The reference numbers below that appear in parentheses (e.g., TY #43) represent vessels or parts of the structure of the Beis ha'Mikdash. The labeling follows that of the diagram of the Tiferes Yisrael. This diagram, which has been included in a separate mailing and can also be found on our site (at http://www.dafyomi.co.il/midos/mids-charts.htm), is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).
[27a - 50 lines; 27b - 50 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 27a [line 2]:
The words "Eima Seifa" אימא סיפא
according to Tosfos, do not belong in the Gemara. (Tosfos was not Gores the words of Rebbi Yehudah regarding Musaf in the Mishnah either.)
 Tosfos 27a DH Ta Shema ד"ה תא שמע:
The words "d'Avad k'Rebbi Yehudah Avad דעבד כרבי יהודה עבד
should be "d'Avad k'Rebbi Yehudah b'Ma'ariv" דעבד כרבי יהודה במעריב (Rav David Luria)
(a)The Torah gives a father the right to marry off his daughter at any age before she is twelve years old.
(b)If she was divorced or widowed or her father died without marrying her off, the Chachamim gave the girl's mother and/or oldest brother the right to marry her off. In these cases the marriage is only mid'Rabanan and she must be at least ten years old, or at least six years old if she has an understanding of the concept of marriage.
(c)According to the RAMBAM and the RA'AVAD, in the above circumstances, the Chachamim also gave her the right to get married by herself. This marriage is also mid'Rabanan. According to the Rambam, she must be at least ten years old, or at least six years old if she has an understanding of the concept of marriage. According to the Ra'avad, however, her Kidushin is valid even if she has enough sense to guard the object given to her for her Kidushin (and she realizes that it was given to her for Kidushin).
(d)In the instances of marriage mid'Rabanan, before she reaches Halachic puberty and becomes a Na'arah (through the growth of two pubic hairs), she has the option of annulling the marriage through a procedure known as Mi'un (refusal). She says before two witnesses, "I do not want him," and the marriage is annulled retroactively. There is no need for her to receive a Get (a bill of divorce). A girl who is married off by her father cannot annul the marriage through Mi'un. (RAMBAM Hilchos Ishus 4:7-8)
2)[line 21]משיאין את האשה על פי עד אחדMASI'IN ES HA'ISHAH AL PI ED ECHAD (HETER AGUNAH AL PI ED ECHAD)
The Chachamim instituted that a woman can remarry even if only one witness testifies that her husband has died. Although the Torah requires two witnesses for such testimony, the Rabanan allowed a woman to remarry based on the testimony of even a single witness, even if the witness is a woman or slave. The reason for this is that it is assumed that the woman would take care to determine that her husband is truly dead before remarrying, out of fear of the consequences of her husband's return. (If her husband is found to be alive, she loses not only her original husband and the new husband, but her Kesuvah and other benefits as well — Yevamos 87b et seq.)
3)[line 22]תרנגול שנסקלTARNEGOL SHE'NISKAL (SHOR HA'NISKAL)
(a)The term Shor ha'Niskal refers to any animal or bird that is stoned to death by Beis Din. Such an animal is Asur b'Hana'ah after the death sentence is issued. One of the instances of Shor ha'Niskal is an animal that killed a person, as described in Shemos 21:28-31 and in Sanhedrin 2a (see also Background to Kidushin 56:8).
(b)Only if two witnesses saw the incident is the animal stoned by Beis Din and Asur b'Hana'ah. If only one witness saw it, or if there were no witnesses but the owner told Beis Din of the incident, the animal is not stoned and is Mutar b'Hana'ah but is unfit to be brought as a Korban.
(c)In the case reported by Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava, a rooster killed a baby by pecking at his fontanel (RASHI to Berachos 27a).
4)[line 24]נתנסך על גבי המזבחNISNASECH AL GABEI HA'MIZBE'ACH (NESACHIM)
(a)The Nesachim are wine libations that are brought together with a Korban Shelamim or Olah, whether the Korban is offered by the Tzibur (Bamidbar 28:11-15, 20-21) or by an individual (Bamidbar 15:3-16). They are brought along with the Minchas Nesachim, a flour offering that is offered with these Korbanos (see Background to Me'ilah 15:5). (See also Background to Temurah 17:4:b.)
(b)The amounts of wine, flour and oil vary based upon which animal is being offered — see Background to Kidushin 37:12.
(c)Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava reported that forty-day-old wine is already fit to be used as Nesachim.
5)[line 24]על תמיד של שחר שקרב בארבע שעותAL TAMID SHEL SHACHAR SHE'KAREV B'ARBA SHA'OS (KORBAN TAMID)
(a)The Korban Tamid, a Korban Tzibur (communal offering), consists of two male sheep that were less than one year old. One sheep was offered at dawn and the second sheep was offered in the afternoon, ideally 2 1/2 Halachic hours before sunset. One tenth of an Eifah (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of flour was brought with each sheep as a Minchah (flour offering), which was mixed with one quarter of a Hin (approximately 0.9, 1.04 or 1.8 liters) of hand pressed olive oil. One quarter of a Hin of wine for each sheep was brought as a wine libation (Bamidbar 28:5).
(b)To insure that at least two sheep would be available for the Korban Tamid each day, six sheep were kept in the Lishkas ha'Tela'im, the Chamber of Lambs (TY # 43, also known as the Lishkas ha'Korban or Lishkas Tela'ei Korban). The lambs were checked for four days prior to being offered to ensure that they had no Mum (blemish).
(c)Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava reported that the Korban Tamid may be sacrificed until the fourth Sha'ah Zemanis. (see RASHI to Mishlei 31:1) (Sha'os Zemaniyos are Halachic hours — the amount of time between sunrise and sunset divided by twelve.)
6)[line 27]בחירתאBECHIRASA- the "choicest" of the Masechtos, Eduyos, which is comprised of "testimonies" or "reports" of many different laws. It is called Bechirasa since the Halachah follows these reports.
7)[line 28]"וחם השמש ונמס""V'CHAM HA'SHEMESH V'NAMAS"- "when the sun became hot, it melted" (Shemos 16:21)
8)[line 49]חלפיCHALFEI- would pass by [in front of others who were praying Shemoneh Esreh at the time].
9)[line 8]מי בדלת?MI BADLAS?- Have you stopped [doing Melachah]?
10)[line 12]להזיעL'HAZI'A- to take a sauna or steam bath (without washing)
11a)[line 14]לכברויי סליL'CHAVRUYEI SALEI- to fumigate baskets with sulfur
b)[line 15]מי הדרא?MI HADRA?- Does it (a mistake such as this) cause it (the Shabbos Shemoneh Esreh) to need to be repeated?
12)[line 39]בעלי תריסיןBA'ALEI TERISIN- (a) the shield-bearers, i.e. Talmidei Chachamim (RASHI); (b) tough officers appointed by the Romans to give the Nasi the power to enforce their decrees (ARUCH)
13)[line 45]בראש השנה אשתקד צעריהB'ROSH HA'SHANAH ESHTAKAD TZA'AREI- In Maseches Rosh Hashanah 25a, in the incident involving the setting of last year's calendar, he caused Rebbi Yehoshua distress by ordering him to desecrate Yom ha'Kipurim on the day that it fell according to his calculation.
14)[line 45]בבכורות במעשה דרבי צדוק צעריהB'BECHOROS, B'MA'ASEH D'REBBI TZADOK TZA'AREI- In Maseches Bechoros 36a, in the incident involving the Bechor of Rebbi Tzadok, he caused him distress by ordering him to stand.
15)[line 48]לפלוחי לבי קיסרL'PLUCHEI L'BEI KEISAR- to have influence on the Roman Emperor (lit. to serve the Roman Emperor)
16)[last line]אמליך באינשי ביתיIMLICH B'INSHEI BEISI- I will take counsel with my household (my wife) (see MAHARATZ CHAYOS)