[56a - 40 lines; 56b - 32 lines]

1)[line 1]פת קיברPAS KIVAR- (O.F. seondier) bread made from flour of inferior quality

2)[line 2]בתומי וכרתיTUMEI V'KARTEI- garlic and leeks

3)[line 3]כרישיןKEREISHIN- leeks

4)[line 3]נראה צנון נראה סם חייםNIR'EH TZENON, NIR'EH SAM CHAYIM- if a radish has been seen, a life giving drug has been seen

5a)[line 5]בעליןALIN- leaves

b)[line 5]באמהותIMAHOS- the bulbs (vegetable)

6)[line 7]מעלות ומורדותMA'ALOS U'MORADOS- ascents and descents

7)[line 10]מולייתאMULYASA- ascents

8)[line 11]דבי בירי ודבי נרשD'VEI BEIRAI UD'VEI NARASH- of the towns of Beirai and Narash, towns of Bavel

9)[line 11]אזקנוןAZKENUN- made us (me) old

10)[line 14]עגלהAGALAH- (a) the constellation of Ursa Major (the Big Dipper) (RABEINU YONASAN MI'LUNIL); (b) according to the pronunciation *EGLAH* - Taurus, the northernmost of the signs of the zodiac (RASHI)

b)[line 14]עגלה בצפון ועקרב בדרוםAGALAH BA'TZAFON V'AKRAV BA'DAROM- [A person who does not know the proper alignment of north and south may use the constellations] Agalah (or Eglah) which is in the north and Akrav (Scorpio) which is in the south [in order to align the squared Techum]

11)[line 16]כמין התקופהK'MIN HA'TEKUFAH- according to the solstices and equinoxes

12)[line 19]תקופת ניסןTEKUFAS NISAN- vernal equinox

13)[line 19]ותקופת תשריTEKUFAS TISHREI- autumnal equinox

14)[line 21]הולך אל דרום..."""HOLECH EL DAROM..."- "It goes towards the south and veers to the north." (Koheles 1:6)

15)[line 24]מהלכתןMEHALCHASAN- it traverses them during the day

b)[line 24]מסבבתןMESAVEVASAN- it goes around them from behind; i.e. it traverses them at night when it cannot be seen

16)[line 32]תקופת תמוזTEKUFAS TAMUZ- the summer solstice

17)[line 37]ואין תקופה מושכת מחברתה אלא חצי שעהV'EIN TEKUFAH MOSHECHES ME'CHAVERTAH ELA CHATZI SHA'AH- the difference between the hour in which one Tekufah falls and the hour in which the next one falls is 1/2 hour, since the actual time difference between Tekufos is 91 days and 7 1/2 hours

18)[line 39]בצדקTZEDEK- the hour when Jupiter "dominates" the heavenly hosts

19)[last line]דאיתליד לבנהD'ISYALID LEVANAH- the new moon appeared

56b----------------------------------------56b

20)[line 15]ערי לויםAREI HA'LEVIYIM

(a)When the land of Yisrael was divided among the tribes of Yisrael, all tribes received a portion of land except for the tribe of Levi (Bamidbar 26:62, Yehoshua 14:4). The Leviyim were settled in the six Arei Miklat and in forty-two other cities that were designated as "Arei Leviyim" (Yehoshua 21:3-39).

(b)Part of the grant of land that the Leviyim received was the 2000-Amah area outside of their cities. The first one thousand Amos from the wall of the city is called the Migrash of the city. It is left unplanted and is known as the "Noy ha'Ir" (the beauty of the city). The remaining one thousand Amos is designated for fields and vineyards.

21)[line 16]מגרשMIGRASH- the open spaces outside of the cities of the Leviyim which extend one thousand Amos from the wall of the city

22)[line 18]"[ומגרשי הערים אשר תתנו ללוים] מקיר העיר וחוצה אלף אמה [סביב]""[U'MIGRESHEI HE'ARIM ASHER TITNU LA'LEVIYIM] MI'KIR HA'IR VA'CHUTZAH ELEF AMAH [SAVIV]"- "[The open areas that you shall give the Leviyim] shall extend outwards 1000 Amos from the city wall [all around]." (Bamidbar 35:4)

23)[line 21]בר אדא משוחאהBAR ADA MESHUCHA'AH- bar Ada, the one who measures the Techumin of cities

24)[line 23]תחום כמה הויא?TECHUM KAMAH HAVYA? - In a city that is two thousand Amos by two thousand Amos, what is the area of the Techum that is measured only* along the borders of the city?

              -------------------
              |  |  |//|//|  |  |
              -------------------
              |  |  |//|//|  |  |
              -------------------
              |//|//|     |//|//|
              -------city -------
              |//|//|     |//|//|
              -------------------
              |  |  |//|//|  |  |
              -------------------
              |  |  |//|//|  |  |
              -------------------

25)[line 23]שיתסרSHITSAR- sixteen [thousand square boxes which are 1000 Amos by 1000 Amos each, or sixteen million square Amos]

26)[line 23]קרנות כמה הויין?KERANOS KAMAH HAVYAN? - what is the area of the Techum that is added because we also measure the corners (2000 Amos by 2000 Amos for each corner)?

              -------------------
              |//|//|  |  |//|//|
              -------------------
              |//|//|  |  |//|//|
              -------------------
              |  |  |     |  |  |
              -------city -------
              |  |  |     |  |  |
              -------------------
              |//|//|  |  |//|//|
              -------------------
              |//|//|  |  |//|//|
              -------------------

27)[line 26]טפי מתלתא נינהוTEFEI MI'TILTA NINHU! - [the area of the Migrash (12 million square Amos) is not a quarter of the total Techum (32 million square Amos),] it is more than a third!

              -------------------
              |  |  |  |  |  |  |
              -------------------
              |  |//Migrash//|  |
              ----//-------//----
              |  |//|     |//|  |
              ----//-city -//----
              |  |//|     |//|  |
              ----//-------//----
              |  |///////////|  |
              -------------------
              |  |  |  |  |  |  |
              -------------------

28)[line 28]כמה מרובע יתר על העגול? רביעKAMAH MERUBA YESER AL HA'IGUL? REVI'A- how much is the extra area of a square whose side is the same length as the diameter of the inscribed circle? One-fourth.

OTHER D.A.F. RESOURCES ON THIS DAF