[17a - 47 lines; 17b - 39 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 17a [line 15]:
Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #2
 Gemara [line 33]:
Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #3
 Gemara 17b [line 12]:
Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #6
 Rashi 17b DH Aval b'Korbanos ד"ה אבל בקרבנות:
The words "d'Ikva b'Kra" דאיקבע בקרא
should be "d'Ikva b'Korban" דאיקבע בקרבן (RASHASH)
 Rashi DH Davar ha'Mechaper ד"ה דבר המכפר:
It appears that the words "v'Chiper Alav ha'Kohen" וכפר עליו הכהן
should be "v'Chiper ha'Kohen Al ha'Mitaher" וכפר הכהן אל המטהר (RASHASH)
1)[line 4]"ועתה התיצבו ואשפטה אתכם לפני ה' את כל צדקות ה' אשר עשה אתכם ואת אבותיכם""V'ATAH HISYATZVU V'ISHAFTAH ITCHEM LIFNEI HASH-M; EIS KOL TZIDKOS HASH-M ASHER ASAH ITCHEM V'ES AVOSEICHEM" - "And now, stand and I will judge you before HaSh-m, for all the righteous acts of HaSh-m that He did with you and with your fathers" (Shmuel I 12:7) (SHMUEL REBUKES THE NATION)
(a)Shmuel sharply rebuked the people for asking for a king. Not only was he a sufficiently capable (indeed, supreme) leader for them, but, moreover, HaSh-m was their King and they did not need another one. They responded by conceding that they could find no fault in him, and a heavenly voice announced that HaSh-m agreed.
(b)Shmuel gave a brief account of Yisrael's history, pointing out how each time they forgot HaSh-m, He sent their enemies against them to put them in their place. The people would cry out to HaSh-m and He would respond by sending saviors to bail them out, among them Moshe and Aharon, Yeruba'al, Shimshon, Yiftach, and Shmuel. Now, when Nachash, King of Amon attacked them, they demanded a king.
(c)Shmuel pointed out that HaSh-m acceded to their request and had given them a king. He promised them that as long as they would fear HaSh-m from now on, all would be well.
(d)To prove his point, he demonstrated his prophetic powers by asking HaSh-m to produce thunder and lightning, even though it was summer, when thunder and lightning are a bad sign.
(e)HaSh-m did as Shmuel requested, and the people, remorseful for having sinned, feared HaSh-m (for having sinned in their request for a king) and Shmuel (for having rejected him in favor of a king). Afraid that they would die for their sin (which they saw as the last straw after all of their other sins), they asked Shmuel to pray to HaSh-m on their behalf. Shmuel's response was to reassure them that they had nothing to fear, reiterating what he had told them already: that in spite of this sin, if, from now on, they would obey HaSh-m's commandments and serve Him with all their hearts, then they, together with their king, would succeed.
2)[line 21]לענין תוקפא וניחותא קאמרינןL'INYAN TUKFA V'NICHUSA KA'AMRINAN- we are referring to wrath and pleasantness. That is, if the leader of the generation is wrathful, so are the people, but if he is pleasant, then so are they.
PEREK #4 HESEG YAD
3)[line 23]השג ידHESEG YAD
When a person is too poor to pay the amount of the Erech that he pledged to Hekdesh, he instead pays to Hekdesh the amount that he can afford, as the verse states, "Al Pi Asher Tasig Yad ha'Noder, Ya'arichenu ha'Kohen" - "According to what the person who pledged can afford, shall the Kohen designate as the amount that he needs to pay" (Vayikra 27:8).
4)[line 23]השג יד בנודרHESEG YAD B'NODER- when the law of Heseg Yad (see previous entry) is applied, the amount that the poor person must pay is assessed according to the financial status of the one who made the pledge (and not according to the one whose Erech was pledged)
5a)[line 25]עניANI- a person who is too poor to give the Erech designated by the Torah
b)[line 25]עשירASHIR- a person who can afford to give the designated Erech
6)[line 27]קרבנו של מצורעKORBANO SHEL METZORA (METZORA)
(a)For the rules of Tzara'as, see Background to Erchin 3:4b.
(b)On the eighth day of his purification process (for a description of the process, see Background to Bechoros 9:17), the Metzora must bring Korbanos to complete his Taharah. The animal Korbanos are two male sheep and one female sheep. One of the male sheep is offered as an Olah, the other as an Asham. The female sheep is offered as a Chatas.
(c)If he cannot afford to buy all these animals, he is called a poor Metzora. The poor Metzora brings two Torim (turtledoves) or two Benei Yonah (common doves) as the Olah and the Chatas; however, a sheep is still brought as his Asham.
(d)An ordinary Metzora or a poor Metzora brings Nesachim with all of his animal Korbanos (Menachos 91a).
7)[line 33]השג יד במעריך הואHESEG YAD B'MA'ARICH HU- the law of Heseg Yad applies to one who is Ma'arich (and not to one who is Noder)! That is, the Gemara is questioning the Mishnah that says that Heseg Yad applies to one who makes a Neder (one who vows to give the worth of another person to Hekdesh), when it only applies to one who is Ma'arich (one who pledges to give the Erech specified in the Torah to Hekdesh). The Gemara answers that the Mishnah is merely using the wording of the verse.
8)[line 19]"ואם מך הוא מערכך""V'IM MACH HU ME'ERKECHA"- "But if he is too poor for the endowment value" (Vayikra 27:8)
9)[line 27]צפריםTZIPORIM (TZIPOREI METZORA)
See above, entry #6b.
10a)[line 30]המכפרHA'MECHAPER- which atones
b)[line 31]המכשירHA'MACHSHIR- which enables him to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash and eat Korbanos
c)[line 32]הגורם לו טהרהHA'GOREM LO TAHARAH- which causes him to be Tahor, enabling him to shave his hair