[25a - 38 lines; 25b - 42 lines]

1)[line 3]הסוכר אמת המיםHA'SOCHER AMAS HA'MAYIM- one who stops up a channel of water [such that the end of it is blocked off from the rest]

2)[line 5]חיה שקננה בפרדסCHAYAH SHE'KINENAH B'FARDES- a wild animal that has made a den [and given birth] in an enclosed orchard

3)[line 6]זמוןZIMUN- designation [in order for one to be permitted to slaughter and eat it on Yom Tov]

4)[line 6]נפל חברין ברברבתאNAFAL CHAVRIN B'RAVREVASA- our colleague has fallen into great [arguments with this statement]. Rav Huna, Rav Chisda, and Rav Nachman were all students of Rav.

5)[line 14]שלא תתחלף באמהSHE'LO TISCHALEF B'IMAH- that it should not be confused with its mother [which is the same size and was not designated to be eaten on Yom Tov]

6)[line 17]שהזמינןSHE'HIZMINAN- [a case] in which one designated [pigeons in a dovecote]

7)[line 24]מנוענעיןMENU'ANA'IN- that have been shaken [on Erev Yom Tov as an indication that one intends to slaughter them on Yom Tov]

8a)[line 24]בורותBOROS- round wells

b)[line 24]שיחיןSHICHIN- elongated ditches

c)[line 25]מערותME'AROS- caves

9)[line 25]יתלושYITLOSH- detach [something growing on the tree]

10)[line 26]בכל מקוםB'CHOL MAKOM- [found] anywhere [at any time]

11a)[line 26]הא בהHA BAH- the Beraisa [that does not require Zimun] refers to the offspring [of the Chayah, which cannot escape the orchard]

b)[line 26]הא באמהHA B'IMAH- the Beraisa [that does require Zimun] refers to the mother [Chayah, which can escape the orchard]

12)[line 28]בדידהB'DIDAH- referring to the offspring

13)[line 28]הא בגנה הסמוכה לעירHA B'GINAH HA'SEMUCHAH L'IR- the Beraisa [that does not require Zimun] refers to [a young Chayah stuck in] a garden close to the city [in which case it may be presumed that the owner of that garden plans on slaughtering it for Yom Tov]

14)[line 29]מסוכנתMESUKENES- in danger [of dying at any moment]

15)[line 29]שהותSHAHUS- time

16a)[line 30]חיCHAI- raw [meat]

b)[line 30]מבית טביחתהMI'BEIS TEVICHASAH- from the place where it was slaughtered; i.e., its neck

17a)[line 30]מוטMOT- a pole carried by two people across their shoulders

b)[line 31]מוטהMOTEH- a pole carried by two people in the hands (MELECHES SHLOMO)

18)[line 31]הפשטHEFSHET- skinning

b)[line 32]נתוחNITU'ACH- dismemberment

19)[line 32]עולהOLAH (KORBAN OLAH)

(a)An Olah sacrifice has the status of Kodshei Kodashim (see Background to Yoma 36:1), and is required of both the Tzibur (e.g., the Korban Tamid) and an individual under various circumstances. Voluntary Olos (Olos Nedavah) may be offered as well. An Olah must be brought by an individual to atone for the transgression of an Aseh (a positive commandment), a Lav she'Nitak l'Aseh (see Background to Yoma 36:19), or certain sinful thoughts (see Vayikra Rabah 7:3).

(b)One who offers a Korban Olah first leans on the animal with all his might (Semichah) in the northern area of the Azarah. He then recites Viduy, confessing his sin and asking HaSh-m for forgiveness. The animal is then immediately slaughtered. The blood of the Olah is applied to the lower half of the Mizbe'ach at the northeastern and southwestern corners only, in such a way that there is Dam on all sides of the Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba). The Korban is then skinned and dismembered. An Olah is unique in that the meat of the animal is burned in its entirety. The skin of the animal, however, is given to the Kohanim. An Olah must be burned on the same day that it is slaughtered. Nesachim (see Background to 31:30) are offered together with a Korban Olah.

20)[line 32]קצביםKATZAVIM- butchers

21)[line 37]מקום שטובחת אכילתהMAKOM SHE'TOVACHAS ACHILASAH- the place where it chops up its food; i.e., its intestines. According to this understanding of Rebbi Akiva, he is agreeing with Rami bar Aba, since one must dismember an animal in order to get to its intestines.


22)[line 1]אורח ארעאORACH AR'A- proper conduct (this is the Aramaic translation of Derech Eretz) [since the animal may be found non-kosher upon further inspection]

23)[line 1]כדתניאKED'TANYA- as we learned in a Beraisa [that a Tana taught the proper way in which one should conduct himself, even though it was unrelated to an actual prohibition]

24)[line 2]שוםSHUM- garlic

25a)[line 2]מראשוME'ROSHO- from its end

b)[line 2]מעליוME'ALAV- from its leaves

26a)[line 3]רעבתןRA'AVTAN- a glutton

b)[line 4]גרגרןGARGERAN- one who drinks excessively

27)[line 6]גסי הרוחGASEI HA'RU'ACH- haughty individuals

28)[line 7]חצובאCHATZUVA- a shrub with deep, unvaryingly straight roots, planted in hedges as a boundary marker; prob. Cistus

29)[line 7]מקטע רגליהון דרשיעיאMEKATE'A RAGLEIHON D'RESHI'AYA- lit. cuts the legs off the wicked; shames those who take that which does not belong to them (esp. land) on the Day of Judgement

30)[line 7]נטיעהNETI'AH (ORLAH)

(a)One may not derive any benefit from the fruit produced by a fruit tree in the first three years following its planting. These fruits are termed "Orlah" (Vayikra 19:23). This status applies not only to the fruit but also to the peel of the fruit (Kelipei Orlah).

(b)If one consumes a k'Zayis of Orlah fruit, he receives Malkus. According to most Rishonim one who derives benefit from Orlah (or any other food that is Asur b'Hana'ah) is punished with Malkus as well (TOSFOS Chulin 120a DH Ela). There are those, however, who maintain that for such a transgression one receives only Makas Mardus (Malkus instituted by the Rabanan; RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 8:16 - see also Mishneh l'Melech to Yesodei ha'Torah 5:8).

31)[line 8]קצביאKATZAVAYA- butchers [who are impatient and eat from a slaughtered animal before it is dismembered and checked to see if it kosher]

32)[line 8]בועלי נדותBO'ALEI NIDOS (NIDAH)

(a)By Torah Law, a woman is a Nidah for seven days following her period. It makes no difference whether she saw blood only one time or for the entire seven days. At the end of seven days, after nightfall, she may immerse in a Mikvah to become Tehorah.

(b)One may not have relations nor engage in intimate contact with his wife while she is a Nidah. The Chachamim enacted many far-ranging additional ways in which one must keep his distance from his wife when she is Teme'ah.

(c)Rami bar Aba declares that one who is too impatient to wait until his wife has become Tehorah will be shamed on the Day of Judgement by the Halachah of Orlah, which requires one to wait for three years until partaking of the fruit of a fruit tree.

33)[line 9]תורמוסאTURMOSA- lupine, a legume in the pea family

34)[line 9]שנאיהון של ישראלSON'EIHEM SHEL YISRAEL- lit. the enemies of Yisrael. This is a euphemism used for Klal Yisrael when the reference holds a negative connotation.

35)[line 10]"וַיֹּסִיפוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לַעֲשׂוֹת הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי ה', וַיַּעַבְדוּ אֶת הַבְּעָלִים וְאֶת הָעַשְׁתָּרוֹת וְאֶת אֱלֹהֵי אֲרָם וְאֶת אֱלֹהֵי צִידוֹן וְאֵת אֱלֹהֵי מוֹאָב וְאֵת אֱלֹהֵי בְנֵי עַמּוֹן וְאֵת אֱלֹהֵי פְלִשְׁתִּים, וַיַּעַזְבוּ אֶת-ה' וְלֹא עֲבָדוּהוּ""VA'YOSIFU BNEI YISRAEL LA'ASOS HA'RA B'EINEI HASH-M, VA'YA'AVDU ES HA'BE'ALIM V'ES HA'ASHTAROS VE'ES ELOHEI ARAM... VA'YA'AZVU ES HASH-M VE'LO AVADUHU" - "And Bnei Yisrael continued to do evil in the eyes of HaSh-m, and they worshipped the Be'alim, the Ashtaros, the gods of Syria, the gods of Tzidon, the gods of Mo'av, the gods of Bnei Amon, and the gods of the Pelishtim, and they forsook HaSh-m and did not serve Him" (Shoftim 10:5) (A CYCLE OF REPEATED DESERTION OF HASH-M)

(a)this Pasuk appears between the reign of the Shofet (Judge) Ya'ir (the second) and that of Yiftach. Typical of the period of the Shoftim, Klal Yisrael turned to idolatrous practices as soon as the Shofet died. HaSh-m would then turn a blind eye as they were subjugated by their enemies. This would lead Klal Yisrael to return and cry out to HaSh-m, who would respond by appointing a new Shofet to deliver them from their oppressors.

36a)[line 11]בעליםBE'ALIM- [various idols accepted as] masters

b)[line 12]עשתרותASHTAROS- the Avodah Zarah of Astarte. Then a popular fertility goddess in the Near East, she is identified with Asheirah and Aphrodite.

37a)[line 12]ארםARAM- Aramaea, a land to the northeast of Eretz Yisrael. The source of the Aramaic language, it spread over the approximate area of modern-day Syria, including the area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

b)[line 12]צידוןTZIDON- Sidon, a city in the north of Eretz Yisrael on the Mediterranean coast (Bamidbar 34:7).

38)[line 18]שולקין אותוSHOLKIN OSO- they cook it [to remove its bitter taste]

39)[line 19]קנוח סעודהKINU'ACH SE'UDAH- the appetizer of a meal

40)[line 21]שהן עזיןSHE'HEN AZIN- they are brazen [and require the Torah to break them of this negative trait]

41)[line 21]"... מִימִינוֹ, אשדת (אֵשׁ דָּת) לָמוֹ""... MI'YMINO, ESH DAS LAMO"- "... from His right hand, [He presented] His fiery Torah to them" (Devarim 33:2).

42)[line 22]ראויין הללוRE'UYIN HALALU- it is fit for these [people who have a brazen temperament]

43)[line 23]דתיהם של אלו אשDASEIHEN SHEL ELU ESH- these [people] have a fiery temperament. According to this version, the verse is understood as "... He presented the Torah with his right hand, because they have a fiery temperament."

44)[line 28]עזEZ- a goat

45)[line 28]בהמה דקהBEHEMAH DAKAH- light animals (such as sheep and goats)

46)[line 28]צלףTZELAF- a caper-berry bush [a) that produces three different types of edible fruit daily (TOSFOS DH u'Tzelaf); b) from which a strong wine (Azah) is made (RI cited by TOSFOS DH u'Tzelaf)]

47)[line 29]אין הסומא יוצא במקלוEIN SUMA YOTZEI B'MAKLO- a blind person may not go out [into a public area] with his staff [that is not absolutely necessary for him to walk, since it appears as if he is going to do business (See Insights)].

48)[line 29]תרמילוTARMILO- his bag

49)[line 31]גלודקיGELUDKI- (O.F. faldestol) a folding chair

50)[line 32]אחי שקיאACHI SHAKYA- Achi the butler (alt. water carrier)

51)[line 32]אפיקתיהAPIKTEI- brought him out [in a chair]

52)[line 33]מהיני לשיליME'HINI L'SHILI- from Hini to Shili (two towns in close proximity of each other in the Pumbedisa area of Bavel)

53)[line 34]משמשא לטולאME'SHIMSHA L'TULA- from the sun to the shade

54)[line 35]שליח ציוןSHELI'ACH TZIYON- lit. the messenger of Zion; who often traveled to Yerushalayim

55)[line 35]אקיף וזיל אסולמא דצורAKIF V'ZIL A'SULMA D'TZOR- detour to the Ladder of Tyre (Scala Tyriorum, a promontory south of Tyre on the southern coast of Lebanon)

56)[line 36]מה אתון ביה?MAH ATUN BEI?- what do you [rule regarding] it?

57)[line 37]כי סליקKI SALIK- when he came up [to Eretz Yisrael]

58)[line 39]אלונקיALONKI- (O.F. sanbuels) a seat carried across the arms of two people who face each other and place their hands on each other's shoulders

59)[line 40]ילתאYELATA- the wife of Rav Nachman, daughter of the Resh Galusa (Exilarch)

60)[line 40]בעיתאBE'ISA- she is fearful [of falling]

61)[line 41]שבתא דרגלאSHABTA D'RAGLA- Shabbos of Chol ha'Mo'ed

62)[line 41]דוחקא דצבוראDUCHKA D'TZIBURA- [so as not to] inconvenience those who have congregated [to see them and stand in their honor for any longer than necessary]

63)[last line]בכורBECHOR

(a)Every first-born male offspring of an ox, goat or sheep is Kadosh when it comes out of its mother's womb. Nevertheless, there is a Mitzvah for he who owns the animal to sanctify it by verbally declaring it to have the Kedushah of a Bechor, similar to the way in which one is Makdish a Korban (Erchin 29a, based on Devarim 15:19). He must then give it to a Kohen; it may not be redeemed.

(b)If the animal is unblemished, the Kohen must bring it as a Korban during its first year. After its blood and Emurim (see Background to Yevamos 7:8 and 100:9) are offered on the Mizbe'ach, it may be eaten in Yerushalayim during the following two days and the intervening night.

(c)If the animal has or develops a Mum (blemish), it becomes the property of the Kohen and it is slaughtered and eaten during its first year. If it developed a Mum after the first year, it must be slaughtered and eaten within thirty days. The Kohen may give it away or sell it - even to a non-Kohen. However, it may not be sold in a meat market or weighed in the usual manner, nor may it be redeemed with money.

(d)When there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, a Kohen must care for a Bechor until it develops a Mum. Alternatively, he can sell it, even if it has no Mum, to a non-Kohen, who may eat it after it develops a Mum. One may not, however, buy it in order to sell it at a profit (Sefer ha'Chinuch #393, #445).

64)[last line]מומחהMUMCHEH- an expert [on judging whether a Mum (blemish) is temporary or permanent]