ERUVIN 92-95 (5-8 Teves) - Dedicated in memory of Max (Meir Menachem ben Shlomo ha'Levi) Turkel, by his children Eddie and Lawrence and his wife Jean Turkel/Rafalowicz. Max was a warm and loving husband and father and is missed dearly by his family and friends. His Yahrzeit is 5 Teves.

[93a - 32 lines; 93b - 36 lines]

1)[line 1]פצימיןPETZIMIN- [less than three-Tefach-wide] posts (located at the ends of the two parallel walls of the Achsadrah, pointing toward the opposite wall]

2)[line 2]השוה פצימיהHISHVAH PETZIMEHA- if he built new walls parallel to the previous ones, thereby concealing the posts (which are located between the old and new walls)

3)[line 3]לדידי כשירהL'DIDI KESHEIRAH- Abaye later (95a) opines that Pi Tikrah Yored v'Sosem (see next entry) applies in this case and that the Sukah is Kosher

4)[line 7]סילוק מחיצות היאSILUK MECHITZOS HU (PI TIKRAH YORED V'SOSEM)

(a)The Torah requires Mechitzos (partitions) for various Halachos (e.g. defining a Reshus ha'Yachid for the purposes of carrying on Shabbos and creating a Kosher Sukah). A Mechitzah must be ten Tefachim high and enclose an area of four by four Tefachim. (See Insights to Eruvin 86:2.)

(b)When an area is covered by a roof, a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai states that the edge of the beams of the roof "descends and encloses" (Pi Tikrah Yored v'Sosem), even though that side is completely open and has no physical partition. We may consider the area enclosed for Halachic purposes (see Insights to Eruvin 25:2). Amora'im argue as to whether Pi Tikrah can be used to enclose all four sides or only to enclose three sides when one Mechitzah already exists (according to RASHI; see Insights ibid.).

(c)In certain instances, Pi Tikrah cannot be applied:

1.Pi Tikrah is not applied to a roof that is sloped.

2.According to TOSFOS (Eruvin 86b DH Gezuztera), citing RASHI (Sukah 18b), it is not applied unless the roof beam is at least one Tefach thick.

3.According to TOSFOS (Eruvin 86b ibid.), it does not apply when the height of the roof beam is corrugated rather than smooth.

(d)In our Gemara, it is permitted to plant grain under a roof even when grapes which are not under the roof are growing right next to them (or vice versa), as there a Mechitzah between them due to Pi Tikrah Yored v'Sosem. When the roof is extended, this removes the Mechitzah created by the edge of the roof.

5)[line 11]עיקר מחיצהIKAR MECHITZAH- the base of the wall

6)[line 16]אותבן ממתניתיןOSVAN MI'MASNISIN- you should have asked this same question from a Mishnah

7)[line 16]קרחת הכרםKARACHAS HA'KEREM - The Bald Spot of a Vineyard

When grapevines in the middle of a vineyard die or are uprooted, Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel disagree as to the amount of space that must be left barren in order for it to be permitted to plant a different crop in the "bald spot."

8)[line 17]מחול הכרםMECHOL HA'KEREM - The Perimeter of a Vineyard

When grapevines at the perimeter of a vineyard between the vines and the wall bordering it die or are uprooted, Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel disagree as to the amount of space that must be left barren in order for it to be permitted to plant a different crop in the empty space.

9)[line 20]כדי עבודתוKEDEI AVODASO- a vineyard must be surrounded by an area four Amos in width, in order to leave room for a pair of oxen pulling a plow

10a)[line 23]לגבי גדרL'GABEI GEDER- [the four Amos] next to the wall

b)[line 23]אפקורי מפקר להוAFKUREI MAFKAR LEHU- he leaves them unplanted (so as not to weaken the wall)

11)[line 24]חשיבןCHASHIVAN- an area which has at least four Amos in each direction is large enough to be worth planting

12)[line 25]ושנים החיצונים מגופפים והאמצעי אינו מגופףSHENAYIM HA'CHITZONIM MEGOFEFIN VEHA'EMTZA'I EINO MEGOFEF- the two outer Karpifos are wider than the middle one

13)[line 26]נעשה כשיירא ונותנין להן כל צורכןNA'ASEH K'SHAYARA V'NOSNIN LAHEN KOL TZORCHAN- The Gemara earlier (16b) explained that when a temporary Mechitzah - i.e. one comprised of either vertical sticks or horizontally strung reeds - is constructed around a Karpaf, an individual may not carry in it if it is larger than a Beis Se'asayim (even though it is fenced in for residential purposes). A caravan-worth of people (minimum three), however, may utilize such a Mechitzah to carry in as large an area as they need. In our situation, such a temporary Mechitzah was constructed around the three Karpifos. Based upon the premise mentioned earlier (92a) - that the residents of the larger Chatzer have control over the smaller one (and may therefore have full use of it) - the individual residents of the outer Karpifos are considered to be dwelling in the middle, thinner one. Since they are all living in the inner Chatzer (and assuming that they have made an Eruv), the middle Karpaf is considered to have been constructed for the use of a caravan and they may all carry throughout that Karpaf no matter how large of an area it encompasses.

14)[line 27]בית ששBEIS SHESH- an area in which six Se'ah of grain are able to be planted - one Beis Se'asayim per Karpaf. If one of the outer Karpifos is larger than a Beis Se'asayim, it is forbidden to carry in it. If the middle Karpaf is larger than a Beis Se'asayim, they are all forbidden (because the outer ones are Parutz b'Milu'o to the middle one, which is a Reshus that is forbidden for them to carry in).

15)[line 28]אי להכא נפקי תלתא הוו...IY L'HACHA NAFKI, TELASA HAVU...- if they go to here (one of the outer Karpifos), they are three.... That is, since the residents of the inner, larger Karpaf are considered to be dwelling in the outer one(s) as well, may we view them both as living in one of the outer Karpifos (together with the individual already there), thereby meeting the necessary requirements for a Shayara, or is it more reasonable to view one as if he is dwelling in one of the outer Karpifos and the other in the other?

16)[last line]אימר להכא נפיק ואימר להכא נפיקEIMAR L'HACHA NAFIK V'EIMAR L'HACHA NAFIK- each of the outer Karpifos must view the situation as if the individual resident of the middle Chatzer is dwelling in the other of the outer Karpifos

17)[last line]בעייןBA'AYAN- [all of] our questions


18)[line 1]גידוד חמשהGIDUD CHAMISHAH- an embankment which is five Tefachim high

19)[line 8]ורואה פני עשרהRO'EH PNEI ASARAH- lit. sees the face of ten; i.e. from the point of view of the bottom Chatzer, the embankment together with the Mechitzah present a united front (as opposed to the upper Chatzer, which sees only the five Tefachim of the Mechitzah)

20a)[line 10]לא אחדLO ECHAD- for although from the point of view of the upper Chatzer there is no Mechitzah, there is no Pesach into the upper Chatzer from the lower Chatzer

b)[line 10]ולא שניםV'LO SHENAYIM- since there is no Mechitzah from the point of view of the upper Chatzer

21)[line 12]מגופפת עד עשר אמותMEGOFEFES AD ESER AMOS- [the upper Chatzer] is closed (with a proper Mechitzah of ten Tefachim) until ten Amos (at the most; and the area thinner than ten Amos is that which has a Mechitzah of only five Tefachim)

22)[line 23]אמר ליה לאAMAR LEI, LO- (see Background to Eruvin 11:13; see also BACH here for an alternate reading)

23)[line 24]דיורין הבאין בשבתDIYURIN HA'BA'IM B'SHABBOS- inhabitants of a Chatzer who come on Shabbos (such as when a Mechitzah between two Chatzeros falls down on Shabbos, and now those who were in different Chatzeros before Shabbos are in one big Chatzer(

24)[line 28]אימרEIMAR- I could say

25)[line 34]כיון שהותרה הותרהKEIVAN SHE'HUTRAH HUTRAH- and since Rabah maintains that once it is permitted to carry in a Reshus at the beginning of Shabbos it remains so, he must understand our Mishnah to be referring to a case in which it was forbidden to carry from before Shabbos

26)[last line]אין מטלטלין בו אלא בארבע אמותEIN METALTELIN BO ELA B'ARBA AMOS- Rav does not agree with "Keivan d'Hutrah Hutrah." Since there are two Chatzeros here - each of which has made its own individual Eruv - each one is Parutz b'Milu'o to a Reshus which it is not permitted to carry in. Even though Rav rules according to the opinion of Rebbi Shimon who allows one to carry from one Chatzer to another, Rav limited this to Chatzeros which did not make an Eruv.