12th Cycle Dedication

ERCHIN 16 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the twelfth Yahrzeit of her father, Rav Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Rabbi Morton Weiner) Z'L, who passed away on 18 Teves 5760. May the merit of supporting and advancing Dafyomi study -- which was so important to him -- during the weeks of his Yahrzeit serve as an Iluy for his Neshamah.

[16a - 54 lines; 16b - 55 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Rashi 16b DH b'Farhesya ד"ה בפרהסיא:

The words "Me'il Mechaper" מעיל מכפר

should be "d'Me'il Mechaper" דמעיל מכפר

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1)[line 6]מיקלע לאושפיזאMIKLA L'USHPIZA- he comes to an inn

2)[line 13]חלשCHALASH- he became sick

3)[line 24]"[יחלו על ראש יואב ואל כל בית אביו] ואל יכרת מבית יואב זב ומצרע ומחזיק בפלך ונפל בחרב וחסר לחם""[YACHULU AL ROSH YO'AV V'EL KOL BEIS AVIV], V'AL YIKARES MI'BEIS YO'AV ZAV U'METZORA U'MACHZIK BA'PELECH V'NOFEL BA'CHEREV VA'CHASAR LECHEM." - "[The guilt shall rest upon the head of Yo'av and upon all his father's house], and there will not cease from the house of Yo'av a Zav or a Metzora, someone who leans on crutches, who falls by the sword and who lacks food." (Shmuel II 3:29) (DAVID HA'MELECH CURSES YO'AV)

(a)The verse concludes by mentioning that Yo'av and his brother, Avishai, killed Avner. In truth, however, it was Yo'av alone who killed Avner; Avishai is mentioned because he accompanied Yo'av to the location where the murder took place, and he was prepared to assist Yo'av should the need arise. It was because Yo'av killed Avner in cold blood that David ha'Melech cursed him.

(b)During the recent civil war between Shaul's son Ish Boshes (who attempted to wrest the throne from David) and David ha'Melech, Avner had commanded Ish Boshes' troops (from the tribe of Binyamin), while Yo'av had commanded those of David (from Yehudah). It was during the battle between the opposing armies that the fleet-footed Asah'el foolishly took upon himself to chase and kill the mighty Avner. The latter pleaded with him in vain to desist and to take on another less formidable foe. Asah'el insisted, so Avner killed him. Yo'av maintained that Avner could have stopped Asah'el by piercing him with his sword and wounding him, without killing him, and that is why he was determined to avenge his brother's blood.

(c)Meanwhile, the battle ended, and immediately Avner fell out of favor with Ish Boshes, when the latter rebuked him for having had relations with his deceased father's concubine. As a result, Avner switched over to the side of David and began to make efforts to establish the kingdon of Yisrael under him, even going so far as to talking with the people of Binyamin to convince them to switch their allegiance to David. Avner then went to visit David in Chevron, accompanied by twenty men. David arranged a banquet on his behalf, and Avner promised to gather the whole of Yisrael under his banner.

(d)David had barely sent Avner away when Yo'av and his men returned from the battlefront. When he heard how Avner had visited the king and that he had sent him away in peace, he rebuked David for having trusted Avner. It was obvious, he said with conviction, that Avner had come to trick David into believing that he was on his side, when really his intention was to spy for Ish Boshes and to learn of David's comings and goings.

(e)Without more ado, and without David's knowledge, Yo'av sent messengers to bring Avner back to Chevron, and in an unprecedented act of treachery he murdered the unsuspecting Avner in cold blood to avenge the blood of his brother Asah'el.

(f)When David heard what Yo'av had done, he immediately disclaimed any knowledge of Yo'av's plan, and, afraid that the people would accuse him of having ordered Avner's death at the hand of Yo'av, he placed a curse on the latter and mourned and wept bitterly over Avner's death. In that way, the people would realize that he was not responsible for Avner's death.

4)[line 25]"ויאמר נעמן הואל קח ככרים [ויפרץ בו ויצר ככרים כסף כשני חרטים ושתי חלפות בגדים ויתן אל שני נעריו וישאו לפניו]""VA'YOMER NA'AMAN: HO'EL KACH KIKARAYIM [VA'YIFROTZ BO VA'YATZAR KIKRAYIM KESEF KI'SHNEI CHARITIM U'SHTEI CHALIFOS BEGADIM, VA'YITEN EL SHNEI NE'ARAV VA'YIS'U L'FANAV.]" - "And Na'aman said: Please accept two Kikar (6,000 Shekel, although only one was asked of him); [and he persuaded him (Gechazi) to take it. So he wrapped up two silver Kikarim in two pouches, and [he also gave] two suits of clothing which he handed to his [own] two servants, who carried them before him.]" (Melachim II 5:23) (GECHAZI'S SIN)

(a)Elisha ha'Navi was a great prophet and was well known as a worker of miracles. Unfortunately, his attendant Gechazi had poor character (Melachim II 4:12-5:27). The verses (ibid. 5:1-24) describe his greed. The Gemara reports that he engaged in practices of Avodah Zarah (Sotah 47a) and licentious behavior (Berachos 10b). He was disrespectful to Elisha, even though he was his teacher (Sanhedrin 100a), and he prevented the public from learning Torah (Sotah ibid.). Elisha tried to persuade him to repent (Sotah ibid. and Sanhedrin 107b) but to no avail. (Nevertheless, the Gemara in Bava Metzia 87a states that when Elisha finally gave up and sent him away, he contracted an illness as a result of his action.)

(b)One time an Aramean general (Na'aman), who was suffering from Tzara'as, was persuaded by his Jewish maidservant to seek the help of Elisha to cure him of his disease. He hesitatingly agreed, and to his surprise Elisha cured him completely. Overcome with gratitude, he offered great sums of money as a tribute to Elisha, who refused to accept anything, preferring not to diminish the honor of HaSh-m by lending a commercial aspect to his actions.

(c)Elisha's attendant, Gechazi, however, allowed his greed to get the better of him. He ran after the general and falsely claimed that Elisha had changed his mind and did indeed want a talent of silver and two changes of clothing as payment for his services. Na'aman enthusiastically complied, saying: "Swear to me [that you are telling the truth, and] take two talents!" Gechazi acceded to his wish and Na'aman wrapped up two talents of silver in two pouches, and sent them, along with the two changes of clothing, with two of his servants (Melachim II 5:1-24).

(d) After hiding the money, Gechazi returned to Elisha, who asked him where he had been. Not realizing that the entire episode was revealed to the Navi, he did not give him a clear answer. Elisha informed him that he knew exactly what Gechazi had done, and he cursed him. Elisha also explained to him that the reason why he refused to accept a reward for assisting Na'aman was that the healing of Na'aman's leprosy was a miracle, and one may not benefit from miracles unless it is absolutely necessary.

5)[line 28]"ובחזקתו גבה לבו עד להשחית וימעל בה' אלקיו [ויבא אל היכל ה' להקטיר על מזבח הקטרת]""UV'CHEZKASO GAVAH LIBO AD L'HASHCHIS VA'YIM'AL BA'SHEM ELOKAV [VA'YAVO EL HEICHAL HASH-M, L'HAKTIR AL MIZBACH HA'KETORES.]" - "But as he became strong, his heart became haughty to the point of destruction [and he entered the Heichal of Hash-m, to burn the Ketores.]" (Divrei ha'Yamim II 26:16) (KING UZIYAHU)

(a)Uziyahu was crowned as king of Yehudah at age 16. He was very pious at first, and was granted much military and political power by HaSh-m. He built up Yerushalayim and many cities that he had captured, and he fought many successful battles on behalf of Yisrael, until his fame spread far and wide. However, the verse relates that "as he became strong, his heart became destructively haughty, and he betrayed HaSh-m, his G-d, and he entered the Sanctuary of HaSh-m to burn incense upon the incense altar."

(b) Azaryahu the Kohen Gadol went after him followed by eighty strong Kohanim who pleaded with him to desist, but to no avail.

(c)Uziyahu was punished for his insolence by being stricken with Tzara'as (v. 19) for the last twenty-seven years of his life, and he lived in seclusion outside of Yerushalayim (Melachim II 15:5). (His son, Yosam, took over the day-to-day running of the kingdom. However, he did not usurp his father's authority; rather, he attributed all of his verdicts and edicts to his father; see Background to Sukah 45:22.)

6)[line 42]אהיכא דאיתיהA'HEICHA D'ISEI- [it atones for the sins of the area] on where it rests; see Insights

7)[line 46]אהנו מעשיוAHANU MA'ASAV- his actions produced results

8)[line 52]שבחשאיSHEB'CHASHAI- that was done in secrecy

16b----------------------------------------16b

9)[line 10]פטיטPATIT- babbler

10)[line 13]יסטרנוYISTERENU- he will slap him

11)[line 23]תוכחה לשמה וענוה שלא לשמה הי מינייהו עדיפאTOCHECHAH LISHMAH V'ANAVAH SHE'LO LISHMAH, HAI MINAIHU ADIFA?- (a) Which is better, rebuking someone for the sake of the Mitzvah of Tochechah, or acting with humility (and not rebuking) not for the sake of being humble (but in order to avoid the wrath of the rebuked)? (RASHI); (b) Which is better, reproof for the sake of the Mitzvah, or feigned humility for one's own self-interest (so that he will have a good reputation)? (TOSFOS)

12)[line 30]דליכסוףDELI'CHSOF- that he should be embarrassed

13)[line 32]נזיפהNEZIFAH- rebuke

14)[line 34]"ויטל שאול את החנית עליו להכתו [וידע יהונתן כי כלה היא מעם אביו להמית את דוד]""VA'YATEL SHAUL ES HA'CHANIS ALAV L'HAKOSO [VA'YEIDA YEHONASAN KI CHALAH HI ME'IM AVIV L'HAMIS ES DAVID.]" - "Then Shaul raised the spear to strike him, [and Yehonasan knew that his father had decided to kill David.]" (Shmuel I 20:33) (SHAUL AND YEHONASAN)

(a)David had become very popular among the populace and was even officially anointed as king by Shmuel. King Shaul had become insane with concern over this.

(b)David shared — with his close friend and ally, Shaul's son Yehonasan — his frustration at the fact that the king was pursuing him. The two friends devised a plan to test Shaul to determine the extent of his jealousy and anger towards David.

(c)Avner and David, it appears, ate regularly at Shaul's table, as well as his son Yehonasan. Avner sat on one side of the king, and David on the other, between Shaul and Yehonasan. The following day was Rosh Chodesh, and, in accordance with their plan, David absented himself from the king's table. Assuming that David was Tamei, Shaul said nothing about his absence. On the following day, however, when David again did not come, the king asked Yehonasan about his whereabouts. The latter replied that David had requested permission to attend a family offering and to celebrate with them, and that he had granted his request.

(d)Shaul warned Yehonasan that as long as David lived, his (Yehonasan's) throne (that he was destined to inherit from his father) was not safe. Yehonasan tried to show his father that his hostility to David was unfounded. Shaul became angry and said to his son, "You son of a perverse and rebellious woman! Do I not know that you side with the son of Yishai, to your own shame and the shame of your mother's nakedness? For all the days that the son of Yishai is alive on the earth, you and your kingdom will not be established! Now send and bring him to me, for he is deserving of death" (Shmuel I 20:30-31).

(e)However, Yehonsan persisted and said, "Why should he die? What has he done?" At that point, Shaul became furious and "hurled his spear at him to strike him," whereupon Yehonasan abandoned his attempts to correct his father's ways. Yehonasan realized the extent of the danger which surrounded David.

(f)As they had arranged, Yehonasan made his way to the field where David was hiding, waiting to hear from his loyal friend what had transpired. They had a prearranged method of communicating covertly, through which Yehonasan told David that he was no longer safe, and David was once again forced to flee.

15)[line 39]שיפשלו לו כליו לאחוריוSHE'YIFSHELU LO KELAV L'ACHORAV- they put his garments/utensils over his shoulders (as a way of saying, "Get out already!")

16)[line 42]לאיטרודיL'ITRUDEI- to argue

17)[line 46]מאומנותו ומאומנות אבותיוME'UMANUSO UME'UMANUS AVOSAV- from his profession and from the profession of his fathers. That is, one should practice the profession of his own father ("Umnuso") and of his ancestors ("Umnus Avosav")

18)[line 47]"וישלח המלך שלמה ויקח את חירם מצר. בן אשה אלמנה הוא ממטה נפתלי ואביו איש צרי חרש נחשת [וימלא את החכמה ואת התבונה ואת הדעת לעשות כל מלאכה בנחשת ויבוא אל המלך שלמה ויעש את כל מלאכתו.]""VA'YISHLACH HA'MELECH SHLOMO VA'YIKACH ES CHIRAM MI'TZOR. BEN ISHAH ALMANAH HU MI'MATEH NAFTALI, V'AVIV ISH TZORI CHORESH NECHOSHES [VA'YIMALEI ES HA'CHOCHMAH V'ES HA'TEVUNAH V'ES HA'DA'AS LA'ASOS KOL MELACHAH B'NECHOSHES; VA'YAVO EL SHLOMO, VA'YA'AS ES KOL MELACHTO.]" - "And King Shlomo summoned Chiram from Tzor (not Chiram, king of Tzor). He was the son of a widow from the tribe of Naftali (though his mother was from the tribe of Dan). His father had been a Tyrian coppersmith [filled with wisdom, understanding and knowledge to do all sorts of work with copper; and he (Chiram) came to Shlomo and he performed all of his work.]" (Melachim I 7:13-14) (CHIRAM THE COPPERSMITH).

(a)Chiram, the master coppersmith from Tzor, designed the exquisitely ornamented copper columns (including the Yachin and the Bo'az) together with their capitals, and the huge Mikvah (the Yam Shel Shlomo) which stood on twelve copper oxen.

(b)He also designed the ten copper basins together with their copper stands, and the pots, the shovels, and the bowls that belonged to the Mizbe'ach ha'Olah.

19)[line 54]ליכא טירחא למישדייהוLEIKA TIRCHA L'MISHDAIHU- it is not a bother to throw them back down

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