HOW MAY WE DRY UP WET GROUND ON SHABBOS?
(Mishnah): We spread salt on the ramp [to the Mizbe'ach], lest Kohanim slip;
We may use a Galgal (a wheel used to raise and lower a bucket on a rope) to draw water from [two pits in chambers surrounding the Azarah, i.e.] Bor ha'Golah and the great pit (perhaps this is where water from the Kiyor was left overnight, so it would not become Pasul through Linah) on Shabbos, and [outside the Mikdash] from Bor ha'Kar (this will be explained) on Yom Tov.
(Gemara - Rav Ika of Pasroniya) Question: The Mishnah permits spreading salt on the ramp. This is permitted in the Mikdash, but not outside;
Contradiction (Beraisa #1): If rainwater dirtied a Chatzer, one may bring straw and spread it out [on Shabbos].
Answer (Rava): One may bring straw, because one will not be Mevatel it (decide to leave it there permanently).
Question (Rav Acha brei d'Rava): Is he Mevatel the salt, or not?
If he is Mevatel it, he adds to the ramp! (This is forbidden even during the week. The dimensions of the Mikdash, including the Mizbe'ach, were given through prophecy. They cannot be changed!)
If he is not Mevatel it, it is a Chatzitzah!
Answer #1 (Rav Ashi): (He is not Mevatel it.) The salt is there when limbs [of an Olah] are brought up the ramp. This is not an Avodah. (Therefore we are not concerned for a Chatzitzah.)
Objection: Bringing limbs up the ramp is an Avodah - "v'Hikriv ha'Kohen Es ha'Kol v'Hiktir ha'Mizbechah"!
We learned that this refers to bringing limbs to [the top of] the ramp.
Answer #2: Rather, the salt is there when wood is brought up the ramp. This is not an Avodah.
(Rava): If rainwater dirtied a Chatzer, one may bring straw and spread it out [to be trampled on].
Question (Rav Papa - Beraisa #2): One may not spread the straw from a basket or box [like one does during the week], only from the bottom of a [broken or inverted] box. (Even though Rava said exactly like Beraisa #1, since he did not specify, he implied that one may spread it normally - Tosfos ha'Rosh.)
Retraction (Rava): R. Eliezer taught that one may not spread the straw from a basket or box, only with the bottom of a box.
MAKING SOUND ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah): We may draw water from Bor ha'Golah...
Ula visited the house of Rav Menasheh; a man banged on the door.
Ula: Who is desecrating Shabbos [through producing sounds]?
Rabah: (It is permitted.) Chachamim forbade only musical (i.e. pleasant) sounds.
Question (Abaye - Beraisa): One may siphon wine out of a barrel with a Diyofi (two hollow reeds stuck together. One starts to suck the wine [and removes his mouth], and gravity causes the rest of the wine to flow out. See Perush Chai diagram, Perek 10 number 104, in the English Charts section);
One may cause water to drip out of holes in a special Kli [to make noise] for the sake of a Choleh (sick person).
Inference: This is permitted only for a Choleh, but not for a healthy person!
Suggestion: This is in order to wake him from sleep. Even though the noise is unpleasant, it is forbidden [for healthy people]!
Answer: No, it is a [pleasant] sound like cymbals to help him fall asleep.
Question (Beraisa): On Shabbos one may guard his produce from birds or his gourds from Chayos normally, as long as he does not beat his chest, clap his hands together or dance (make sounds with his feet) like he does during the week.
Suggestion: It is forbidden because it produces sounds, and all sounds are forbidden!
Answer (Rav Acha bar Yakov): No, it is a decree lest he take a pebble [and throw it at birds].
Question: Rav Yehudah taught that women may not play with nuts (roll them on boards) on Shabbos;
Suggestion: It is forbidden because it produces sounds!
Answer: No, it is a decree lest they even out holes in the ground [to make a smooth surface for rolling].
Support: Rav Yehudah taught that women may not play with apples on Shabbos;
This does not produce sounds. We must say that it is forbidden lest they even out holes.
Question (Mishnah): We may use a Galgal [in the Azarah] to draw water from Bor ha'Golah and the great pit on Shabbos.
Inference: This is permitted in the Mikdash, but not outside.
Suggestion: It is forbidden outside because it produces sounds!
Rejection: No, it is forbidden lest one use it to water his garden or desolate land on Shabbos.
Ameimar permitted to draw water using a Galgal in Mechuza.
Ameimar: Chachamim forbid this lest one use it to water his garden or ruin. Here, there are no gardens or ruins!
Later, he saw people soaking flax (some texts - spelt) in the water [during the week]. He forbade drawing on Shabbos [lest they soak on Shabbos].
(Mishnah): ...And from Bor ha'Kar on Yom Tov.
Question: What is Bor ha'Kar?
Answer #1 (Shmuel): It is the well about which Hikru (many arguments were brought) and it was permitted [due to the great need. Normally, it is Shevus.]
Objection (Beraisa): They did not permit all Boros ha'Karos, only this one.
If it is the well over which many arguments were brought, there were no others!
Answer #2 (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): It is a well of flowing water - "k'Hakir (this is like Makor, a source) Bayir Meimeha."
(Beraisa): They did not permit all Boros ha'Karos, only this one;
When the exiles returned [from Bavel at the start of Bayis Sheni], they camped by it and prophets among them permitted it to them;
Really, the Nevi'im did not permit it. Bnei Yisrael [who are called Bnei Nevi'im - Ya'avetz] were accustomed to using it [so they were allowed to continue].
REMOVING A SHERETZ FROM THE MIKDASH
(Mishnah - R. Yochanan ben Brokah): If a [dead] Sheretz was found in the Mikdash on Shabbos, a Kohen takes it outside in his Avnet (belt), to avoid delaying the Tum'ah in the Mikdash [even on Shabbos. Even though a Sheretz is Muktzeh, the concern to get rid of the Tum'as Mes overrides Shevus];
R. Yehudah says, he takes it out with wooden tongs, to avoid increasing the Tum'ah [to the garment. Wooden Kelim without a receptacle are not Mekabel Tum'ah.]
Question: From where must we remove Tum'ah?
Answer #1 (Ben Nanas): We must remove it from the Heichal, Ulam and between the Ulam and the Mizbe'ach;
Answer #2 (R. Akiva): We must remove it from any place for which a Tamei person is Chayav Kares b'Mezid and Chayav Chatas b'Shogeg [if he delays there, i.e. the entire Azarah].
If it is found elsewhere, we cover it with a Pesachter (a big bowl).
R. Shimon says, Chachamim permitted to you [only] what [really] is permitted to you. They waived only Shevus. (This will be explained.)
(Gemara - Rav Tuvi bar Kisna): If one brings a [Kli that became] Tamei [through a] Sheretz into the Mikdash, he is Chayav Chatas. If he brings in a Sheretz, he is exempt.
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: "Mi'Zachar Ad Nekevah Teshalechu" - the Mitzvah to expel Tum'ah applies to [people, and] anything [else] that can become Tahor in a Mikveh. This does not include a Sheretz.
Support (Beraisa - R. Yosi ha'Gelili): "Mi'Zachar Ad Nekevah Teshalechu" excludes a Kli Cheres (earthenware).
Suggestion: This is because a Mikveh cannot Metaher it!
Rejection: No. Rather, the Mitzvah applies to things that can become an Av ha'Tum'ah (which is Metamei people and Kelim). This excludes a Kli Cheres.
Suggestion: Tana'im argue about this:
(Mishnah - R. Yochanan ben Brokah): If a Sheretz was found in the Mikdash on Shabbos, a Kohen takes it outside in his garment, to avoid delaying the Tum'ah in the Mikdash [until wooden tongs can be found];
R. Yehudah says, he takes it out with a wooden tongs, to avoid increasing the Tum'ah.
Suggestion: R. Yochanan ben Brokah forbids delaying the Sheretz in the Mikdash because he is Mechayev one who brings it in. R. Yehudah allows delaying it because he exempts one who brings it in!
Rejection: No, all are Mechayev one who brings it in;
R. Yehudah holds that it is better to delay the Tum'ah [in the Mikdash] than to increase it. R. Yochanan ben Brokah holds that it is better to increase it.
Rather, the following Tana'im argue about this;
(Mishnah) Question: From where must we remove Tum'ah? (Ben Nanas says, from the Heichal, Ulam and between the Ulam and the Mizbe'ach. R. Akiva says, from the entire Azarah.)
Suggestion: Ben Nanas exempts one who enters a Sheretz; therefore he does not require removing it from the entire Azarah [only from the Heichal, etc. due to the honor of the Shechinah]. R. Akiva requires removing it from the entire Azarah because he is Mechayev one who brings it in.