ERUVIN 75 - Dedicated by Andy & Nancy Neff in memory of Leah Miriam bat Yisroel -- Lucy Rabin, beloved wife of Sidney Rabin and mother of Nancy Neff and Valerie, Doug and Andy Rabin, who passed away on 14 Sivan 5767.

[75a- 44 lines; 75b - 44 lines]

1)[line 1]הוה אמינא דירת עובד כוכבים שמה דירהHAVAH AMINAH DIRAS OVED KOCHAVIM SHEMAH DIRAH- The Gemara explains that had Rav just told us the basic law that every Mavoy requires two Chatzeros which each contain two houses, we would have thought that Diras Oved Kochavim Shemah Dirah. This means that the house, or Chatzer, of a Nochri is taken into account when trying to fill the quota of "two Chatzeros, each with two houses" that must exist in a Mavoy in order for carrying in the Mavoy to be permitted through the use of a Lechi or Korah. (This is not necessarily pertinent to the question of whether the share of the Nochri prevents the other members of the Chatzer or Mavoy from making an Eruv amongst themselves to carry objects from their houses into the courtyard or Mavoy, as in Eruvin 62a. Perhaps a Nochri does prevent an Eruv from taking effect, yet his house is not counted towards the quota of two Chatzeros and two houses - TOSFOS 74b DH Mavoy.)

2)[line 6]אסור לעשות יחיד במקום עובד כוכביםASUR LA'ASOS YACHID B'MAKOM OVED KOCHAVIM- Rav decreed that a single Jew who lives in the same Reshus (Mavoy or Chatzer) as a Nochri or Nochrim may not make an Eruv in any fashion. This is so that he will leave, for we do not want him to learn from their actions.

3)[line 8]לרבי טבלא דאמרL'REBBI TAVLA D'AMAR- from Rebbi Tavla who said [the following about this ruling of Rav]

4)[line 8]עובד כוכבים עובד כוכבים תרי זימניOVED KOCHAVIM OVED KOCHAVIM TREI ZIMNI- (a) He was stressing that this ruling of Rav was because of the non-desirability of living next to the Nochri; (b) the ruling of Rav regarding a Nochri is applicable in both a Mavoy and a Chatzer (RASHI); (c) there are two things to learn from Rav: 1. that the Dirah of a Nochri is not called a Dirah, and 2. that a single Jew may not make an Eruv when living with a Nochri (RABENU CHANANEL)

5)[line 16]שכח אחד מן החיצונה ולא עירבSHACHACH ECHAD MIN HA'CHITZONAH V'LO IREV- This part of the Mishnah is discussing a situation in which each Chatzer made an individual Eruv. If one of the residents of the outer courtyard did not join in the Eruv made in that outer Chatzer, but the inhabitants of the inner Chatzer all joined in the Eruv made in the inner Chatzer, then it is permitted to carry in the inner Chatzer.

6)[line 18]נתנו עירובן במקום אחדNASNU ERUVAN B'MAKOM ECHAD- if the two Chatzeros contributed towards one joint Eruv and placed it in one of the Chatzeros (the Gemara explains that this is only applicable if that Chatzer is the outer Chatzer)

7)[line 19]ואם היו של יחידיםV'IM HAYU SHEL YECHIDIM- if both the inner and outer Chatzeros have only one resident (who by definition need not make an Eruv)

8)[line 20]רגל המותרת במקומה אוסרת שלא במקומהREGEL HA'MUTERES BI'MEKOMAH OSERES SHE'LO BI'MEKOMAH

(a)All inhabitants of a courtyard must make an Eruv Chatzeros together in order to carry in the Chatzer on Shabbos.

(b)The Tana'im argue as to whether those who regularly walk through one courtyard or Mavoy in order to reach a different courtyard or Mavoy where they live have to join in the Eruv of the former. (Those who walk through a different Chatzer are described as having "Derisas ha'Regel" - lit. "trampling of the foot" - in that Chatzer.) For example, must the inhabitants of an inner courtyard be included in the Eruv of an outer courtyard?

(c)The Tana Kama rules that only if the members of the inner courtyard did not make an Eruv amongst themselves do they interfere with the Eruv of the outer courtyard (Regel ha'Asurah bi'Mekomah, Oseres Afilu she'Lo bi'Mekomah). Rebbi Akiva rules that they must be included even if they have made an Eruv amongst themselves (Regel ha'Muteres bi'Mekomah, Oseres Afilu she'Lo bi'Mekomah).The Rabanan rule that they need not be included in the Eruv in any event (k'Shem she'Regel ha'Muteres Einah Oseres, Kach Regel ha'Asurah Einah Oseres). See Insights to Eruvin 66:2:b.

9)[line 24]ולא זו אף זו קתניV'LO ZU AF ZU KA'TANI- see Insights

10)[line 31]דקהDAKAH- (a) a low entryway at the entrance of the Mavoy (RASHI); (b) a low opening which is four Tefachim wide in the wall at the other end of the Chatzer so that the residents of that Chatzer do not have to walk through the outer Chatzer (based on the RITVA in the name of RASHI, TOSFOS RID on 59b); (c) a raised platform at the entrance of the Mavoy (GE'ONIM) which is three (RITVA, RASHBA, ME'IRI), four (TOSFOS), or ten Tefachim high (ROSH, RAN, and TOSFOS according to the BEIS YOSEF and MAHARSHAL). The purpose of the Dakah is to make it less likely that one will walk through the entrance. This effectively cuts off those on one side of the entrance from those on the other side (whether the entrance leads to a Reshus ha'Rabim, a Mavoy or a Chatzer).

11)[line 43]סימן חיצונה עצמה בבית יחידאה רבינא דלא משכח בפניםSIMAN CHITZONAH ATZMAH B'VEIS YECHIDA'AH RAVINA D'LO MASHKACH BI'FNIM- This memory device refers to the previous Sugyos, where questions were asked regarding the opinions of the Tana'im of our Mishnah. They are:

1."Irvah Chitzonah"… (line 22);

2."Irvah Zu l'Atzmah"... (line 25);

3.The Amora who posed the next question is Rav Bivi;

4.His question is from the end of the Mishnah, "v'Im Hayu Shel Yechidim" (line 33);

5.The Amora who posed the next question is Ravina;

6.His question is from the phrase "Shachach Echad...", from which he infers "Ha Lo Shachach...", referring to the Chatzer ha'Penimis (line 37).

12)[last line]מקום המיוחד לשתיהןMAKOM HA'MEYUCHAD LI'SHTEIHEN- the place that is designated for the use of the residents of both Chatzeiros - namely, the outer courtyard


13)[line 9]דאחדא דשא ומשתמשהD'ACHADA DASHA U'MISHTAMSHA

The residents of the inner courtyard close the gate between themselves and the outer courtyard - cutting off any connection between the residents of the outer courtyard and the Eruv - and then use the inner courtyard.

14)[line 11]עירוב מרגילהERUV MARGILAH- when the joint Eruv is placed in the inner courtyard, the residents of the outer courtyard are considered to be residing in the inner courtyard as well (this is called "Hergel Eruv")

15)[line 12]לתקוני שיתפתיך ולא לעוותיL'TAKUNEI SHITAFTICH V'LO L'AVUSEI- I joined with you in this Eruv for my benefit and [would] not [have if I had known that doing so would result in] my detriment

16)[line 14]דאמרה לה מבטלינן לך רשותיD'AMRAH LAH MEVATILNA LACH RESHUSI- [According to Rebbi Akiva, it is only forbidden for the residents of the inner courtyard to carry there until] the people of the outer courtyard say, "We nullify our share of the inner courtyard to you."

17)[line 15]אין ביטול רשות מחצר לחצרEIN BITUL RESHUS ME'CHATZER L'CHATZER- and since it is therefore pointless for the residents of the inner Chatzer to wait for the outer Chatzer to nullify their Chatzer, they immediately invoke the logic of "l'Takunei Shitaftich v'Lo l'Avusei" (see above, entry #15)

18)[line 16]שמואל ורבי יוחנןSHMUEL... V'REBBI YOCHANAN- see 66b and 68a

19)[line 22]דאמרה לה אדמבטלת לי קא אסרת עלאיD'AMRAH LAH AD'MEVATLAS LI KA ASRAS ALAI- that [the inner courtyard] says [to the outer one], "Until you nullify your Reshus to ours, you are preventing us from carrying in our Chatzer." (Therefore, even though generally the Rabanan allow nullification of one Chatzer to another, in this case the logic of "l'Takunei Shitaftich v'Lo l'Avusei" permits the inner Chatzer to carry without having to wait for the nullification of the outer Chatzer.)

20)[line 24]היו ג' אסוריןHAYU SHELOSHAH ASURIN- If there were [a total of] three [residents between the two Chatzeros (even if only one of them lived in the inner one, and logically since he need not make an Eruv he should not forbid the residents of the outer Chatzer from carrying)], they may not [carry without an Eruv]

21)[line 26]לא תציתו ליהLO TATZISU LEI- do not listen to him (to Rav Yosef, who quoted this as a Mishnah in the name of Rebbi)

22)[line 28]הואיל ואני קורא בהן רבים בחיצונהHO'IL VA'ANI KOREI BAHEM RABIM B'CHITZONAH- we are worried that if we allow people to carry without an Eruv when there is a single resident in the inner Chatzer, people will confuse such a situation with one in which there is a single resident in the outer Chatzer, but more than one in the inner Chatzer.

23)[line 29]מריה דאברהם! רבים ברבי איחלף לי!MAREI D'AVRAHAM! RABIM B'REBBI ICHLAF LI!- "Master of Avraham! I interchanged 'Rabim' with 'Rebbi'!" Rav Yosef became sick and forgot much of his learning. His students helped him to recover what he had once known. This incident occurred when Rav Yosef was in the recovery process.

24)[line 32]ונכרי הרי הוא כרביםNOCHRI HARI HU K'RABIM- [according to Shmuel, if] a [single] Nochri [lives in the inner courtyard, he prevents the residents of the outer courtyard from carrying] as if he were more than one Jew

25)[line 34]דידעD'YADA- that knows [that he is the only resident of the inner Chatzer]

26)[line 36]אגירי אוגרAGIREI OGAR- he rented his domain to the residents of the outer courtyard

27)[line 36]אי איתא דאוגר מיפעא פעיIY ISA D'OGAR, MIF'A PA'EI- if he had indeed rented it out, he would have talked about it (and everyone would know about it)

28)[line 37]י' בתים זה לפנים מזהASARAH BATIM ZEH LI'FNIM MI'ZEH...- ten rooms in a row, each one leading into the next, with the outer one leading into the Chatzer. Each of the outer rooms is considered to be no more than a "Beis Sha'ar" - an entranceway - to the inner rooms.

29)[line 42]ב' חצירות וג' בתים ביניהן...SHTEI CHATZEROS V'SHELOSHAH BATIM BEINEIHEM...- three rooms open to each other, with the two outer ones opening into Chatzeros, one on each side. The residents of the outer rooms place their respective Eruvin in the middle room, and they themselves are considered Beis She'arim to their respective Chatzeros.