[53a - 48 lines; 53b - 46 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 53b [line 33]:
The words "Shema Lo Hinachta Pe'ah ba'Rishonim" שמא לא הנחת פאה בראשונים
should be "Shema Pe'ah Shiyarta Al ha'She'ar" שמא פאה שיירתא על השאר
This is the Girsa in Dikdukei Sofrim #5, in Midrash Eichah, and is similar to the emendation of the Vilna Ga'on.
 Gemara 53b [line 34]:
The words "Ein Meshirin Pe'ah b'Ilfas Aval Meshairin Pe'ah b'Ke'arah" אין משיירין פאה באילפס אבל משיירין פאה בקערה
should be "Meshirin b'Ilfas v'Ein Meshairin b'Ke'arah" משיירין באילפס ואין משיירין בקערה
(Dikdukei Sofrim ibid. and the first printing of Ein Yakov)
1)[line 1]וגשרים... שיש בהן בית דירהGESHARIM... SHE'YESH BAHEN BEIS DIRAH- bridges that contain an apartment for the toll collector
2)[line 1]ונפשותNEFASHOS- structures that are built over graves (a) for watchmen (RASHI); (b) as a monument (ARUCH)
3)[line 2]טבלאTAVLA- a board
4)[line 3]כדי שיהא נשכר את הזויותKEDEI SHE'YEHEI NISKAR ES HA'ZAVIYOS- in order that he gain the corners (the extra area of a circumscribed square whose side is the same length as the diameter of the inscribed circle)
5)[line 5]אבר אברEVER EVER- we give it "limbs" (protrusions); i.e. if part of the city protrudes at one end, we make a similar (imaginary) protrusion at the other end so that the city limits will be extended along the entire side
6)[line 9]היינו מכפלהHAINU MACHPELAH- that is why it is called "Machpelah" (doubled) (since it had two stories)
7)[line 11]שכפולה בזוגותKEFULAH B'ZUGOS- "doubled" due to the couples that were buried there
8)[line 17]שהמריד את כל העולם כולו עליוSHE'HIMRID ES KOL HA'OLAM KULO ALAV- that made the entire world rebel against himself (lit. against Nimrod, but referring to HaSh-m)
9)[line 29]מנייהו דידהו גמרMINAIHU DIDHU GAMAR- he learned from them
10)[line 35]כפתחו של אולםK'PISCHO SHEL ULAM- like the entranceway of the Ulam in the Beis ha'Mikdash, which was 20 Amos wide and 40 Amos tall
11)[line 35]כפתחו של היכלK'PISCHO SHEL HEICHAL- like the entranceway of the Heichal in the Beis ha'Mikdash, which was 10 Amos wide and 20 Amos tall
12)[line 36]כמלא נקב מחט סידקיתKI'MLO NEKEV MACHAT SIDKIS- like the size of the eye of a sewing needle
13)[line 38]ואנן כי סיכתא בגודא לגמראANAN KI SICHTA B'GUDA LI'GEMARA- when it comes to understanding the Torah that we hear, we are like a peg [which does not enter easily] in a small hole in the wall
14)[line 38]ואנן כי אצבעתא בקירא לסבראANAN KI ETZBA'ASA B'KIRA LI'SEVARA- when it comes to analyzing the Torah that we learn, we are like a finger [which one is trying to stick] in hard wax
15)[line 39]כי אצבעתא בבירא לשכחהKI ETZBA'ASA B'VEIRA L'SHIKCHAH- when it comes to forgetting the Torah that we learn, we are like a finger [which one is trying to stick] in a well (RASHI); according to the Girsa KI ETZBA'ASA B'VIZRA - like a finger [which one is trying to stick] in a pile of small seeds, which makes a hole that disappears as soon as the finger is removed; similarly, as soon as we start a new Masechta, we forget the previous one (RABEINU CHANANEL)
16)[line 40]שהקפידו על לשונםSHE'HIKPIDU AL LESHONAM- that were careful to speak clearly
17)[line 42]דייקי לישנאD'DAIKEI LISHNA- they carefully repeated their lessons using the same words as their teachers
18)[line 42]מתנחי להו סימנאMASNACHEI LEHU SIMANA- since they learned many lessons by heart one after the other, they invented mnemonic devices to remember them and their order (lit. and they set down signs for them)
19)[line 45]דגלו מסכתאD'GALU MASECHTA- (a) that teach the Masechta to others; (b) that clarify what the Masechta means when they learn it
20)[line 47]"יראיך יראוני וישמחו""YERE'ECHA YIR'UNI V'YISMACHU"- "They who fear you will see me and be glad" (Tehilim 119:74) - Due to the self-sacrifice of David ha'Melech with regard to his Torah-learning, he was able to arrive at the correct Halachic ruling, which filled people with happiness upon seeing him.
21)[last line]"(אל כל) [ובכל] אשר יפנה ירשיע""(EL KOL) [UV'CHOL] ASHER YIFNEH YARSHI'A"- "[And Shaul consolidated his kingdom over Yisrael; he waged war against all his enemies all around: Mo'av, the sons of Amon, Edom, Edom, the kings of Tzovah and the Pelishtim;] and wherever he turned, he wrought havoc" (Shmuel I 14:47) - The Gemara takes the word "Yarshi'a" out of context and interprets it to mean that Shaul ha'Melech was not able to arrive at the correct Halachic ruling.
22)[line 1]מניין שמחל לו הקדוש ברוך הוא על אותו עוןMINAYIN SHE'MACHAL LO HA'KADOSH BARUCH HU AL OSO AVON- This is connected to the previous Gemara as follows: When King Shaul sinned (by killing the city of Nov), it was because he did not come to the proper Halachic ruling (see above, 19). Nevertheless, HaSh-m eventually forgave him for that sin.
23)[line 2]"מחר אתה ובניך עמי""MACHAR ATAH U'VANECHA IMI"- "and tomorrow you and your sons will be with me" (Shmuel I 28:19) - The spirit of Shmuel ha'Navi told Shaul ha'Melech that if he accepts upon himself the divine decree that he and his sons die in battle on the following day to atone for their sins, they would merit to be in the same exalted sphere of the World to Come as Shmuel ha'Navi.
24)[line 5]אכוזוAKUZO- buttocks
25)[line 5]ידעיYAD'EI- [if someone would ask the people of Yehudah...] they would know
26)[line 10]גווןGAVAN- color
27)[line 11]כתרדין עלי אדמהK'TERADIN ALEI ADAMAH- [dark green] like the beet plant when it is attached the ground
28)[line 13]אמר למאן? אמר למאן?AMAR L'MAN? AMAR L'MAN?- Who has "Amar"? Who has "Amar"? (The Gemara explains the possible connotations of Amar.)
29a)[line 13]חמר למירכבCHAMAR L'MIRKAV- a donkey to ride
b)[line 14]חמר למישתיCHAMAR L'MISHTEI- wine to drink
c)[line 14]עמר למילבשAMAR L'MILBASH- wool to [make clothes from] and wear
d)[line 14]אימר לאיתכסאהIMAR L'ISKESA'AH- a sheep to slaughter
30)[line 15]תאי דאוכליך חלבאTA'I D'OCHLICH CHALBA- come and I will feed you milk
31)[line 15]שלוכתי תוכליך לביאSHELUCHTI TOCHLICH LAVI- you outcast, a lioness should eat you!
32)[line 16]מרי כיריMARI KIRI- my master! my servant!
33)[line 16]תפלא הוית לי וגנבוך מיןTAFLA HAVEIS LI V'GANVUCH MIN- I had a beam and they stole you (the judge) from me
34)[line 17]וכדו הוות (דכד) [דכי] שדרו לך עילויה לא מטי כרעיך אארעאU'CHDU HAVAS (D'CHAD) [D'CHI] SHADRU LACH ILAVEI LO MATI KAR'ICH A'AR'A- and it happened now; if they would have hung you on it, your feet would not have reached the ground
35)[line 17]אמהתא דבי רבי כי הוה משתעיא בלשון חכמה אמרה הכיAMHASA D'VEI REBBI, KI HAVA MISHTA'YA B'LASHON CHOCHMAH, AMRAH HACHI- when Rebbi's maidservant would speak with wisdom [so that the students should not understand - DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #60], she would say the following
36)[line 18]עלת נקפת בכד ידאון נישריא לקיניהוןALAS NAKFAS BA'KAD; YID'UN NISHRAYA L'KINEIHON- the ladle is banging against the jug; shall the eagles fly to their nests? [i.e. there is no more wine; shall the students go home? - DIKDUKEI SOFRIM ibid.]
37)[line 19]וכד הוה בעי דליתבוןV'CHAD HAVAH BA'I D'LEISVUN- and when Rebbi (- DIKDUKEI SOFRIM ibid.) would want them to continue sitting
38)[line 19]הוה (אמרה להו) [אמר לה] יעדי (בתר) [כתר] חברתה מינהHAVAH (AMRAH LEHU) [AMAR LAH] YA'ADEI (BASAR) [KESER] CHAVERTAH MINAH- he would say to her "the top of the other jug should be removed from it" (DIKDUKEI SOFRIM ibid.)
39)[line 20]ותתקפי עלת בכד כאילפא דאזלא בימאV'TISKEFI ALAS B'CHAD K'ILFA D'AZLA B'YAMA- "and the ladle will float on the jug like a boat that goes in the ocean" (DIKDUKEI SOFRIM ibid.)
40)[line 21]שור במשפטSHOR B'MISHPAT- (lit., an ox in judgement); Shor in Aramaic is TOR and Mishpat in Aramaic is DIN; when read together they form TeRaDIN, beets
41)[line 21]בטור מסכןB'TUR MISKEN- (lit., in a poor mountain); Tur in Aramaic is HAR and Misken in Aramaic is DAL; when read together they form cHARDAL, mustard; i.e. make for me beets in mustard
42)[line 21]וכד הוה שאיל באושפיזאV'CHAD HAVAH SHA'IL B'USHPIZA- (a) and when he would ask about his innkeeper from travelers (RASHI); (b) and when he would ask travelers about the nature of the innkeeper, to know whether he should stay there (see notes to Dikdukei Sofrim #90)
43)[line 22]גבר פום דין חיGEVAR PUM DEIN CHAI- (lit., man, the mouth of this one is living); Gevar in Aramaic is ISH, Pum in Aramaic is PI, Dein in Aramaic is ZU and Chai in Aramaic is NA (which means raw - see RABEINU CHANANEL); when read together they form uSHPeZichNA
44)[line 22]מה זו טובה ישMAH ZU TOVAH YESH- how well is it for him?
45)[line 23]אתריגו לפחמיןASRIGU L'PECHAMIN- make the coals like Esrogim; i.e. ignite the coals so that they will be fiery-reddish like Esrogim
46)[line 23]ארקיעו לזהביןARKI'U L'ZEHAVIN- spread out the golden nuggets (ignited) coals
47)[line 23]מגידי בעלטהMAGIDEI B'ALATA- roosters which cry out in the darkness
48)[line 25]הצפיננוHATZPINENU- show us
49)[line 25]עלץ בנערה אהרונית אחרונית עירנית והנעירתוALATZ B'NA'ARAH AHARONIS, ACHARONIS, AIRONIS, V'HAN'IRATU- he is rejoicing with a young woman who is a descendant of Aharon the Kohen, and she is his second wife, who is very stimulating, and who kept him up all night (first explanation of Gemara); he is rejoicing with the Torah, the section that deals with topics relevant to the Kohanim, which is the final section, and it is very stimulating, and it kept him up all night
50)[line 27]נתייעץ במכתירNISYA'ETZ BA'MACHTIR- he took counsel with he who ordains (crowns) the scholars, i.e. the Nasi
51)[line 28]והנגיב למפיבשתV'HINGIV L'MEFIBOSHES- and went south to the great scholars (who are compared to Mefiboshes - see Berachos 4a)
52)[line 28]לא נצחני אדםLO NITZCHANI ADAM- no one ever defeated me with their words
53)[line 30]פוליןPOLIN- beans
54)[line 31]הקדיחתן במלחHIKDICHASAN B'MELACH- she ruined them by putting in too much salt
55)[line 33]שמא (לא) הנחת פאה (בראשונים) [על ראשונים]SHEMA (LO) HINACHTA PE'AH (BA'RISHONIM) [AL RISHONIM]- perhaps you left it over as Pe'ah (the attendant's portion) for the meals of the first two days
56a)[line 34]באילפסILFAS- a pot, a stew-pot
b)[line 35]בקערהKE'ARAH- a plate
57)[line 37]דרך כבושהDERECH KEVUSHAH- a trodden path
58)[line 44]אשכחה לברוריהASHKECHAH LI'VRURIYAH- he found Beruriyah, the wife of Rebbi Meir
59)[line 44]ללודLOD- a city in central Israel
60)[last line]בלחישהB'LECHISHAH- whispering