[106a - 54 lines; 106b - 12 lines]

***************GIRSA SECTION******************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos

[1] Tosfos 106a DH Chamei חמי:

The words "b'Lashon Basra" בלשון בתרא

should be "k'Lashon Basra" כלשון בתרא

[2] Tosfos 106b DH Amar Rav אמר רב :

The words "ha'Atzila" העצילהand "ha'Atzil"העציל should be spelled with an Aleph instead of an Ayin (as we find later on in Tosfos)


1)[line 3]מים הראשונים האכילו בשר חזירMAYIM RISHONIM HE'ECHILU BESAR CHAZIR- [the lack of washing] Netilas Yadayim caused [a Jew] to eat pig's flesh. During one of the periods when the Nochri oppressors issued harsh decrees against the Jews to prevent them from learning the Torah and performing the Mitzvos, the Jewish owner of a restaurant devised a plot to circumvent the decree forbidding Kosher Shechitah. He had secretly available both Kosher and non-Kosher meat. The owner ordered his waiter to give bread to every arriving customer. The waiter informed the owner of the customer's conduct. A customer who washed his hands was served Kosher meat while a customer who did not, even if he was Jewish, was served pig's meat. (In those times, it was not readily noticeable whether a person was Jewish or not based upon his dress — MAHARIK)

2)[line 4]אחרונים הוציאו את האשה מבעלהACHARONIM HOTZI'U ES HA'ISHAH MI'BA'ALAH- [the lack of washing] Mayim Acharonim caused a woman to be divorced by her husband. The Sages Rebbi Meir, Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Yosi were traveling together when they decided to lodge at a certain inn. The owner of the inn was named "Kidor." Rebbi Meir was suspicious of him since his name was reminiscent of the verse, "Ki Dor Tahpuchos Hemah, Banim Lo Emun Bam" - "for they are a very perverse generation, children in whom there is no faith" (Devarim 32:20). Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Yosi were not as concerned with the connotations of names, and, as a result, entrusted their money with the innkeeper. Rebbi Meir chose to bury his money bag in a graveyard. As it happened, it was buried over the grave of the innkeeper's father, who appeared to his son in a dream and revealed the whereabouts of the moneybag. The innkeeper asked the sages to interpret his dream. They claimed that dreams dreamt in twilight are of no consequence. However, Rebbi Meir saw to it that he watched his buried moneybag all day so that it would not be taken. When they took leave of the inn, Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Yosi asked the innkeeper for their money. He denied having ever received it. They noticed the remnants of his meal of lentils stuck to his beard around his mouth. (Had he washed Mayim Acharonim, he would have washed away those remnants.) The sages approached the innkeeper's wife when he had gone away and asked for their money, claiming that Kidor sent them with the following sign: "Tell my wife that it was lentils that I ate for lunch and she will give you the money." His wife complied and the sages left with their money. When the innkeeper returned and discovered what had happened, he became so upset that he divorced his wife (Yoma 83b).

3)[line 6]האכילו בשר נבלהHE'ECHILU BESAR NEVEILAH- (the same story as above, entry #1, except that the Jew who did not wash his hands ate the meat of a Neveilah (see Background to Chulin 102:12) instead of the meat of a pig. One who eats the meat of a pig transgresses two Isurim (eating pig and not eating Kosher animals — see RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 2:1) while one who eats Neveilah only transgresses one Isur.)

4)[line 7]הרגו את הנפשHARGU ES HA'NEFESH- (the same story as above, entry #2, except that the Jew who did not wash Mayim Acharonim became so upset that he killed his wife.)

5)[line 9]חדא מהני וחדא מהני לחומראCHADA ME'HANEI V'CHADA ME'HANEI L'CHUMRA- one of these and one of those, the more stringent ones, i.e. that the Jew of the first story ate pig and the Jew of the second story killed his wife

6)[line 10]חמי האורCHAMEI HA'UR- water heated by fire

7)[line 14]חמי טבריאCHAMEI TEVERYAH- water from the hot springs of Tiberias


Tevilas Yadayim (Chagigah 2:5, also known as "Shetifas Yadayim," according to Rashi to Gitin 15b DH v'Achas b'Shetifah) involves dipping one's hands into a valid Mikvah or river to make them Tehorim (see Background to Chulin 31:15, 17a).

9)[line 17]פניו ידיו ורגליוPANAV YADAV V'RAGLAV- his face, his hands and his feet. Rashi DH Aval Lo Panav Yadav v'Raglav states that on this page, this phrase is actually only referring to Yadav, his hands, and the words Panav v'Raglav are added inconsequentially, simply because these three are written together on many occasions ("Urcha b'Alma Nakat")

10)[line 21]בת בירתאBAS BIRASA- a shallow ditch dug in the ground that does not have the size of a Kosher Mikvah (forty Se'in) but is attached to a Kosher Mikvah. It is prohibited mid'Rabanan to immerse hands in a Bas Birasa lest one come to immerse his hands in a utensil.

11)[line 32]מפני סרך תרומהMIPNEI SRACH TERUMAH- in order to accustom the Kohanim who eat Terumah to wash their hands (Netilas Yadayim) before eating Terumah

12)[line 40]ואחר שלא שטף, טמאV'ACHER SHE'LO SHATAF, TAMEI- and another [person] (besides the person who touched a Zav), one who did not wash his hands, is Tamei

13)[line 46]גסי הרוחGASEI HA'RU'ACH- haughty people

14)[line 49]כלכלה דפיריKALKALAH D'FEIREI- a basket of fruit

15)[line 49]ולא משו ידייהוV'LO MASHU YADAIHU- and they did not wash their hands

16)[line 51]אין מזמנין על הפירותEIN MEZAMNIN AL HA'PEIROS - we do not perform the "Zimun" after eating fruit (BIRKAS HA'ZIMUN)

(a)When three or more Jewish males eat a meal together which contains bread, they are required to recite the Zimun, which is an invitation to those present to get ready to bless HaSh-m for the food He provided. The Zimun precedes Birkas ha'Mazon, and is in responsive form. When ten or more men eat together, the Zimun is slightly changed, adding a name of HaSh-m explicitly.

(b)Birkas ha'Zimun (the correct Girsa in Rebbi Zeira's statement, Berachos 45b, see Girsa section to Berachos 45:1) is the name of this introduction to Birkas ha'Mazon, according to most Rishonim. Rashi (Berachos 46a DH deka'Savar), however, according to one Amora in the Gemara, explains that Birkas ha'Zimun refers to the introduction plus the first Berachah of Birkas ha'Mazon (Birkas ha'Zan).

(c)Rabah bar bar Chanah learned from the actions of Rebbi Ami and Rebbi Asi that when eating fruit, one does not make any invitation to those present to get ready to bless HaSh-m. Rather, those present recite the proper after-blessing whenever they are finished eating.

17)[line 52]מצוה ליחלקMITZVAH L'CHALEK- it is proper for them to "split up," each reciting the after-blessing individually (as opposed to one of them reciting the blessing to fulfill the obligation of both of them, which is Halachically permissible but not recommended)

18)[line 53]סופריםSOFRIM- Torah sages

19)[line 53]בורBUR- a coarse, unlearned person

20)[last line]לחולין, עד הפרקL'CHULIN, AD HA'PEREK- for Chulin, until the joint: (a) until the middle joint of the fingers (the second knuckle from the fingertips) (RASHI); (b) until the joint where the fingers connect to the hand (TOSFOS DH u'Shema, citing RABEINU AVRAHAM); (c) the entire hand until the wrist joint, where the hand connects to the arm (ROSH 8:11, citing the RIF, see SHULCHAN ARUCH OC 161:4 and Insights to Chulin 106:5)

21)[last line]לתרומה, עד הפרקL'TERUMAH, AD HA'PEREK- for Terumah, until the joint: (a) until the joint where the fingers connect to the hand (RASHI); (b) the entire hand until the wrist joint, where the hand connects to the arm (TOSFOS DH u'Shema, citing RABEINU AVRAHAM, ROSH 8:11, citing the RIF)


22a)[line 1]קידוש ידים ורגלים במקדש, עד הפרקKIDUSH YADAYIM V'RAGLAYIM BA'MIKDASH, AD HA'PEREK- for Kidush Yadayim in the Beis ha'Mikdash, until the joint: (a) until the wrist joint, where the hand connects to the arm (RASHI, ROSH 8:11, citing the RIF); (b) until the elbow (TOSFOS DH u'Shema, citing RABEINU AVRAHAM)


(a)It is a Mitzvas Aseh for the Kohanim to wash their hands and feet whenever they enter the Heichal or the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash or when they do any Avodah (Divine service), as it states in Shemos 30:19-21, "v'Rachatzu Aharon u'Vanav Mimenu..." (Sanhedrin 83b). If a Kohen transgresses intentionally, and performs an Avodah without washing his hands and feet, he is Chayav Misah b'Yedei Shamayim and the Avodah is invalid (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #106).

(b)A Kohen places his right hand on his right foot and his left hand on his left foot, and bends over. Another Kohen sprinkles water from the Kiyor on his hands and feet (or, if he is alone, he places his hands and feet under the faucet of the Kiyor). Kidush Yadayim v'Raglayim is an Avodah, and therefore must be performed while standing.

(c) A Kohen has to wash his hands and feet only once every day, as long as he makes sure that they did not become Temei'im or dirty, and as long as he has not left the Azarah. There is a disagreement as to whether a Kohen who did Avodah all night is required to wash his hands and feet again in the morning.

23)[line 2]וכל דבר שחוצץ בטבילהV'CHOL DAVAR SHE'CHOTZETZ B'TEVILAH - and all things that intervene between the water used to Metaher a person and his body (TEVILAH: CHATZITZAH)

(a)Certain Mitzvos require that there be no intervening substance (Chatzitzah) between the person performing the action and the substance upon which or in which the action is performed. Among these Mitzvos are Tevilah (immersion in a Mikvah), where the person's skin must touch the water, and the Avodah (divine service) in the Beis ha'Mikdash, during which a foreign substance must not intervene between the Kohen and the Kli Shares (sanctified utensil), or between the Kohen's feet and the floor of the Azarah.

(b)An intervening substance that covers the majority of one's body and that a person minds (and would normally remove) causes a Chatzitzah that disqualifies his immersion in a Mikvah.

24)[line 4]עד כאן לחולין; עד כאן לתרומהAD KAN L'CHULIN; AD KAN LI'SERUMAH- until here for Chulin; until here for Terumah (Rav was showing his students which joints act as the border of the hand for various Halachos of Netilas Yadayim)

25)[line 6]לחומראL'CHUMRA- to be more stringent (including more of the hand in both cases)

26)[line 10]ליואיLEVA'I- a Levite (who need not become accustomed to eating his meals b'Taharah

27)[last line]ומתנה עליהןU'MASNEH ALEIHEN- and he makes a stipulation about them [to include the entire day in his purification, as long as he is careful not to let them get Temei'im]