1)

(a)According to the Rabanan in a Beraisa, the Pasuk "v'Nasan Pidyon Nafsho" (in connection with Kofer) refers to the value of the dead man. What does Rebbi Yishmael Beno shel Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah say?

(b)Why does Rabah therefore say that if a Mu'ad ox came and caught the baby (that someone had thrown down from the roof) on its horns and killed it, the owner of the ox will be Patur from paying Kofer, according to the Rabanan?

(c)What does Rabah say about a man who fell from a rooftop and lands on a woman and inadvertently rapes her ...

1. ... with regard to having to pay the five things?

2. ... acquiring her should she happen to be his Yevamah?

(d)How do we reconcile this latter ruling with the Mishnah in Yevamos, which rules that a Yavam acquires his Yevamah even b'Shogeg?

1)

(a)According to the Rabanan in a Beraisa, the Pasuk "v'Nasan Pidyon Nafsho" (in connection with Kofer) refers to the value of the dead man. Rebbi Yishmael Beno shel Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah says that it is his own value that the Mazik pays.

(b)Rabah therefore rules that, according to the Rabanan, if a Mu'ad ox came and caught the baby (that someone had thrown down from the roof) on its horns and killed it, the owner of the ox will be Patur from paying Kofer since at that point, the baby no longer has any value.

(c)Rabah rules that a man who fell from a rooftop and lands on a woman and inadvertently rapes her ...

1. ... is obligated to pay four out of the five things (but not Boshes, as we shall see shortly).

2. ... does not acquire her should she happen to be his Yevamah.

(d)When the Mishnah in Yevamos rules that a Yavam acquires his Yevamah even b'Shogeg, it means for example, that he was unaware that the woman with whom he is having relations is his Yevamah, but not that he did not even to be intimate with her.

2)

(a)Why, in the former case, is the man not Chayav to pay Boshes?

(b)On what condition would he have been Chayav for Boshes, too?

(c)Rabah bases this latter ruling on a Beraisa. What does the Tana there learn from the superfluous words (in the Pasuk in Ki Setzei, in connection with a woman who grabbed her husband's attacker in an embarrassing manner) "v'Shalchah Yadah v'Hichzikah bi'Mevushav"?

2)

(a)In the former case, the man is not Chayav to pay Boshes because he had no intention to cause the woman damage (let alone to embarrass her).

(b)He would have been Chayav for Boshes, too had he deliberately turned over during his fall.

(c)Rabah bases this latter ruling on a Beraisa, where the Tana learns from the superfluous words (in the Pasuk in Ki Setzei, in connection with a woman who grabbed her husband's attacker in an embarrassing manner) "v'Shalchah Yadah v'Hichzikah bi'Mevushav" that the Mazik must at least intend to do damage, in order to be Chayav Boshes.

3)

(a)And what does Rabah say about Reuven who places a burning coal on Shimon's ...

1. ... heart and he dies?

2. ... clothes and they burn? Why is that?

(b)Rava teaches us that both statements already appear in a Mishnah. What does the Mishnah in Sanhedrin say about Reuven who ...

1. ... holds Shimon under water until he drowns?

2. ... pushes him under the water and leaves go, and he drowns?

(c)And what does the Mishnah in 'ha'Chovel' say about a case where Shimon asks Reuven ...

1. ... to tear his shirt or break his barrel, and Reuven obliges?

2. ... to tear his shirt or break his barrel, but adds that he will not be Chayav?

3)

(a)Rabah rules that if about Reuven places a burning coal on Shimon's ...

1. ... heart and he dies he is Patur, because Shimon should have removed it.

2. ... clothes and they burn he is Chayav to pay, because seeing as it is not life-threatening, the owner did not remove it because he intended to claim damages.

(b)Rava teaches us that both statements already appear in a Mishnah. The Mishnah in Sanhedrin says that if Reuven ...

1. ... holds Shimon under water until he drowns he is guilty of murder.

2. ... pushes Shimon under the water and leaves go, and he drowns he is Patur, because Shimon should have come up by himself.

(c)The Mishnah in 'ha'Chovel' rules that if Shimon asks Reuven ...

1. ... to tear his shirt or break his barrel, and Reuven obliges Reuven is Chayav to pay, because what Shimon obviously meant was 'Break it and pay!'.

2. ... to tear his shirt or break his barrel, but adds that he will not be Chayav then Reuven is Patur.

4)

(a)What does Rabah ask about Reuven placing a burning coal on the heart of his Eved?

(b)Assuming that an Eved has the same Din as himself, what She'eilah does Rabah then ask?

(c)What is his conclusion?

4)

(a)Rabah asks whether, if Reuven places a burning coal on the heart of his Eved he is Patur, because the Eved should have removed it (like he would have done), or whether an Eved is like one's property, in which case he will be Chayav (because an Eved does not possess as much common sense as he does).

(b)Assuming that an Eved has the same Din as himself, Rabah then asks what the Din would be if Reuven placed a coal on the heart of Shimon's ox whether he would be Chayav, because an ox does not have sufficient common sense to remove the coal, or Patur, because it does have instinct, and one would therefore have expected it to have shaken the coal off.

(c)His conclusion is 'Avdo k'Gufo, Shoro k'Mamono'.

HADRAN ALACH 'KEITZAD HA'REGEL'

PEREK HA'MENI'ACH

5)

(a)Our Mishnah absolves Reuven from paying, should he trip over the barrel that Shimon left lying in the street and break it. What does the Tana rule in the event that Reuven got hurt?

(b)What problem does our Mishnah share with the Mishnah later 'Zeh Ba ba'Chavito, v'Zeh Ba b'Koraso, Nishberah Kado shel Zeh b'Koraso shel Zeh ... ' (and with yet a third Mishnah in 'ha'Gozel')?

(c)What is the difference between a 'Kad' and a 'Chavis'?

(d)What does the Tana in 'ha'Gozel' rule in the case there where the owner of the wine poured out all his wine in order to save the honey (which is more expensive than wine)? How much is he entitled to claim from the owner of the honey?

5)

(a)Our Mishnah absolves Reuven from paying, should he trip over the barrel that Shimon left lying in the street and break it. In the event that Reuven got hurt however the Tana obligates the owner of the ox is Chayav to pay.

(b)The problem that our Mishnah shares with the Mishnah later 'Zeh Ba ba'Chavito, v'Zeh Ba b'Koraso, Nishberah Kado shel Zeh b'Koraso shel Zeh ... ' (and with yet a third Mishnah in 'ha'Gozel') is that they all begin talking about a 'Kad' and then switch to a Chavis (or vice-versa).

(c)The difference between a 'Kad' and a 'Chavis' is in size the former is a small barrel, the latter, a large one.

(d)In the case in 'ha'Gozel' where the owner of the wine poured out all his wine in order to save the honey (which is more expensive than wine), the Tana authorizes him to claim the wages of a hired worker only, and no more.

6)

(a)Rav Papa explains that the Tana is coming to teach us that, to all intents and purposes, a Kad and a Chavis are one and the same. What are the Halachic ramifications of Rav Papa's statement?

(b)What if it is a place where it is not customary to switch the names?

(c)Then in what kind of location does the Mishnah speak? What is the Tana then coming to teach us?

(d)What are the ramifications of this Chidush in a case where Reuven sells Shimon an ox which is found to be a goring ox, and Shimo demands his money back, on the grounds that most people buy oxen for plowing?

6)

(a)Rav Papa explains that the Tana is coming to teach us that, to all intents and purposes, a Kad and a Chavis are one and the same. The Halachic ramifications of Rav Papa's statement are that if Reuven agreed to sell Shimon a Chavis, he is entitled to supply him with a Kad (assuming that Shimon already paid see Tosfos) ...

(b)... but not in a place where it is not customary to switch the names.

(c)Our Mishnah speaks in a place where the majority of people call a Kad a Kad and a Chavis a Chavis, and it is only a minority who switch the names. And the Tana is teaching us that in money-matters, we do not follow the majority (against a Chazakah see Tosfos).

(d)The ramifications of this Chidush in a case where Reuven sells Shimon an ox which is found to be a goring ox, and Shimon demands his money back on the grounds that most people buy and sell oxen for plowing) are that he cannot retract, because (assuming that he has already received the money) Reuven can argue that he is from the minority, who sells his oxen for eating (so Shimon has the option of slaughtering the ox).

27b----------------------------------------27b

7)

(a)Why do we initially think that Shimon should not be held responsible if Reuven trips over his barrel in the street and breaks it?

(b)d'Bei Rav quoting Rav establish our Mishnah where Shimon placed his barrels across the entire width of the street (leaving the public without means to walk past it). How does Shmuel establish it?

(c)What does Rebbi Yochanan mean when he establishes the Mishnah 'be'Keren Zavis'?

7)

(a)We initially think that Shimon should not be held responsible if Reuven trips over his ox in the street and breaks it because a person should look where he is going.

(b)d'Bei Rav quoting Rav establish our Mishnah when Shimon placed his barrels across the entire width of the street (leaving the public without means to walk past it); whereas Shmuel establishes it at night-time (where he cannot be expected to see the barrels).

(c)When Rebbi Yochanan establishes the Mishnah 'be'Keren Zavis', he means that it is in the corner of a side-street that leads off the main road, and that, the moment Reuven turned the corner, there were the barrels, which he could not avoid bumping into before he had a chance to become aware of their presence.

8)

(a)What does Rav Papa mean when he says that our Mishnah (which absolves Reuven from paying in the current case), does not go well with Rav. Why not?

(b)Rav Zevid in the name of Rava justifies the Tana's statement because of the Seifa. What does he mean?

(c)Rebbi Aba told Rav Ashi (the first, who lived in the times of Rav) that in Eretz Yisrael, Ula (or Rebbi Ila'i) explained our Mishnah far more simply. Why did the Kashya 'that people should look where they are going' simply not worry him?

8)

(a)When Rav Papa says that our Mishnah (which absolves Reuven from paying in the current case), does not go well with Rav he means that according to him, the Tana ought to have gone further, and permitted Shimon to break one of the barrels l'Chatchilah (seeing as Reuven had no right to block the entire street.

(b)Rav Zevid in the name of Rava justifies the Tana's statement because of the Seifa. What he means is that the Tana too, agrees that Shimon has the right to break one of the barrels, only he discussed his having tripped over it (b'Di'eved), in order to balance the Seifa, which obligates Reuven to pay, in the event that Shimon hurt himself as he tripped (which would not be the case, had Shimon deliberately smashed it.

(c)Rebbi Aba told Rav Ashi (the first, who lived in the times of Rav) that in Eretz Yisrael, Ula (or Rebbi Ila'i) explained our Mishnah far more simply. The Kashya 'that people should look where they are going' simply did not worry him because he maintained that people do not tend to look at the ground as they walk (nor is there any obligation on their part to do so).

9)

(a)In a case in Neharda'a, Shmuel obligated 'Reuven' to pay, and in another case in Pumbedisa, Rava (or Rabah) did likewise. What was the case in Neharda'a? Why did Shmuel obligate someone to pay when the Tana of our Mishnah appears to have absolved him?

(b)According to Rav Papa it does not necessarily follow that Rava holds like Shmuel. Why not?

(c)On what grounds were people permitted to leave their barrels of olives in that section of the street?

9)

(a)In a case in Neharda'a, Shmuel obligated 'Reuven' to pay for breaking a barrel, and in another case in Pumbedisa, Rava (or Rabah) did likewise. The case in Neharda'a took place during the day (whereas our Mishnah which absolves him, speaks at night-time, as Shmuel just explained).

(b)According to Rav Papa it does not necessarily follow that Rava holds like Shmuel (like Rav or like Rebbi Yochanan) because the case occurred in a corner of the street next to the oil-press, where the owners had permission to place their barrels ...

(c)... whilst the olive-press was being used by others, and they were awaiting their turn to use it.

10)

(a)It was customary for the Dayanim to fine someone three Sela'im for kicking his fellow-Jew with his knee. Under which heading (of the five categories of damages) did this fall?

(b)For kicking him with one's foot they would fine him five Sela'im. How much would they fine him for hitting him with the saddle of a donkey?

10)

(a)It was customary for the Dayanim to fine someone three Sela'im for kicking his fellow-Jew with his knee merely for Boshes (for the embarrassment that he caused him) See Tosfos DH 'Harei Amru'.

(b)For kicking him with one's foot they would fine him five Sela'im, and for hitting him with the saddle of a donkey thirteen.

11)

(a)What did Rav Chisda ask Rav Nachman?

(b)Why was Rav Nachman surprised at Rav Chisda's She'eilah?

(c)What was the case?

(d)What was Rav Nachman's response when he heard what the case was?

11)

(a)Rav Chisda asked Rav Nachman how much to fine someone who hit his fellow-Jew with the handle or the blade of a hoe.

(b)Rav Nachman was surprised at Rav Chisda's She'eilah because we have already learned that one cannot claim Kenasos in Bavel (and the Minhag ha'Dayanim was confined to the Dayanim of Eretz Yisrael).

(c)Rav Nachman's case was where one of two partners in a well was taking water on his partner's day, to water his field.

(d)When Rav Nachman heard what the case was he exclaimed that if that was so, the claimant was entitled to do whatever was necessary to obtain his rights, because 'One is permitted to take the law into one's own hands' (there where the law is not debatable).

12)

(a)In fact, whether or not, one is permitted to take the law into one's own hands is a Machlokes between Rav Yehudah and Rav Nachman. On what condition will Rav Yehudah concede that one is?

(b)Why would Rav Chisda's case fall under this category?

(c)Seeing as it is possible to settle his claim in Beis-Din, on what grounds does Rav Nachman permit the claimant to settle it on his own?

12)

(a)In fact, whether or not, one is permitted to take the law into one's own hands is a Machlokes Rav Yehudah (who forbids it) and Rav Nachman (who permits it). Rav Yehudah will concede however, that one may do so in cases where the very act of opening proceedings against the defendant will cause the claimant a loss.

(b)Rav Chisda's case will fall under this category seeing as every minute that passes, the defendant was helping himself to more water, which a. could not later be assessed, and b. created the possibility that he would use up all the remaining water, causing the well to run dry.

(c)Despite the fact that it is possible to settle his claim in Beis-Din, Rav Nachman permits the claimant to settle it on his own to save him the trouble of going to Beis-Din unnecessarily.

13)

(a)Rav Kahana questions Rav Yehudah from ben Bag-Bag. Why does ben Bag-Bag forbid a claimant to enter the defendant's Chatzer to take what is rightfully his? What does he permit him to do?

(b)How does Rav Yehudah counter this proof?

(c)According to Rebbi Yanai, 'Break his teeth' means in Beis-Din (by bringing witnesses and proofs). What problem do we have with this from the Tana's words ...

1. ... 've'Emor Lo"?

2. ... 'Sheli Ani Notel'?

13)

(a)Rav Kahana questions Rav Yehudah from ben Bag-Bag, who forbids a claimant to enter the defendant's Chatzer to take what is rightfully his (see Tosfos DH 'Ela') because people will accuse him of being a thief. He does however, allow him to 'break his teeth' and inform him that he is only taking what is his (to avoid being accused of being a bully).

(b)Rav Yehudah counters this proof by establishing it as the individual opinion of ben Bag-Bag, whereas the Rabanan forbid it.

(c)According to Rebbi Yanai, 'Break his teeth' means in Beis-Din (by bringing witnesses and proofs). The problem with this is from the Tana's words ...

1. ... 've'Emor Lo' when, according to Rebbi Yanai, he should have said 've'Omrim Lo' (since it refers to Beis-Din).

2. ... 'Sheli Ani Notel' when he should have said 'she'Lo Hu Notel' (for the same reason).

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