[52a - 31 lines; 52b - 33 lines]
1)[line 1]בצינתאB'TZINESA- by the palm tree
2)[line 4]הדרי ביHADRI BI- [because of your words,] I will change my actions (lit. I change my mind)
3)[line 10]דלא נטרח וניפוקD'LO NITRACH V'NEIFUK- so that he should not have to exert himself and walk to the place where he wants his Shevisah
4)[line 11]והחזירו חבירוV'HECHEZIRO CHAVEIRO- that is, even if he was convinced by his friend to return to the city — see Insights.
5)[line 20]כיון שהחזיק בדרך קנהKEIVAN SHE'HECHEZIK BADERECH, KANAH- once he began the journey, [he is considered an Ani and] the Eruv he declared takes effect.
6)[line 22]לין פהLIN PO- spend the night here (in your house)
7)[line 30]כלכלה דפיריKALKALAH D'FEIREI- a basket of fruits
8)[last line]שבקיה עד דנחית דרגאSHAVKEI AD D'NACHIS DARGA- he let him go down one stair
9)[last line]בית הכאBIS HACHA- spend the night here
10)[line 14]"אם תשיב משבת רגלך [עשות חפצך ביום קדשי וקראת לשבת ענג לקדוש ה' מכבד וכבדתו מעשות דרכיך ממצוא חפצך ודבר דבר]""IM TASHIV MI'SHABBOS RAGLECHA, [ASOS CHEFTZECHA B'YOM KODSHI, V'KARASA LA'SHABBOS ONEG, LI'KEDOSH HASH-M MECHUBAD, V'CHIBADTO ME'ASOS DERACHECHA, MI'METZO CHEFTZECHA V'DABER DAVAR.]" - "If you will restrain your foot because it is Shabbos, [refrain from accomplishing your own needs on My holy day; if you will proclaim the Shabbos a pleasure, the holy day of HaSh-m an honor; if you will honor it by not engaging in your own affairs, by not indulging in your own affairs and discussing matters that are forbidden (on Shabbos).]" (Yeshayah 58:13) (SHABBOS, THE KEY TO TESHUVAH)
(a)The people wanted to know why their fasts were not being accepted. The Navi began his answer by pointing out to them the futility of fasting and bowing one's head in mock humility, and wearing sack-cloth and ashes while one indulges in squabbling with his fellow man.
(b)What HaSh-m wants, he explained to them, is that they rid themselves of their evil ways, stop harassing the poor, and set free their servants, and that they fulfill the requirements in the above verse. Then, as the Navi concludes this section of his prophecy, "HaSh-m will be happy to answer their prayers and heed their cries."
(c)Interestingly, most of the Navi's complaints concerned sins "Bein Adam la'Chaveiro" (between man and his fellow man). Virtually no mention is made of sins between man and G-d (many of which they were guilty, including the three cardinal sins, idolatry, adultery, and murder). Nevertheless, the Navi does conclude with a detailed description of the importance of keeping Shabbos, which is the key to Teshuvah. Interestingly, the Navi combines the same two issues (justice and charity on one hand, and Shabbos on the other) in chapter 56 (verse 2).
(d)The Gemara infers from this verse a number of decrees that the Chachamim instituted in the time of Yeshayah in order to strengthen the people's waning observance of Shabbos. They declared Shabbos a day of joy, to be celebrated by eating nice food. Then they instituted that one honor the Shabbos by wearing special Shabbos clothing, by walking in a more dignified manner that befits the Shabbos, by concerning themselves with Divine issues rather than personal matters, and by avoiding mundane speech.
(e)The Navi concludes, "Then you will rejoice with HaSh-m, and I will ride you astride in the high places of the land; I will feed you the inheritance of Yakov your father, for the mouth of HaSh-m has spoken!"
11)[line 17]למקום שרובו הוא נזקרLA'MAKOM SHE'RUBO HU NIZKAR- he is considered to occupy (lit. "he is thrown to") the place where most of his body is situated
12)[line 27]למודדL'MODED- for a person (who was outside of the Techum of a city when Shabbos began) who is measuring the 2000 Amos of his own Techum. Even if his 2000 Amos end just one Amah outside of the Techum of the city, he may not enter.
13)[line 30]שאין המשוחות ממצין את המדותSHE'EIN HA'MASHOCHOS MEMATZIN ES HA'MIDOS- the people who measure the Techum do not place the boundary markers at the exact end of the Techum. Rather, they mark the Techum at slightly less than the allotted amount.
14)[line 31]מפני טועי המדהMIPNEI TO'EI HA'MIDAH- (a) because of people who err when walking to the end of the Techum (and do not notice the marker); (b) to compensate for the error made by the people who measure the Techum. They may not have used the entire 50 Amos of rope when they did the measurement (since the ends of the rope are held in their hands).
PEREK #5 KEITZAD ME'ABRIN
15)[line 33]בית נכנס בית יוצאBAYIS NICHNAS, BAYIS YOTZEI- [if the city wall is made of adjoining houses and] one house is set back from the others, forming an indentation, and another house juts out further than the others
16)[line 33]פגום נכנס פגום יוצאPAGUM NICHNAS, PAGUM YOTZEI- one turret of the wall recedes and one turret juts out
17)[last line]גדודיותGEDUDIYOS- remains of walls from the ruins of buildings