[51a - 35 lines; 51b - 32 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Rashi 51a DH Makom mi'Makom ד"ה מקום ממקום:
The words "d'Chsiv mi'Gevul Ir Miklato" דכתיב מגבול עיר מקלטו
should be "d'Chsiv Es Gevul Ir Miklato" דכתיב את גבול עיר מקלטו (Bamidbar 35:26)
 Gemara 51b [line 24]:
The word "b'ARUMA" בארומא
should be "b'RUMA" ברומא (Dikdukei Sofrim #5)
 Gemara 51b [last line]:
The word "me'ARTIVNA" מארטיבנא
should be "me'ARTEVANYA" מארטבניא (Dikdukei Sofrim #10)
1)[line 1]דכי רהיט לעיקרו מטיD'CHI RAHIT L'IKARO MATI- [he is close enough such that] if he runs to the trunk of the tree, he would arrive there before it gets dark
2)[line 4]כי מסגי קלי קליKI MASGI KALI KALI- when he goes slowly (lit. little by little)
3)[line 7]תותי דיקלא דסביל אחוהTUSEI DIKLA D'SAVIL ACHUHA- beneath the palm that supports its neighboring palm
4)[line 8]דפריק מריה מכרגאD'FARIK MAREI MI'KARGA- that redeems its owner from the tax (by producing enough fruits to pay the tax)
5)[line 14]דליקבל לה מיניהD'LIKBAL LAH MINEI- he should accept it from him
6)[line 14]דרבי יוסי נימוקו עמוD'REBBI YOSI NIMUKO IMO
(a)The Chachamim laid down various rules which determine the Halachah when there is an argument among the Tana'im.
(b)The Halachah follows the opinion of Rebbi Yosi when he argues with an individual Tana since "Nimuko Imo," which means:
1.He reasons solidly (from the word Nimuk, reason or argument); or
2.His opinion is the straightest, most exact one (from the words Nim v'Kav, his words are as straight as a Kav Mishkoles, plumbline).
7)[line 19]למדנו מקום ממקום ומקום מניסה...LAMADNU MAKOM MI'MAKOM, U'MAKOM MI'NISAH...- We learn a multi-stage Gezeirah Shavah to connect the word "Makom" in the verse, "Al Yetzei Ish mi'Mekomo" (Shemos 16:29), to the word "Chutz" in the verse, "u'Madosem mi'Chutz la'Ir..." (Bamidbar 35:5), which contains the 2000-Amah measurement. That is, the verse with the word "Makom" is compared to a verse with both the words "Makom" and "Nisah," i.e. "v'Samti Lecha Makom Asher Yanus Shamah" (Shemos 21:13). This verse in turn is compared to a verse with the words "Nisah" and "Gevul," i.e. "Es Gevul Ir Miklato Asher Yanus" (Bamidbar 35:26), and so on.
8)[line 21]"ומדתם מחוץ לעיר את פאת קדמה אלפים באמה ואת פאת נגב אלפים באמה ואת פאת ים אלפים באמה ואת פאת צפון אלפים באמה, והעיר בתוך; זה יהיה להם מגרשי הערים""U'MADOSEM MI'CHUTZ LA'IR ES PE'AS KEDMAH ALPAYIM BA'AMAH V'ES PE'AS NEGEV ALPAYIM BA'AMAH V'ES PE'AS YAM ALPAYIM BA'AMAH V'ES PE'AS TZAFON ALPAYIM BA'AMAH, V'HA'IR BA'TAVECH; ZEH YIHEYEH LAHEM MIGRESHEI HE'ARIM"- "And you shall measure outside the city on the eastern side 2000 Amos, and on the southern side 2000 Amos, and on the western side 2000 Amos, and on the northern side 2000 Amos, with the city in the center; this shall constitute the city's open areas" (Bamidbar 35:5).
9)[line 22]"[ומגרשי הערים אשר תתנו ללוים] מקיר העיר וחוצה אלף אמה [סביב]"[U'MIGRESHEI HE'ARIM ASHER TITNU LA'LEVIYIM] MI'KIR HA'IR VA'CHUTZAH ELEF AMAH [SAVIV]"- "[The open areas that you shall give the Leviyim] shall extend outwards 1000 Amos from the city wall [all around]" (ibid. 35:4).
10)[line 21]"ומדותם מחוץ לעיר...""U'MADOSEM MI'CHUTZ LA'IR..." (Bamidbar 35:5) (MIGRESHEI HE'ARIM)(a) When the land of Yisrael was divided among the tribes of Yisrael, all tribes received a portion of land except for the tribe of Levi (Bamidbar 26:62, Yehoshua 14:4). The Leviyim were settled in the six Arei Miklat and in forty-two other cities that were designated as "Arei Leviyim" (Yehoshua 21:3-39).
(b)Part of the grant of land that the Leviyim received was the 2000-Amah area outside of their cities. The first one thousand Amos from the wall of the city is called the Migrash of the city. It is left unplanted and is known as the "Noy ha'Ir" (the beauty of the city). The remaining one thousand Amos is designated for fields and vineyards.
11)[line 24]זו היא שיבה זו היא ביאהZU HI SHIVAH, ZU HI BI'AH
(a)Regarding a house that was put into quarantine because of Tzara'as, the Pasuk says (Vayikra 14:39) "v'Shav ha'Kohen." The Torah requires that the Kohen return to inspect the house seven days after the Tzara'as was first noted. If the Tzara'as has spread, the infected stones must be removed from the house and the surrounding plaster scraped off. New stones are inserted and new plaster applied, and the house is put into quarantine for another week. If the Tzara'as returns by the end of the week of quarantine, the entire house must be dismantled.
(b)In Vayikra 14:44 it is written "u'Va ha'Kohen," which means "if, when the Kohen comes back to the house to inspect it a second time, he finds that the spot of Tzara'as has spread, the house is Tamei." Chazal teach that this verse is referring to a spot of Tzara'as that does not spread during its first week. The Kohen "comes back to the house" after a second week to see whether the spot has spread, remains, or has disappeared. If it either remains in place or spreads, the Kohen must follow the procedure described above (remove the infected stones, scrape off the surrounding plaster, replace with new stones and plaster, and allow a one-week quarantine period).
(c)Even though the words "v'Shav" and "u'Va" are not identical, they are referring to the same action; namely the Kohen entering the house to inspect it. This relates the two verses to each other with a Gezeirah Shavah in order to teach us that just as the house is not dismantled if the Tzara'as spreads during the first week — unless the stones are scraped and the Tzara'as returned to the house after a week of quarantine — so too the house is not dismantled if the Tzara'as spread during the second week unless it returns to the house after the quarantine period that follows the scraping.
12)[line 27]פיאות כתיבןPEI'OS KESIVAN- the word PE'AH (side, corner) is written a number of times in the verse, which gives the impression that the Techum is square
13)[line 31]הוצאה: המעביר ד אמות ברשות הרביםHOTZA'AH: HA'MA'AVIR 4 AMOS B'RESHUS HA'RABIM
(a)HOTZA'AH is the last of the thirty-nine Avos Melachos of Shabbos. It involves either:
1.Transferring objects from a Reshus ha'Yachid to a Reshus ha'Rabim,
2.HACHNASAH - transferring objects from a Reshus ha'Rabim to a Reshus ha'Yachid,
3.MA'AVIR ARBA AMOS B'RESHUS HA'RABIM - carrying an object from one place in Reshus ha'Rabim to another over a distance of at least four Amos,
4.MOSHIT - passing an object from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another through Reshus ha'Rabim (as described in the Mishnah in Shabbos 96a, see Background to Shabbos 4a). These are all Torah prohibitions.
(b)AKIRAH & HANACHAH - In order to transgress the biblical prohibition of Hotza'ah, certain conditions must be met. An Akirah (initiation of movement) and a Hanachah (putting the object to rest) must be performed on the object by the same person. If one person does the Akirah and another does the Hanachah, only a rabbinical prohibition is involved, as the Gemara states in Shabbos 3a.
14)[line 31]הן ואלכסונןHEN V'ALACHSONAN- the diagonal of a square which is 4 X 4 Amos, i.e. approx. 5.6 Amos
15)[line 31]בדיק לן רבאBADIK LAN RAVA- Rava tested us
16)[line 32]עמוד ברשות הרביםAMUD B'RESHUS HA'RABIM (RESHUS HA'YACHID)
RESHUS HA'YACHID (the private domain) is comprised of places that have an area of at least four by four Tefachim and are enclosed by a ten-Tefach-high partition on at least three sides, such as enclosed yards, or ditches with these dimensions (since the vertical wall of the ditch acts as a partition). A ten-Tefach-high mound that is four by four Tefachim wide at its top is also a Reshus ha'Yachid.
17)[line 16]חוץ לתחוםCHUTZ L'TECHUM- that is, close to the edge of the Techum, or outside of the Ibur of his city (He cannot be literally outside of his Techum, for in that case he certainly would be "on the road," and he would be judged an Ani) -Rashi and Tosfos
18)[line 24]באנשי בית ממלANSHEI BEIS MAMAL- the members of the family of Mamal
19)[line 24]ובאנשי בית גוריוןANSHEI BEIS GURYON- the members of the family of Guryon
20)[line 24](בארומא) [ברומא](ARUMA) [RUMA]- a place in the Galilee
21)[line 25]גרוגרותGROGEROS- dried figs
22)[line 25]וצימוקיןTZIMUKIN- raisins
23)[line 25]כפר שיחיןKEFAR SHICHIN- the village of Shichin (probably near Shichin, which was near Tzipori in the lower Galilee)
24)[line 26]כפר חנניהKEFAR CHANANYAH- the village of Chananyah, a village in the Galilee
25)[line 28]?מאי שנא איהו ומאי שנא אינהוMAI SHENA IHU, U'MAI SHENA INHU?- That is, the Eruv should not work for the one who started on the road (since he turned back and decided against going), and the Eruv should work for the people of the city (since they never showed signs of regretting the journey).
26)[line 30]כיון דנפקא ליה לאורחאKEIVAN D'NAFKA LEI L'URCHA- since he has already started on his way
27)[last line](מארטיבנא) [מארטבניא](ARTIVNA) [ARTEVANYA]- Artabania, a place in Bavel named after Artaban IV, the last Parthian king