PERMITTED HARVESTING BEFORE THE OMER
(Mishnah): One may harvest due to young trees, to make room for Birkas Avelim, or for people to learn.
Question: Why are all of these permitted? (According to the explanation that 'due to trees' is to avoid a loss (which is not a Mitzvah), we must say that grain sprouted in a tree field. We already know that this is permitted (for the Omer may not come from a tree field), we only ask about the latter two cases.)
Answer: The Torah forbids "Ketzirchem (your harvesting)", but not harvesting for the sake of a Mitzvah.
(Mishnah): One may not tie bundles of grain, one may make bundles without tying them.
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: We minimize exertion (lest one come to eat Chodosh).
REAPING THE OMER
(Mishnah): L'Chatchilah, barley should be cut (Lishmah) for the Omer.
(Beraisa) Question: It says "v'Im Takriv Minchas Bikurim." Why does the end of the verse repeat "Takriv"?
Answer #1: L'Chatchilah, barley should be cut for the Omer. The extra "Takriv" teaches that if there is no attached barley, we may use detached sheaves.
Answer #2: L'Chatchilah, the barley should be moist.The extra "Takriv" teaches that if there is no moist barley, we may use dry.
Answer #3: L'Chatchilah, it should be cut at night;
Question: What is the source that if it was cut during the day, it is Kosher, and that it is Docheh Shabbos?
Answer: The extra "Takriv" teaches that may be offered in any case (even from pre-cut sheaves), from any place (even though it will be dry when it gets to Yerushalayim), even on Shabbos, and even b'Tum'ah.
(Mishnah): If it was cut during the day, it is Kosher.
Contradiction (Mishnah): The entire night is Kosher for reaping the Omer, and Haktarah of Chelev and limbs;
The general rule is, anything Kosher during the daytime is Kosher the entire day. Anything Kosher at night is Kosher the entire night.
Inference: This equates day and night. Just like daytime Mitzvos may not be done at night, nighttime Mitzvos may not be done by day!
Resolution (Rava): Our Mishnah is like Rebbi. That Mishnah is like R. Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon;
(Beraisa - Rebbi): If a Kohen was offering the Omer (during the day) and it became Tamei, if there is more grain available, we harvest it and offer it; if not, we tell him to be quiet. (If people know that it was brought b'Tum'ah, they might think that even Korbanos Yachid may be brought b'Tum'ah.)
R. Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon says, in either case we tell him to be quiet, for if the Omer was harvested improperly (i.e. during the day), it is Pasul.
DOES REAPING THE OMER OVERRIDE SHABBOS?
(Rabah bar bar Chanah): R. Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon holds like R. Akiva, the Rebbi of his father, and like R. Yishmael:
(Mishnah - R. Akiva): Any Melachah (for the sake of circumcision) that can be done before Shabbos does not override Shabbos.
(Mishnah - R. Yishmael): (The Torah says to refrain from plowing and reaping on Shabbos.) Just like plowing is optional (we never find a Mitzvah to plow), also reaping;
This excludes reaping the Omer. It is a Mitzvah, and it overrides Shabbos.
If an Omer harvested improperly were Kosher, reaping would not override Shabbos. We would have to reap before Shabbos!
Conclusion: If the Omer was harvested improperly, it is Pasul.
Question: Also Rebbi was a Talmid of R. Shimon! (Also he should have heard R. Akiva's opinion from him, and held like it!)
(Beraisa - Rebbi): When we learned from R. Shimon, we would bring to him (on Shabbos) oil and a towel, transferring them from Chatzer to roof, from roof to Karfef (an enclosed place without a roof), and from Karfef to Karfef, until we reached the bathing spring. (This teaches that R. Shimon permits transferring between these places without an Eruv. Our Gemara cites the Beraisa merely to show that Rebbi was his Talmid.)
Answer #1: Rebbi holds like another teaching of R. Shimon:
(Beraisa - R. Shimon): A Mitzvah in its time is great. Limbs (of an Olah) and Chelev can be burned all night, but (l'Chatchilah) we burn them during the day (even on Shabbos)!
Objection: Surely, R. Elazar heard this teaching of his father! (How does he infer that an improperly harvested Omer is Pasul? Perhaps dearness of the Mitzvah overrides Shabbos!)
Answer: (Indeed, he heard it.) Limbs are different. Since Shechitah already overrode Shabbos, also Haktarah does. (However, we do not begin Melachah on Shabbos, e.g. reaping, if the Mitzvah can be done another day.)
(This answer is sound. Surely Rebbi agrees that we can distinguished like this. Answer #1 is insufficient!)
Answer #2: Rebbi holds that reaping the Omer does not override Shabbos.
Question (Mishnah - Chachamim): Whether it was (reaped) on Shabbos or on a weekday, it is sifted from three Sa'im.
Answer: Rebbi argues with that.
Question (Mishnah - Chachamim): Whether or not it is Shabbos, it is reaped by three people, each with his own sickle and box.
Answer: Rebbi argues with that.
Question (Mishnah): If it is Shabbos, each asks 'is it Shabbos?' (and they reap)!
Answer: Rebbi argues with that.
Question (Mishnah): If it was cut during the day, it is Kosher. It overrides Shabbos.
Rebbi is the Tana who says that if it was cut during the day, it is Kosher, and the Mishnah says that it overrides Shabbos!
Suggestion: It means that reaping the Omer overrides Shabbos.
Answer: No, it means that Hakravas ha'Omer overrides Shabbos.
Question: Rebbi holds that reaping the Omer does override Shabbos!
(Beraisa - Rebbi) Question: What do we learn from "va'Ydaber Moshe Es Mo'adei Hash-m"?
Answer: It says "b'Mo'ado" regarding the Tamid and Korban Pesach, to teach that they may be offered on Shabbos and b'Tum'ah;
Question: What is the source for other Korbanos Tzibur?
Answer: We learn from "Eleh Ta'asu la'Shem b'Mo'adeichem." (This is in Parshas Pinchus, where all the Musafim are taught.)
Question: What is the source for the Omer, Shtei ha'Lechem and the Korbanos that accompany these (in Parshas Emor?)
Answer: We learn from "va'Ydaber Moshe Es Mo'adei Hash-m" (in that Parshah). Each has a Mo'ed (a fixed time. Therefore, they override Shabbos and Tum'ah.)
Question: For what does Rebbi need a source that Shtei ha'Lechem overrides Shabbos?
It cannot be for the Hakravah. They are totally eaten by Kohanim!
Answer: He needs a source for grinding and sifting them on Shabbos.
(These could have been done before Shabbos, nevertheless they override Shabbos.) Similarly, reaping the Omer overrides Shabbos!
Answer: No, offering the Omer overrides Shabbos, just like baking Shtei ha'Lechem overrides Shabbos;
Rebbi holds that the oven is Mekadesh Shtei ha'Lechem. It cannot be baked the day before, for it would become Nifsal due to Linah.
Question Rebbi does not hold that the oven is Mekadesh!
(Beraisa): Kivsei Atzeres are Mekadesh the bread only through Shechitah;
If they were slaughtered Lishmah and Zerikah was Lishmah, they are Mekadesh the bread;
If Shechitah and Zerikah were Lo Lishmah, they are not Mekadesh;
Rebbi says, if Shechitah was Lishmah and Zerikah was Lo Lishmah, the bread is Kadosh and not Kadosh;
R. Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon says, it is not Kadosh unless Shechitah and Zerikah were both Lishmah.
Answer (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): When the Tana'im in this Beraisa say 'Kadosh', they mean 'Kove'a.' (The bread cannot be brought with other lambs.)
PEREK V'ELU MENACHOS
SHEYAREI MENACHOS THAT ARE EATEN
(Mishnah): Kemitzah is taken from the following Menachos, and the Shirayim are eaten by Kohanim:
Minchas Soles, Machavas, Marcheshes, (Ma'afe Tanur) Chalos and Rekikim, the Minchah of Nochrim or women, the Omer, Minchas Chotei and Minchas Kena'os;
R. Shimon says, Minchas Kohanim is Nikmetzes. The Kometz is Huktar by itself and the Shirayim by themselves.
Version #1 (Gemara - Rav Papa): Whenever the Mishnah lists the Menachos Nedavah, each of them is baked into 10 loaves;
Version #2 (Rav Papa): Whenever the Mishnah lists the different Menachos, it lists 10 kinds; (end of Version #2)
This is unlike R. Shimon, who says that Ma'afe Tanur may be brought half Chalos and half Rekikim.
(Mishnah): The Shirayim are eaten by Kohanim.
Question: What is the source of this?
Objection: This is obvious! Regarding some of them it explicitly says that Kohanim eat the Shirayim;
Regarding the others, it says "V'Zos Toras ha'Minchah...Veha'Noseres Mimenu Yochlu Aharon u'Vanav".
Clarification: We do not ask about Menachos of wheat (indeed, those are obvious);
The question is about barley Menachos.
Objection: Also this is obvious! Since they are Nikmatzos, Kohanim eat the Shirayim!
Clarification: We do not ask according to Chachamim (indeed, according to Chachamim this is obvious);
The question is according to R. Shimon, who says that some Nikmatzos are not eaten:
(Mishnah - R. Shimon): Minchas Kohanim is Nikmetzes, the Kometz is Huktar by itself and the Shirayim by themselves.
(Precise formulation of question): According to R. Shimon, what is the source that Kohanim eat the Shirayim of Menachos of barley (the Omer and Minchas Kena'os?)
Answer #1 (Chizkiyah): "V'Chol Minchah Velulah va'Shemen va'Charevah l'Chol Bnei Aharon Tihyeh"- since we do not need this to teach about Belulah (kneaded with oil) and dry Menachos of wheat (since we know these from "V'Zos Toras ha'Minchah..."), we use it to teach about Belulah of barley (the Omer) and dry Menachos of barley (Kena'os.)