FIXING A STRING OF A HARP ON SHABBOS (cont.)
Resolution #3: Our Mishnah is Chachamim [who permit Machshirim that could not be done before Shabbos, if the Avodah cannot be done without them], and the Beraisa is R. Shimon:
(Beraisa): If a string of a Levi's harp broke, he may tie it;
R. Shimon says, he may make a bow.
R. Shimon ben Elazar says, [if he makes a knot or bow,] it will not play [properly]!
(The strings are wound around protrusions from the harp on top and on bottom.) Rather, he lengthens the top [or bottom] remnant of the broken string by unwinding it, enabling it to reach to the protrusion on the bottom [or top]; he adjusts it so the right note is obtained. (This is also a Melachah; Chachamim say that one should tie instead, lest one adjust strings on a new harp.)
Resolution #4: Both the Mishnah and Beraisa are Chachamim. They permit tying a string that snapped in the middle [for if he makes only a bow, it will not play properly], but they permit only to make a bow if it snapped near an end [for that suffices].
Resolution #5: The Mishnah and Beraisa both discuss a string that snapped in the middle. The Mishnah is like Chachamim (they do not decree to forbid, lest one make a knot when it snapped near an end), and the Beraisa is R. Shimon. (He decrees.)
SHEVUSIM OF THE MIKDASH
(Mishnah #1): [On Shabbos] one may cut off a wart (it is a Mum until it is removed) in the Mikdash, but not outside the Mikdash. (Rashi - the wart is on a Korban. Rambam - it is on a Kohen. It is clear from the Gemara that the same law applies to both.)
(Gemara) Contradiction (Mishnah #2): [When Erev Pesach is on Shabbos,] carrying [the Korban Pesach in Reshus ha'Rabim], bringing it from outside the Techum and cutting off a wart do not override [Shabbos];
R. Eliezer says, they override Shabbos. (This is called a contradiction because Chachamim should hold like our anonymous Mishnah (#1), especially since the Halachah [normally] does not follow R. Eliezer.)
Resolution #1 (R. Elazar or R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): Both Mishnayos discuss moist warts. Mishnah #1 permits cutting it off by hand. (This is only Shevus, for is an unskilful way to cut it.) Mishnah #2 forbids cutting it with a Kli;
Resolution #2 (the other of R. Elazar and R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): Both discuss cutting it off by hand. Mishnah #1 permits cutting off a dry wart in the Mikdash, and Mishnah #2 forbids a wet one. (Cutting by hand is a severe Shevus. It is forbidden even in the Mikdash. The same applies to cutting a dry wart with a Kli.)
Question: Why didn't the first opinion answer like the second?
Answer: He permits cutting a dry wart even with a Kli.
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: [When one cuts it] it crumbles. (It does not resemble Melachah.)
Question: Why didn't the second opinion answer like the first?
Answer #1: Our Mishnah already forbids with a Kli everywhere! (Another Mishnah need not teach this.)
Objection: (This is not compelling!) The first opinion can say that it was repeated there to teach that R. Eliezer permits even with a Kli!
Answer #2: The second opinion learns from [the other subjects of Mishnah #2,] carrying [a living animal] and bringing it from outside the Techum, which are only Shevus. (Presumably, also cutting off a wart is also only Shevus. Cutting a moist wart with a Kli is a Melachah.)
Defense (of first opinion): The first opinion holds that [the Tana holds that] carrying and bringing it from outside the Techum are mid'Oraisa;
This is unlike R. Noson, who says that ha'Chai Nosei Es Atzmo, and it is like R. Akiva, who says that the Isur to leave the Techum [of 12 Mil] is mid'Oraisa.
Rejection (of defense - Rav Yosef - Mishnah - R. Eliezer): A Kal va'Chomer permits these (carrying, bringing from outside the Techum and cutting a wart):
Shechitah is a Melachah, yet it overrides Shabbos. All the more so these, which are only Shevus, override Shabbos! (This shows that Chachamim discuss Shevus! Rav Yosef permits cutting a dry wart even with a Kli, therefore he rejects also Resolution #2, and gives a third resolution.)
Resolution #3 (Rav Yosef): Rather, both Mishnayos discuss cutting it off by hand. Mishnah #1 permits Shevus of the Mikdash in the Mikdash, and Chachamim in Mishnah #2 forbid it outside the Mikdash [even for the sake of Avodah].
Question (Rav Safra - Mishnah): If one was reading a Sefer on a porch and it became unraveled, he may roll it back to himself;
This is a [Shevus regarding a Kadosh matter, which is like] Shevus of the Mikdash outside the Mikdash, yet we do not decree lest it drop and he will retrieve it [from Reshus ha'Rabim]!
Answer (Abaye): We established that the porch is a Karmelis, therefore we do not decree when he is holding one end. (Even if it will drop and he will retrieve it, this is not forbidden mid'Oraisa.)
Question (Rav Safra - Mishnah): We may lower the Korban Pesach into an oven just before Shabbos.
This is a Shevus of the Mikdash, yet outside the Mikdash we do not decree lest one stoke the coals [on Shabbos to hasten its cooking]!
Abaye could not answer.
Answer (Rav Yosef): The group that will eat it are zealous. (We are not concerned lest they forget.)
Abaye [did not give this answer, for he] holds that we say that Kohanim are zealous, but we do not say this about the group that will eat Korban Pesach. (All Yisraelim eat it, even those who are not zealous. Rav Yosef holds that all are zealous about Kodshim.)
R. ELIEZER REQUIRES ONE TO DEVIATE
Resolution #4 (of the Contradiction between Mishnayos - Rava): Our Mishnah is R. Eliezer, who says that Machshirim override Shabbos. (Therefore, one may cut even a moist wart);
R. Eliezer agrees that one must deviate [from the normal way of doing the Melachah] as much as possible. (Therefore, one may not use a Kli.)
Question: What is the source of this?
Answer (Beraisa): If there is a wart on a Kohen, another Kohen tears it off with his teeth.
Inferences: It must be done by another Kohen. The Ba'al Mum himself may not do it. It must be done using the teeth, but not using a Kli.
Question: Who is the Tana of the Beraisa?
Suggestion: It is Chachamim (Shabbos 94b, who exempt one who cuts his own fingernails with his nails or teeth. The same applies to warts.) They discuss removing the wart in the Mikdash.
Rejection: Chachamim hold that biting off a wart (even one's own) is Shevus [and permitted in the Mikdash]. Why should they require a different Kohen to do it?!
Answer: It is R. Eliezer. He obligates one who bites off his own wart;
Even though he permits Melachah for Machshirim, one must deviate as much as possible. (Biting off another's wart is only Shevus.)
Rejection: It is Chachamim. (They discuss removing the wart in the Mikdash.) If the wart were on his stomach, they would allow the Kohen to bite it off himself;
The case is, there is a wart (Rashash discusses why it is called 'Neshichah') on his back or elbow, so it is impossible for him to bite it off himself.
Objection: If it is Chachamim, [even if it is on his back and he cannot remove it himself], they should permit someone else to remove it by hand. This would teach [also] R. Elazar's teaching!
(R. Elazar): They argue about removing it himself by hand. All agree that if he removes it with a Kli he is Chayav Chatas.
Counter-question: Even if the Beraisa is like R. Eliezer, he should be allowed to remove it by hand!
Answer: No. If it is R. Eliezer, he decrees to [require the biggest deviation possible, and] forbids by hand lest one use a Kli;
If it is Chachamim, there is no reason to forbid by hand!
There is nothing else to ask. (We must say that the Beraisa is R. Eliezer, and that he requires the biggest deviation possible.)
CHATZITZOS AND EXTRA GARMENTS
(Mishnah): If a Kohen bruised his finger [on Shabbos], he wraps a soft reed over it in the Mikdash;
This is forbidden outside the Mikdash (Rashi - because it heals; Tosfos (Zevachim) - lest he squeeze out blood).
In all places, one may not squeeze out blood.
Version #1 (Gemara - Rav Yehudah brei d'R. Chiya): Only a reed is permitted, but a small belt is forbidden. It is an extra garment;
(R. Yochanan): Extra garments are forbidden only in the places where Bigdei Kehunah are worn.
Question: Both reeds and belts should be forbidden because they are a Chatzitzah (barrier, between the Kohen and the [Kli or Kodesh with which he does] Avodah)!
Answers: The bruise and its cover are on his left hand (it is not used for Avodah), or on a part of the right hand not used for Avodah. (See note 34 in Appendix.)
R. Yochanan (who forbids only where Bigdei Kehunah are worn) argues with Rava;
(Rava): In the places where Bigdei Kehunah are worn, even a thread is a Chatzitzah. In other places, only a garment three [fingers] by three [fingers] is 'Chotzetz'. (Really, it is forbidden due to extra garments.)
Question: Must we say that Rava also argues with Rav Yehudah brei d'R. Chiya?
Answer: No. Since a small belt is decorative, it is considered like a garment that is three by three.
Version #2 (Rav Yehudah brei d'R. Chiya): Only a reed is permitted, but a small belt is 'Chotzetz' (an extra garment);
(R. Yochanan): Something less than three by three is Chotzetz only in the places where Bigdei Kehunah are worn. Elsewhere, only a garment three by three is 'Chotzetz'.
This is like Rava.
Question: (R. Yochanan taught his law to argue with Rav Yehudah. Must we say that [also] Rava argues with Rav Yehudah?
Answer: No. Since a small belt is decorative, it is like a garment three by three. (end of Version #2)
Question: According to R. Yochanan [who permits a small belt, at least in Version #1], why does the Mishnah permit a reed? It should permit a small belt (a bigger Chidush)!
Answer: The Tana taught in passing that a reed heals. (Even so it is permitted on Shabbos in the Mikdash, for it is Shevus.)