SHEKALIM 2 (10 Nisan) - This Daf has been dedicated L'iluy Nishmas Reb Yosef Nissan ben Reb Yechezkel, Mr. Joseph Glatt A"H, and in honor and recognition of his son Yibadel l'Chaim Tovim v'Aruchim, Rabbi Dr. Aaron Glatt, shlita, for his years of being a master Daf Yomi teacher.

[2a - 44 lines; 2b - 42 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the Girsa'os of the Vilna Gaon printed in the margins of the Vilna Shas, and the commentary "Tiklin Chadtin" upon which they are based. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that conform to the commentary of the Tiklin Chadtin which are not noted in the Hagahos ha'Gra, and Girsa corrections in the text of the Tiklin Chadtin itself.

[1] גמרא ב. [שורה 42]

"בפרוס החג, אמר לי' נאמר"

צ"ל "בפרוס החג, נאמר"

(וכן הוא במאירי, כמו שהעיר הג' בעל קהילת יעקב בהגהותיו)

[2] גמרא ב: [שורה 7]

"אכן הסכימו השחיתו, וכל השחתה"

צ"ל "אכן הסכימו השחיתו, כל השחתה"

[3] גמרא ב: [שורה 27]

"זמן קריאתה (אמר לי') לא בא אלא"

צ"ל "זמן קריאתה אמר לי' לא בא אלא"

(בלי הסוגריים)

[4] גמרא ב: [שורה 33]

"משקרייא בי"ד חוזר וקריא בט"ו"

צ"ל "משקרייא בי"ד ולא חוזר וקריא בט"ו"

(כן הוא גירסת התקלין חדתין - ראה גירסא הבא)

[5] גמרא ב: [שורה 34]

"שמא אין שומעין לו"

צ"ל "שמא שומעין לו"

(כן הוא גירסת התקלין חדתין - ראה גירסא הקודמת)


1)[line 2]משמיעיןMASHMI'IN- [Beis Din sends out messengers to] announce


(a)Many sacrifices are offered on behalf of the public in the Beis ha'Mikdash, such as the daily Temidim and the Korbenos Musaf of Rosh Chodesh and the festivals. The funds used to purchase the animals for these Korbanos are taken from a treasury known as the Terumas ha'Lishkah. Every Jewish male, regardless of whether he lives in Eretz Yisrael or the Golah or how wealthy he is, is required by the Torah to contribute one half-Shekel annually to this Lishkah.

(b)These half Shekalim are collected prior to Rosh Chodesh Nisan, in order that the Korbanos of each year (which begins with the month of Nisan with regard to Korbanos) would be purchased from the money collected for that year. One month earlier, on the first of Adar, Beis Din would begin the drive to collect the Shekalim (see Insights to 2a). Despite this early effort, some commentaries maintain that some Shekalim would not arrive until following Rosh Chodesh Nisan. Others understand that all of the Shekalim would arrive by Rosh Chodesh Nisan, as the collection from areas distant from Yerushalayim began earlier in the year. This appears to be the conclusion of the Yerushalmi as well (Daf 2a; see MISHNAS ELIYAHU 2b).

(c)The RAMBAM maintains that this yearly donation was not fixed at exactly half a Shekel; it was set as half of the "Matbe'a ha'Yotzei" (primary coin in use at the time). If, however, the value of the Matbe'a ha'Yotzei was less than the value of one half-Shekel, then a larger coin was required. The RA'AVAD and RAMBAN, however, are of the opinion that the value of the half-Shekel remains constant.

(d)The Shekel in use at the time of Moshe Rabeinu, which is that referred to by the Torah in the phrase "Machatzis ha'Shekel" (Shemos 30:13), is equivalent to the Sela prevalent during the period when the Gemara was written. Half of such a Shekel, then, is half a Sela, or two Dinarim. People began referring to a half-Sela coin as a "Shekel," due to that which they "gave it" ("Shoklim" Oso) annually in fulfillment of the Mitzvah of Machatzis ha'Shekel (RAMBAN ibid.).

3)[line 2]הכלאיםKIL'AYIM (KIL'EI ZERA'IM)

(a)The word Kil'ayim means "forbidden mixture." Any two items, each of which is permitted alone, which one is prohibited by the Torah to combine are called Kil'ayim (see Background to Kidushin 39:23a). Our Mishnah is referring to Kil'ei Zera'im.

(b)Kil'ei Zera'im refers to the prohibition of sowing any two different types of crops within close proximity to each other, as the Torah states, "Sadecha Lo Sizra Kil'ayim" - "Do not sow different species (together) in your field" (Vayikra 19:19). One who intentionally transgresses this prohibition is liable to Malkos.

1.The Mishnayos in Maseches Kil'ayim specify the distance that one must leave in between different crops.

2.Crops that grow in a field that has been planted with Kil'ei Zera'im are not prohibited to be eaten.

3.The prohibition of Kil'ei Zera'im applies only in Eretz Yisrael.

(c)One who has mistakenly sown his field with Kil'ei Zera'im must uproot one of the two crops planted. He need not uproot that crop entirely, however. The Mishnah in Maseches Kil'ayim (2:1) teaches that if the amount of the second species is less than a quarter of a Kav per Se'ah (1/24) of the first species, then the second species is Batel to the first and the field is not considered Kil'ayim (see TOSFOS YOM TOV ibid. for an explanation for why this is so). The announcement referred to in our Mishnah is a warning from Beis Din to uproot any foreign species growing in one's field such that less than one quarter Kav per Se'ah of the first species remains.

4)[line 3]קורין את המגילהKORIN ES HA'MEGILAH (KERI'AS HA'MEGILAH)

(a)Every year, Megilas Esther is read publicly on Purim. The Megilah was sent in letter form to all of Jewry by Esther and Mordechai themselves, with the stipulated request that it be read every year (along with the fulfillment of the other Mitzvos of Purim) to commemorate the great miracle HaSh-m performed for the Jews at that time.

(b)Not every city reads the Megilah on the same day. Those cities which had been surrounded by a wall in the days of Yehoshua bin Nun — similar to Shushan — read the Megilah on the fifteenth of Adar, the day following the one upon which the Jews of Shushan were successful in overcoming their would-be annihilators. All other cities read the Megilah on the fourteenth of Adar, which is the day following the one upon which the rest of the kingdom of Achashverosh experienced salvation (Esther 9: 20-23).

(c)The residents of smaller villages were unable to read the Megilah on their own, and would have to go to the nearest large town to hear the Megilah. In recognition of the fact that the villagers provided the inhabitants of the larger towns with food, the Rabanan allowed the villagers to hear the Megilah read on the market day prior to Purim. These are the days of Monday and Thursday, when the villagers would come to the larger towns to sell their produce. This system allowed for the reading of the Megilah as early as the eleventh of Adar.

5)[line 3]בכרכיםKERACHIM- cities which were surrounded by a wall in the days of Yehoshua bin Nun

6)[line 4]מתקנין את הדרכים ואת הרחובותMETAKENIN ES HA'DERACHIM V'ES HA'RECHOVOS- they would repair the pathways and streets (a) for those who would be coming to visit the Beis ha'Mikdash on the three festivals of Pesach, Sukos, and Shavuos; (b) for those who needed to run to the cities of refuge (Arei Miklat; see Background to Eruvin 58:28), as the Torah states with regard to them, "Tachin Lecha ha'Derech" — "Prepare for yourself the way" (Bamidbar 19:3).

7)[line 5]ומציינין את הקברותMETZAYENIN ES HA'KEVAROS- [Beis Din sends out messengers to] mark the location of graves [with plaster]

8)[line 6]ויוצאיןYOTZE'IN- they go out [in order to uproot]

9)[line 7]בעונתןB'ONASAN- at their proper time, before Rosh Chodesh Nisan

10)[line 8]וְתֵּיתָרֵםV'TEISAREM- and the Terumas ha'Lishkah will be set aside [at its proper time]

11)[line 8]תרומת הלשכהTERUMAS HA'LISHKAH

(a)Every year, every Jew must contribute one half-Shekel toward the purchase of the Korbenos Tzibur offered in the Beis ha'Mikdash (see above, entry #2). Beis Din then places the collected Shekalim into a Lishkah — a room in the Beis ha'Mikdash — reserved for that purpose.

(b)Fifteen days prior to each of the three festivals, a representative of Beis Din enters the Lishkah and fills three boxes with Shekalim. Each box holds three Se'in (approximately 25 or 43.2 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions). The Shekalim removed in the boxes are called the "Terumas ha'Lishkah," while those Shekalim remaining are called the "Sheyarei ha'Lishkah" (Shekalim 7b, 8a). (The RAMBAM has a different understanding of this process, see Hilchos Shekalim 2:4. See also Insights to Shekalim 9:2 for more on the process of the Terumas ha'Lishkah.)

(c)Why is the Terumas ha'Lishkah performed three times a year, rather than only once? One opinion is that this is necessary in order to publicize the Terumas ha'Lishkah. Others maintain that the reason for the division of this process into three is so that even those whose Shekalim arrive later in the year should have a share in the Korbenos Tzibur (Yerushalmi 2b; see above, entry #2:b. See also Insights to Shekalim 2:2).

(d)The Shekalim of the Terumas ha'Lishkah go toward purchasing animals offered as public sacrifices, while the Shekalim of the Sheyarei ha'Lishkah are designated for the upkeep of the Mikdash and the city of Yerushalayim (Shekalim 4a-b).

12)[line 8]החדשהHA'CHADASHAH- the [collection of] new [Shekalim]

13)[line 9]וּמַר (= ואמר)UMAR- and [Rebbi Shmuel bar Rav Yitzchak] said

14)[line 10]כִּתְחִלָּתָהּKI'SECHILASAH- at [the time that it was] originally [donated]

15a)[line 13]נאמר כאן לחדשיNE'EMAR KAN ''L'CHODSHEI''- the Torah says here, "Zos Olas Chodesh b'Chodsho, l'Chodshei ha'Shanah" - "This is the Olah offering of the month [which should be offered] in its month, for the months of the year" (Bamidbar 28:14).

b)[line 14]ונאמר להלן לחדשיV'NE'EMAR L'HALAN ''L'CHODSHEI''- and the Torah says there, "... Rishon Hu Lachem l'Chodshei ha'Shanah" - "... it shall be the first for you of the months of the year" (Shemos 12:2).

16)[line 16]שבקSHAVAK- he abandoned

17)[line 17](דל כן כהדא דתני) [לא כן תני]LO KEN TANI?- was it not taught?

18)[line 24]הֵיךְ מה דאת אמר (= כמו שנאמר)HEICH MAH D'AT AMAR- (lit. like you say) like you find in the verse

19)[line 25]"ויתנו קול ביהודה ובירושלם [להביא לה' משאת משה עבד הא-לקים על ישראל במדבר]""VA'YITENU KOL BI'YEHUDAH UVI'YERUSHALAYIM [L'HAVI LA'SH-M MAS'AS MOSHE EVED HA'EL-KIM AL YISRAEL BA'MIDBAR]" - "And he (King Yo'ash) announced throughout Yehudah and Yerushalayim [that they (the people) should bring to HaSh-m the half-Shekalim (Mas'as Moshe) that Moshe the servant of HaSh-m commanded Yisrael in the desert]" (Divrei ha'Yamim II 24:9) (YO'ASH RENOVATES THE BEIS HA'MIKDASH)

(a)Initially, the young king, Yo'ash (who was seven when he ascended the throne), went in the ways of HaSh-m (until the death of his mentor Yehoyada, the Kohen Gadol). One of the first things he did was to undertake to renew the Beis ha'Mikdash, which had been breached by his predecessor, the wicked queen Asalyahu, and to replenish its treasury which the people had emptied to purchase sacrifices for Ba'al.

(b)To this end, he ordered the Kohanim to collect the annual half-Shekel from the people, which they would be allowed to retain, provided that they paid for all the repairs to the Beis ha'Mikdash out of their own pocket. The Kohanim collected the half-Shekalim and kept them for themselves, but they failed to effect the necessary repairs. After the passage of a number of years, the Beis ha'Mikdash remained as dilapidated as ever.

(c)In order to correct the situation, King Yo'ash ordered the manufacture of a large collection box. It was to be narrow on top where the slot to put the money was, wide on the bottom, and was not to have a door. These features guarded against theft by allowing money into the box, but not allowing any out. He had it placed outside the entrance of the Beis ha'Mikdash, and he issued a public announcement that the people should bring their half-Shekalim and place them in the box. Yehoyada ha'Kohen actually placed the box inside the Azarah beside the Mizbe'ach. Yo'ash ha'Melech had it moved to outside the entrance to the Azarah, so that people who were Tamei would have access to it, too. According to others, there were two different boxes, the outer one for Bedek ha'Bayis (repairs and renovations), while the inner one was for the purchase of Klei Shares.

(d)The entire nation responded enthusiastically, and the box was quickly filled.

20)[line 25]תמן תנינן (= תנן התם)TAMAN TENINAN- we learned [a Mishnah] there

21)[line 29]הכל יוצאין בי''דHAKOL YOTZ'IN B'YUD DALET- The VILNA GA'ON removes these words from the Gemara. Those who are Gores them understand that they belong here because the Gemara (2b) uses this statement as the basis of a proof for Rav Simon's assertion that Beis Din announces the collection of Shekalim in Adar Sheni only.

22)[line 27]ומתנות לאביוניםMATANOS LA'EVYONIM

One of the Mitzvos incumbent upon every Jew on the day of Purim is to give charity to the poor.

23)[line 30]ויָאוּתV'YA'US- and it is correct

24)[line 32]עד כדון (= עדיין)AD K'DON- still

25)[line 33]אִית בְּשַׁתָּא (= יש בשנה) שיתין יומיןIS B'SHATA SHITIN YOMIN- there is in the year sixty days [until Rosh Chodesh Nisan]. The TIKLIN CHADTIN explains that if one is reminded too early about a future obligation, his nature is too put it out of his mind as he has so much time left to deal with it.

26)[line 35]אִינּוּן דקיקין (= הם דקים)INUN DEKIKIN- they are small

27)[line 36]שאלSHA'AL- Whenever the Yerushalmi uses this word, it means that after the Amora expressed his opinion, he asked his fellow Amora'im in the Beis ha'Midrash if they agreed with it or not.

28)[line 36]מעתהME'ATAH- now [that we have established that the reason why Beis Din announces the collection of Shekalim on Rosh Chodesh Adar is to allow for them to arrive before Rosh Chodesh Nisan]

29)[line 39]הֵתיב (= מיתיבי)HEISIV- asked a question based upon a Beraisa

30)[line 40]קוּמֵי רבי מנאKUMEI REBBI MANA- in front of Rebbi Mana

31)[line 41]בפרוס הפסחPEROS HA'PESACH- at half [of the thirty-day period prior to] Pesach [during which the laws of Pesach are expounded upon]; i.e., fifteen days before Pesach

32)[line 43]אִילֵּין (= אלו)ILEIN- those


33)[line 2]פומביPUMBI- publicity (see Insights)

34)[line 3]הן נקרא ולא נבעתHEN NIKRA V'LO NIV'AS?- how can one read the following verses without being seized with trepidation [over the power of the Yetzer ha'Ra]? This statement is cited here since the first verse quoted is from the Parshah of donations for the Mishkan. Rebbi Yehudah ben Pazi, in the following series of verses, contrasts the behavior of Klal Yisrael when confronted with a Mitzvah — when not all of the nation were forthcoming or were so only after being prompted — with that of Klal Yisrael when confronted with an Aveirah, when they responded more eagerly.

35)[line 8]בהשכמה היו עושין אתהB'HASHKAMAH HAYU OSIN OSAH- (a) they did it very early in the morning, as opposed to those who perform Mitzvos, wherein only Zerizim — those who are particularly zealous — arise early to do so (TIKLIN CHADTIN); (b) those who worshipped the Egel ha'Zahav arose very early in the morning to do so (Shemos 32:6), as opposed to those who donated to the Mishkan, who brought their donations "in the morning" (Shemos 36:3), but not early in the morning (KORBAN HA'EDAH)

36)[line 10]אוּפיא (= טיבה)UFYA- nature, disposition

37)[line 10]נתבעיןNISBA'IN- they are solicited

38)[line 11]תנא רבי יוסף בן חנינא וכו'TANA REBBI YOSEF BEN CHANINA- Rebbi Yosef ben Chanina disagrees with Rebbi Aba bar Acha. He maintains that the reason why Klal Yisrael contributed gold to the Mishkan was because they desired atonement for their sin, not because their nature is to give to whatever cause is at hand (TIKLIN CHADTIN).

39)[line 14]בפ' זאתPARSHA ZOS- the Parshah of Terumah (Shemos 25:1-9)

40a)[line 14]תרומת אדניםTERUMAS ADANIM- the donation of silver coins melted down into silver sockets which supported the beams of the Mishkan (Shemos 38:27)

b)[line 15]ותרומת המשכןTERUMAS HA'MISHKAN- the donation of various materials used in the construction of the Mishkan

41)[line 20]מה שירצו [יביאו]MAH SHE'YIRTZU, YAVI'U- whatever [combination of coins of various denominations] they wished, they were able to bring [in future generations]

42)[line 22]בפרשה הזאתPARSHA HA'ZOS- the Parshah of Ki Sisa (Shemos 30:11-16)

43)[line 26]הכל יוצאיןHA'KOL YOTZE'IN- everyone (even those who live in cities surrounded by a wall in the days of Yehoshua bin Nun) fulfills his obligation

44)[line 27]לא בא אלא וכו'LO BA ELA...- the Gemara answers that the purpose of mentioning this Halachah of Keri'as Megilah is not so much to determine the guidelines of this Mitzvah as it is to draw a parallel between Keri'as Megilah and the actions of Beis Din mentioned in our Mishnah. The reason why only the fifteenth is mentioned is that this is the day that certain actions of Beis Din were carried out, as our Mishnah records.

45)[line 29]הַוּוּן יַתְבִין (= היו יושבים)HAVUN YASVIN- were sitting

46)[line 29]לא מסתברא (אלא) לשעבר אבל לבא לאLO MISTABERA, L'SHE'AVAR AVAL LA'BA LO- it is not logical [to suggest that Rebbi Chelbo ruled that one who lives in a city surrounded by a wall in the days of Yehoshua bin Nun fulfills his obligation by reading the Megilah on the fourteenth only] b'Di'eved, but l'Chatchilah he must read it again on the fifteenth.

47)[line 32]אוֹף (= אף)OHF- even

48)[line 33]ויָאוּתV'YA'US- and it is correct; that is, the cryptic answer of Rebbi Yosah makes sense in the following manner

49)[line 33]מִשֶּׁקַּרְיָיא (= משקָראוֹ)MISHE'KARYA- once he read it

50)[line 34]נמצאת עוקר זמן כרכים בידךNIMTZAS OKER ZEMAN KERACHIM BI'YEDACH- that is, certainly a city which has the custom to read the Megilah on both the fourteenth and fifteenth because it is unsure of whether or not it was surrounded by a wall in the days of Yehoshua bin Nun should continue its custom. Rebbi Chelbo was discussing an individual ruling which can be applied intermittently, not a sweeping, permanent change of custom.

51)[line 36]חוץ מהספד ותעניתCHUTZ ME'HESPED V'TA'ANIS- aside from [the prohibitions against] delivering a eulogy and fasting [on the fourteenth and fifteenth of Adar]

52a)[line 39]הנהיגHINHIG- would rule if an individual asked him

b)[line 41]להלכהHALACHA- would announce the ruling publicly

53)[last line]ואדר שני סתםV'ADAR SHENI, STAM- and [in] Adar Sheni [one should] simply [write the word "Adar"]