[23a - 51 lines; 23b - 27 lines]

1)[line 1]חרסCHERES- [a heated piece of] pottery

2)[line 2]מוליד ריחאMOLID REICHA- creating a scent [in the piece of pottery, which is prohibited mid'Rabanan since it appears similar to creating a new item, which is forbidden on Shabbos and Yom Tov]

3)[line 3]סחופי כסא אשיראיSECHUFEI KASA A'SHIRA'EI- overturning a cup of perfume onto silken [garments]

4a)[line 5]מוללו ומריח בוMOLELO U'MERI'ACH BO- rubbing [a fragrant branch] between one's fingers in order to release its scent [which is permitted on Yom Tov]

b)[line 5]קוטמו ומריח בוV'KOTMO U'MERI'ACH BO- breaking [a fragrant branch] in order to release its scent [which is permitted on Yom Tov]

5)[line 9]בשרא אגומריBISRA A'GUMREI- [roasting] meat over coals [which both partly extinguishes the coals as well as chars the meat]

6)[line 10]בי כתילBEI KASIL- the name of a place

7)[line 11]קטורא בידיKETURA B'YADI- tying [straw into folds] in sleeves [or leggings in order to iron them into pleats] (in this case, "Ketura" would refer to "knots")

8)[line 12]מעשה אומן הוא!MA'ASEH UMAN HU!- that requires craftsmanship [and is a prohibited Melachah]!

9)[line 12]לעשןL'ASHEN- to smoke fruits (in which case "Ketura" would refer to "incense")

10)[line 19]בשרא אגומריBISRA A'GUMREI- [roasting] meat over coals [which causes the coals to take on the scent of roasted meat]

11)[line 23]נדויNIDUY- excommunication

12)[line 24]בחוץB'CHUTZ- outside [of the Beis ha'Mikdash]

13)[line 25]כעין קדשיםK'EIN KODSHIM- similar to the Korban Pesach [which is roasted in this manner]

14)[line 27]יוצאהYOTZ'AH (HOTZA'AH)

(a)Hotza'ah is the last of the thirty-nine Avos Melachos of Shabbos. It involves either:

1.the transferal of objects from a Reshus ha'Yachid (private domain) to a Reshus ha'Rabim (public domain);

2.Hachnasah, which refers to the transferal of objects from a Reshus ha'Rabim to a Reshus ha'Yachid;

3.Ma'avir Arba Amos bi'Reshus ha'Rabim, which refers to carrying an object from one place in a Reshus ha'Rabim to another over a distance of at least four Amos;

4.Moshit, which involves passing an object from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another through a Reshus ha'Rabim (as described in the Mishnah on Shabbos 96a).

All of these are biblical prohibitions.

(b)The Chachamim enacted that one may not perform Hotza'ah from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another.

(c)Additionally, The Chachamim created a new designation for an area termed a Karmelis. A Karmelis bears similarities to both a Reshus ha'Rabim and a Reshus ha'Yachid, although it is not quite either of them. The Rabanan decreed that a Karmelis has the status of both a Reshus ha'Rabim and a Reshus ha'Yachid, whichever is more stringent given the situation. This is because one may confuse it with either of the two Reshuyos. Some examples of a Karmelis are a sea, a desert, and an area in Reshus ha'Rabim that is at least four by four Tefachim wide but not higher than ten Tefachim, such as a raised platform, pole, or fenced in area.

(d)The prohibition of Hotza'ah requires one to ensure that not only he, but his animals as well, do not carry objects into another Reshus on Shabbos. Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah allowed his cow to walk into e Reshus ha'Rabim from a Reshus ha'Yachid with a ribbon tied between its horns on Shabbos. This is because he maintained that it was no more than an ornament. The Chachamim ruled that it was a transgression of Hotza'ah.

15)[line 27]רצועהRETZU'AH- a [decorative] strap

16)[line 28]מקרדיןMEKARDIN- one may comb (O.F. estreillier - curry-comb) [with a thin-toothed iron comb]

17a)[line 28]שוחקין את הפלפליןSHOCHAKIN ES HA'PILPELIN- one may grind peppercorns

b)[line 29]ברחים שלהןB'REICHAYIM SHELA'HEN- with a pepper mill

18)[line 31]מקרצפיןMEKARTZEFIN- one may comb [with a thick-toothed wooden comb]

19)[line 35]מעשרME'ASER(MA'ASER BEHEMAH)

(a)The Torah states, "v'Chol Ma'asar Bakar va'Tzon, Kol Asher Ya'avor Tachas ha'Shavet, ha'Asiri Yiheyeh Kodesh la'Shem" — "And all of the cattle and flocks of sheep and goats shall be tithed as they are counted under the rod; the tenth one shall be consecrated to Hash-m" (Vayikra 27:32). Once a year, one must designate every tenth Kosher animal born into his herd/flock over the course of the previous year as Ma'asar Behemah. This is accomplished by gathering all of each type of animal born in the previous year into a corral. They are then made to leave the corral in a single-file line through a narrow opening. Their owner stands by and counts them, marking every tenth one.

(b)Animals designated as Ma'asar Behemah are eaten by their owner. If they are unblemished, they are offered as a Korban Shelamim (see Background to 6:38) and eaten by their owner in Yerushalayim. If they have a Mum, their owner may slaughter and eat them as he would any Kosher animal.

(c)The Chachamim designated three dates by which a person must tithe his flock. After these times, no animal may not be eaten or sold until they have been tithed.

20)[line 36]עדריהEDREI- his herd

21)[line 36]שתאSHASAH- year

22)[line 38]מיחהMICHAH- protest

23)[line 40]קטניםKETANIM- [involves a comb which has] small [teeth]

24)[line 42]דבר שאינו מתכויןDAVAR SHE'EINO MISKAVEN

(a)A Davar she'Eino Miskavein is an act carried out toward a certain end which can be reached without transgressing a Melachah, but which may result in a Melachah being inadvertently performed. Rebbi Yehudah prohibits performing such an action mid'Rabanan, since it may result in a Melachah. Rebbi Shimon disagrees. He maintains that even though a Melachah may result from this action, the action is permitted since that one has no intention to perform the Melachah. (If a Melachah will definitely occur as a result of one's action, it is termed a Psik Reishei and is forbidden even if one has no intention to perform the Melachah — even according to Rebbi Shimon.)

(b)One must have specific intent to perform a Melachah on Shabbos in order to be liable for punishment or to be required to bring a Korban. Therefore, if one does act in a way that results in an inadvertent Melachah, even Rebbi Yehudah agrees that he is not obligated to bring a Korban, since the Melachah was performed accidentally. The Machlokes between Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon addresses only whether or not one may perform an action that may possibly result in a Melachah to begin with (See Insights to Shabbos 41:2).


25)[line 1]טמאה משום שלשה כליםTEME'AH MISHUM SHELOSHAH KELIM (TUM'AS KLI)

(a)All objects belong to one of the following three categories:

1.Sources of Tum'ah

2.Objects that can become Tamei

3.Objects that cannot become Tamei

(b)A source of Tum'ah is called an Av ha'Tum'ah. The exception to this is a corpse, which is referred to as the "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah," due to the fact that it can generate more Tum'ah than any other object. When an object becomes Tamei from coming into contact with an object which is Tamei, that object does not receive the same Tum'ah as that of the first object, but rather a level of Tum'ah one degree weaker than the first. If an object came into contact with an Av ha'Tum'ah, it is called a Rishon l'Tum'ah, or Vlad ha'Tum'ah. Tum'ah received from a Rishon creates a Sheni l'Tum'ah, and that from a Sheni creates a Shelishi (in certain cases), etc.

(c)A metal utensil can become an Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah, an Av ha'Tum'ah, or a Rishon l'Tum'ah (see Insights to Pesachim 14b); a person and all utensils other than earthenware can become an Av ha'Tum'ah or Rishon l'Tum'ah (although Chazal decreed that one's hands sometimes have the status of a Sheni l'Tum'ah); Earthenware utensils can only become a Rishon l'Tum'ah; food and liquids which are Chulin can become a Rishon l'Tum'ah or a Sheni l'Tum'ah; Terumah can become a Shelishi l'Tum'ah as well; and Hekdesh can receive the status of a Revi'i l'Tum'ah.

(d)Our Gemara teaches that the three distinct parts of a pepper mill are each considered a Kli and can receive Tum'ah, although for three different reasons.

26a)[line 2]כלי קבולKLI KIBUL- a [wooden] utensil with a receptacle

b)[line 2]כלי מתכתKLI MATECHES- a metal utensil [that can become Tamei even without a receptacle]

c)[line 3]כלי כברהKLI KEVARAH- a [wooden perforated] utensil utilized for sifting

27)[line 5]עליונהELYONAH- the upper part [that grinds the peppercorns and has metal teeth]

28)[line 6]עגלה של קטןAGALAH SHEL KATAN- a) a child's stroller (RASHI); b) a child's three-wheeled walker (TOSFOS)

29)[line 6]טמאה מדרסTEME'AH MEDRAS

(a)A Zav (see Background to Yoma 63:6), Zavah (see Background to Yoma 63:7), Yoledes (see Background to Yoma 55:17), or Nidah (see Background to Pesachim 23:62) cause objects underneath them to become Avos ha'Tum'ah whether or not they come into contact with them. The status of such an object is that of a Tamei Midras (lit. that which is treaded upon), also known as a Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav/Zavah, or the "Tachton" of a Zav or Zavah. An object beneath a Zav or a Zavah becomes a Midras only if it is designed for lying, sitting, or leaning upon. Earthenware objects (Klei Cheres) cannot receive Tum'as Midras.

(b)One who comes into contact with or carries a Midras becomes a Rishon l'Tum'ah. As well, his clothes and any other utensils (other than earthenware utensils) that he is touching receive this level of Tum'ah.

(c)Our Gemara teaches that if the child who sits upon a stroller (or leans upon a walker according to TOSFOS DH Agalah) is a Zav, then the Agalah becomes an Av ha'Tum'ah.

30)[line 7]נטלת בשבתNITELES B'SHABBOS- may be moved on Shabbos[ and is not Muktzah]

31)[line 7]נגררתNIGRERES- dragged

32)[line 8]כליםKELIM- clothing

33)[line 9]כובשתKOVESHES- compacts [the earth beneath its wheels, as opposed to creating a furrow by dragging through the earth in the manner of a plow]

34)[line 14]חריץCHARITZ- a furrow

35)[line 18]ספסלSAFSAL- a bench


36)[line 24]צדיןTZADIN- trap

37)[line 24]ביבריםBIVARIN- an enclosure in which live animals are kept; in this case, a fish-pond (O.F. vivier)

38)[line 24]אין נותנין לפניהם מזונותEIN NOSNIN LI'FNEIHEM MEZONOS- one may not feed them [since a) they can forage for themselves and will not go hungry (RASHI); b) one may come to trap them if he is allowed to do so (TOSFOS DH Ein Tzadin)]