b)The Tana Kama of the Beraisa says 'Ratzah Mavdil Kamei Safah, Ratzah Eino Mavdil' - meaning that if the Avel so wishes, he does not need to tear the rim of the garment, thereby dividing it into two (Nimukei Yosef).

(c)This does not apply - to an Avel for one's father or mother.

(d)Rebbi Yehudah learns from the Pasuk in "va'Yechazek bi'Vegadav va'Yikra'em li'Shenayim Kera'im" - that any Keri'ah which does not include the hem (and does not therefore, divide the garment into two) is not considered a Keri'ah.

9)

(a)An Avel for his father or mother may baste (stitch loosely) the garment after the Sheloshim. What is the Din by ...

1. ... an Avel for other relatives?

2. ... a woman who is an Avel in this regard?

(b)Ravin citing Rebbi Yochanan obligated an Avel for his father or mother to tear Keri'ah with his hands. What is the Din by an Avel for other relatives?

(c)According to Rebbi Chiya bar Aba Amar Rebbi Yochanan, what is the difference between the location that an Avel for one's father or mother tears Keri'ah, and that where an Avel for other relatives tear Keri'ah?

(d)To whom else does Rav Chisda give the same Din as a father and mother in this regard?

9)

(a)An Avel for his father or mother may baste (stitch loosely) the garments after the Sheloshim.

1. ... An Avel for other relatives - may baste the garments after the Shiv'ah, and sew them professionally after the Sheloshim.

2. ... a woman who is an Avel in this regard - may baste her garments immediately.

(b)Ravin citing Rebbi Yochanan obligated an Avel for his father or mother to tear Keri'ah with his hands - an Avel for other relatives on the other hand, is permitted to use a knife.

(c)Rebbi Chiya bar Aba Amar Rebbi Yochanan obligates an Avel for one's father or mother to tear outside (in public) - an Avel for other relatives, may tear even in a room. Alternatively, this means openly, so that the tear is visible, and inside (covered by the Avel's coat) so that the tear is not seen.

(d)Rav Chisda gives the same Din - to a Nasi as one's father and mother in this regard.

10)

(a)We query Rav Chisda from a Beraisa however. In which sole regard (of the Dinim mentioned above) does the Tana equate a Rebbe, an Av Beis-Din, and others mentioned in the forthcoming Beraisa who die, with parents?

(b)What Kashya does pose on Rav Chisda?

(c)How do we establish the Beraisa, to refute the Kashya?

(d)To prove his point, what did Rav Chisda instruct Rav Chanan bar Rava (or Rav Nachman bar Ami) to do when the Nasi died?

10)

(a)We query Rav Chisda from a Beraisa however. The sole regard (of the Dinim mentioned above) in which the Tana equates a Rebbe, an Av Beis-Din, and others mentioned in the forthcoming Beraisa who die, with parents - is that of 'Ichuy', (prohibiting professionally sewing the garments on which Keri'ah was made) ...

(b)... a Kashya on Rav Chisda, who also compares a Nasi with parents with regard to tearing outside.

(c)To refute the Kashya, we establish the Beraisa by the other cases listed by the Tana, but not by a Nasi.

(d)When the Nasi died - Rav Chisda proved his point - by instructing Chanan bar Rava (or Rav Nachman bar Ami) to overturn a mortar, to stand on it and to show everybody that he had torn Keri'ah for him.

11)

(a)When a Chacham died, they would uncover the right shoulder. What did they do for ...

1. ... the Av Beis-Din?

2. ... the Nasi?

(b)When a Chacham died, his Beis ha'Midrash would close. What would happen upon the demise of ...

1. ... the Av Beis-Din?

2. ... the Nasi?

11)

(a)When a Chacham died, they would uncover their right shoulder. For ...

1. ... the Av Beis-Din - they would uncover the left one.

2. ... the Nasi - both.

(b)When a Chacham died, his Beis ha'Midrash would close. Upon the demise of ...

1. ... the Av Beis-Din - they would close all the Batei-Medrash in town, and, when they went to Shul, they would all change their fixed places (from the north to the south and vice-versa).

2. ... the Nasi - they would close all the Batei-Medrash, and, if it was a day on which they were due to Lein, they would enter the Shul, Lein, and leave again, and everyone would Daven at home.

12)

(a)What does Rebbi Yehoshua ben Korchah comment on the words 'and leave' in the previous ruling?

(b)It was said that Rebbi Chananya ben Gamliel would recite Halachos and Agados in the house of an Avel. What does the Tana Kama say?

12)

(a)In the previous ruling, Rebbi Yehoshua ben Korchah comments on the words 'and leave' - 'Not that they may then go for a walk, but they sit down and remain silent.

(b)It was said that Rebbi Chananya ben Gamliel would say Halachos and Agados in the house of an Avel. According to the Tana Kama - neither Halachah nor Agadah may be said there.

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