BERACHOS 28- Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the Yahrzeit of her father, Rav Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Rabbi Morton Weiner) Z'L, who passed away on 18 Teves 5760. May the merit of supporting and advancing Dafyomi study -- which was so important to him -- during the weeks of his Yahrzeit serve as an Iluy for his Neshamah.

[28a - 56 lines; 28b - 54 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 28a [line 31]:

The words "Ho'il v'Hachi Havah, Eizil v'Afaisei" הואיל והכי הוה איזיל ואפייסיה

should be "Eikam, Eizil v'Afaisei" איקם איזיל אפייסיה

(This is the Girsa in Dikdukei Sofrim #9, Beis Nasan, Agadas ha'Talmud and Menoras ha'Ma'or.)

[2] Gemara [line 45]:

"Tanu Rabanan ... v'Achar Kach Mispalel Shel Musaf, she'Zo Tedirah, v'Zo Einah Tedirah" תנו רבנן ... ואחר כך מתפלל של מוסף שזו תדירה וזו אינה תדירה

It seems from Rashi DH Mispalel Shel Minchah that his text did not include the words "she'Zo Tedirah, v'Zo Einah Tedirah" שזו תדירה וזו אינה תדירה. Similarly, they do not appear in the texts of the Rif and the Rosh (Ateres Rosh; see Rashash). It is also apparent that Rashi's Girsa is d'Tanu Rabanan (see Rashi ibid.) (M. KORNFELD)

[3] Gemara [line 49]:

"Az Eikum mi'Kamaihu" אז איקום מפמייהו

The word "Az" does not appear in Dikdukei Sofrim #70

[4] Gemara [line 49]:

"Amar Lei, Hachi Amar Rebbi Yochanan, Ein Halachah k'Rebbi Yehudah ..." אמר ליה הכי אמר רבי יוחנן אין הלכה כרבי יהודה

(a) In the first printing of the Gemara and in Rabeinu Chananel and Or Zaru'a, the words "Hachi Amar" הכי אמר do not appear. Instead, after the words "Rebbi Yochanan" רבי יוחנן the Gemara states, "Amar Lei, Mai Hai? Amar Lei [Ein Halachah ...]" אמר ליה מאי האי? אמר ליה .... It appears that the words from Amar Lei to Amar Lei were accidentally omitted from our printings of the Gemara.

(b) Rashi seems to have a third Girsa. It appears from Rashi DH Man Amar that his text does not include all of the words from "Hachi Amar Rebbi Yochanan" until "Shel Minchah, Amar Lei" (i.e. from the second "Amar Lei" until the third "Amar Lei").

[5] Gemara [line 52]:

"l'Achar Sheva Sha'os l'Rebbi Yehudah... l'Achar Arba Sha'os l'Rebbi Yehudah"

לאחר שבע שעות לרבי יהודה ... לאחר ארבע שעות לרבי יהודה

The Girsa in the Rif is "d'Rebbi Yehudah" דרבי יהודה

(This Girsa seems to be correct. According to our Girsa, these words refer to the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah, which is difficult since according to Rebbi Yehudah he does not fulfill the Mitzvah at all. According to the Rif's Girsa, the Gemara is referring to the opinion of the Rabanan, and it asserts that the Rabanan agree that after seven hours a person is called a Poshe'a. However, the Maharsha, Bach [on the Rif], and Tosfos ha'Rosh did not explain the Gemara this way. -M. KORNFELD)

[6] Gemara [next to last line]:

"Mai Mashma d'Hai 'Nugei' Lishna d'Tza'ara... Nafshi mi'Tugah" מאי משמע דהאי נוגי לשנא דצערא ... נפשי מתוגה

(a) These words do not appear in the Rif, Rosh, Dikdukei Sofrim #90 and manuscripts. (This is logical since the Gemara already proved that "Nugei" means "Tavra" (destruction) and not "Tza'arah" (distress). See, however, the Maharsha, who somewhat justifies our Girsa.)

(b) The words of Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak at the end of the page "me'Hacha, Besuloseha Nugos..." belong earlier, before the statement of Rebbi Elazar about someone who prays after four hours, according to the Girsa of the abovementioned sources.

[7] Rashi 28a DH Man Amar Halachah ד"ה אמר הלכה:

"she'Halachah k'Rebbi Yehudah" שהלכה כרבי יהודה

(a) Although the immediate reaction would be to emend Rashi's words to read that the Halachah is like the Rabanan and not like Rebbi Yehudah, the Acharonim (Tzelach, Chefetz HaSh-m), try to fit Rashi's words into the words of our Gemara without resorting to emendation.

(b) This may not be necessary according to what we have already pointed out above (#4b), that Rashi apparently had a different Girsa in the Gemara. This also may be inferred from the Rosh and Tosfos Rabeinu Yehudah he'Chasid, who repeat the words of the Gemara emphasizing "Hachi Garsinan," as if to say that others had a different Girsa in the Gemara. The Maharshal in fact cites a variant reading of the Gemara, according to which Rebbi Yochanan was quoted as saying that the Halachah is like Rebbi Yehudah. (However, the Maharshal himself points out that this contradicts the previous Gemara, which quotes Rebbi Yochanan as saying that the Halachah is not like Rebbi Yehudah. Since the earlier Gemara is quoted as it appears here in numerous places in Shas, it is difficult to accept that it must be emended in all of those places.)


1)[line 2]כסא דמוקראKASA D'MOKRA- a valuable glass cup

2)[line 2]ליתברLISBAR- it may break

3)[line 3]חיורתאCHIVARTA- white [hair]

4)[line 10]שאין תוכו כברוSHE'EIN TOCHO K'VARO- whose inside (true self) is not the same as his outer appearance (i.e. he is insincere)

5)[line 16]אחזו ליהACHAZU LEI- they showed him

6a)[line 17]חצבי חיוריCHATZBEI CHIVREI- white pitchers

b)[line 17]מליין קטמאMALYAN KITMA- full of ashes, i.e., a sign that the students who were just admitted were unworthy

7)[line 18]ליתובי דעתיהL'YSUVEI DA'ATEI- to appease him


(a)KOL D'PARISH ME'RUBA PARISH - When there is a doubt as to the source of a certain item, i.e. from where it comes or to which group it belongs, the Torah informs us that we may resolve the doubt according to certain set rules. One of these rules is "Halech Achar ha'Rov" (assume that an item comes from the group that is the majority). For instance, if a piece of meat is found lying on the street (or in the hands of a Nochri in the street), and most of the meat in the town is kosher, it can be safely assumed that the meat is kosher. The source for Halech Achar ha'Rov is the verse, "Acharei Rabim l'Hatos" (Shemos 23:2; Chulin 11a).

(b)KOL KAVU'A K'MECHETZAH AL MECHETZAH DAMI - If, however, the nature of the item is in doubt while it is still "in its place," or Kavu'a, (i.e. it was not separated from the other items of its kind), we do not follow the Rov. Instead, we remain in doubt as to the status of the item. For instance, if a person buys meat and then forgets whether he bought it at a kosher or non-kosher store, we cannot assume that the meat is kosher just because most of the stores in the town are kosher; we are questioning its status while it is still in its proper place (the store) before it was separated from the other pieces of meat in the store.

(c)In our Gemara, according to Rebbi Yehoshua we are in doubt as to which nation Yehudah Ger Amoni came from. The doubt certainly started after his family left its proper place, since in its proper place there was no doubt. Therefore, we assume that he came from the majority of Nochrim, who are permitted to marry Jews after they convert. (Had he been definitely from Amon, he would have been prohibited from marrying a Jew, as the Torah states in Devarim 23:4.)

9)[line 31]הואיל והכי הוהHO'IL V'HACHI HAVAH- (a) since the people are so upset about the way I treated Rebbi Yehoshua (see Girsa section #1); (b) since I see that the Halachah is like Rebbi Yehoshua in this matter, he deserves my respect (RASHI in the Ein Yakov)

10a)[line 32]חזינהו לאשיתא דביתיה דמשחרןCHAZINHU L'ASHISA D'VEISEI D'MESHACHARAN- he (Raban Gamliel) saw that the walls of his (Rebbi Yehoshua's) house were black

b)[line 32]שפחמיPECHAMI- (a) a charcoal producer; (b) a blacksmith

11)[line 34]נעניתי לךNA'ANEISI LECHA- (a) I spoke against you too much (RASHI); (b) I have humbled and lowered myself in front of you (RASHASH, based on Shemos 10:3)

12)[line 35]פייסPIYEIS- he was appeased

13)[line 36]דלביש מדאD'LAVISH MADA- a person who wears the mantle

14)[line 38]טרוקו גליTEROKU GALEI- lock the gates

15)[line 39]טרף אבבאTARAF A'BAVA- he knocked on the gate

16)[line 40]מימיך מי מערהMEIMECHA MEI MA'ARAH - your water (that you prepared for use as Mei Chatas) is [invalid for use since it is] considered to be like the water of a cave (and only spring water may be used for Mei Chatas — see Background to Nidah 52:32) (MEI ME'ARAH)

(a)If a person (or utensil) became Tamei through touching Tum'as Mes or being in the same room as a corpse or something that is Metamei b'Ohel, he must wait seven days to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days he must have spring water mixed with the ashes of the Parah Adumah (Mei Chatas) sprinkled on him. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov branches that have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person who is Tamei. On the seventh day, he immerses in a Mikvah after the mixture is sprinkled on him in order to complete his Taharah (Bamidbar 19:17-19).

(b)The water that is used to make Mei Chatas must be spring water. If it is standing water that comes from a cave, it is unfit for use as Mei Chatas.

(c)A Kohen who asks for a fee to perform the sprinkling process of the Mei Chatas may receive a penalty that even if he draws water from a spring, it is considered Mei Me'arah. TOSFOS to Kidushin 58b DH Meimav states that his water is simply not considered spring water but rather standing water. RASHI to Kidushin 58b DH Mei Me'arah explains that it is considered Seruchim (lit. foul-smelling) because of his poor conduct.

17)[line 41]אפר מקלהEFER MAKLEH

Ordinary ashes that are found in stoves and ovens are called Efer Makleh. It is obvious that they may not be used for Mei Chatas. In certain circumstances, a Kohen may receive a penalty such that any time he works with the ashes of a Parah Adumah, they are considered Efer Makleh. One such case is if he asks for a fee to perform the sprinkling process of the Mei Chatas, as the Gemara states (Kidushin 58b).

18)[line 42]נעבריה?NE'ABREI?- [Should we] replace him (Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah)?

19)[line 42]גמיריGEMIREI- we have a tradition that Moshe received on Mount Sinai ("Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai")

20)[line 42]מעלין בקדש ואין מורידיןMA'ALIN BA'KODESH V'EIN MORIDIN

When a person or object receives a higher status of holiness, we do not lower its status at a later time. We may only raise it to a higher level.

21)[line 43]לקנאוייL'KAN'UYEI- to be jealous of each other

22)[line 49]אקבל אגראAKABEL AGRA- I will receive reward

23)[line 51]תנא מיניה ארבעין זמניןTANA MINEI ARBA'IN ZIMNIN- he learned it from him forty times; i.e. he (Rebbi Zeira) asked him (Rav Nasan bar Tubi) to repeat the teaching forty times

24a)[line 51]חדא היא לך?CHADA HI LACH?- Is it the only Halachah that you learned in the name of Rebbi Yochanan?

b)[line 51]חדת היא לך?CHADAS HI LACH?- Is it new (a Chidush) to you [that Rebbi Yochanan said it]?

25)[line 53]"נוגי ממועד אספתי ממך היו""NUGEI MI'MO'ED ASAFTI, MIMECH HAYU"- "Destroyed are those who pass up the set times of [prayer and] the festivals, I have taken them away from you (those that came from you)" (Tzefanyah 3:18)

26)[line 53]תבראTAVRA- destruction

27)[line 54]שנאיהון דבית ישראלSANEIHON D'BEIS YISRAEL- lit. the enemies of the People of Yisrael. This is a euphemism that refers to the People of Yisrael themselves.

28)[last line]"דלפה נפשי מתוגה""DALFAH NAFSHI MI'TUGAH"- "My soul sheds tears out of sorrow " (Tehilim 119:28)


29)[line 2]לאנוחי דעתיהL'ANUCHEI DA'ATEI- to set his mind at ease

30)[line 4]חליש לבאיCHALISH LIBA'I- I felt weak

31)[line 14]דבר תקלהDVAR TAKALAH- an error; stumbling block

32a)[line 15]בכניסתו מהו אומר?B'KENISASO, MAHU OMER?- What does one say when he enters [the Beis ha'Midrash]?

b)[line 19]מיושבי קרנותMI'YOSHVEI KERANOS- from those that sit at street corners (idlers)

33)[line 22]לבאר שחתBE'ER SHACHAS- Well of Destruction, i.e. Gehinom (Tehilim 55:24). (It is called a well because it constantly spews forth destruction - see Rav Hirsch there.)

34)[line 23]אורחות חייםORCHOS CHAYIM- correct behavior (lit. paths of life)

35)[line 24]הגיוןHIGAYON- (a) reading Tanach (because it draws a person away from his Gemara and Halachah) (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) childish talk (RASHI, 2nd explanation)

36)[line 27]פטישPATISH- pick

37)[line 41]העושה תפלתו קבעHA'OSEH TEFILASO KEVA- he who prays by rote (see Gemara below 29b)

38)[line 43]כל פרשת העבורKOL PARASHAS HA'IBUR- (a) every period of time that You become full of anger (Evrah) against them, as a pregnant woman (Ubarah) is filled to capacity with the fetus, placenta and amniotic fluid; (b) every period of time that they go astray to sin (Ovrim Al Divrei Torah)

39)[line 45]אסדאASDA- (a) fetters; (b) a raft

40)[line 46]י''ח אזכרותSHEMONAH ESREI AZKAROS- the eighteen times that HaSh-m's name is mentioned

41)[line 48]שיתפקקוSHE'YISPAKEKU- that they should stick out

42)[line 49]איסרISAR- a smooth band of skin (between two wrinkles) that is the size of an Isar, a Roman coin that is the equivalent of 1/24 of a Dinar

43)[line 49]נענעNI'ANE'A- that it shook

44)[line 50]תשסריTISHSEREI- nineteen

45)[line 53]שמעון הפקוליSHIMON HA'PAKULI- Shimon the Cotton Dealer (who sold tufts of cotton)

46)[line 53]הסדיר י''ח ברכותHISDIR SHEMONAH ESREI BERACHOS- recited (lit. arranged) the 18 blessings in their proper order