BEITZAH 15 (14 Nisan) - dedicated by Mr. D. Kornfeld l'Iluy Nishmas his grandmother, Chayah bas Aryeh Leib Shpira (nee Sole), on the day of her Yahrzeit.

[15a - 44 lines; 15b - 42 lines]

1)[line 1]קשיןKASHIN- hard [articles of clothing, which do not provide warmth when one sits upon them]

2)[line 2]נמטא גמדא דנרשNAMTA GAMDA D'NARASH- compressed (as opposed to woven) felt (O.F. feltre) produced in Narash [from both linen and woolen fibers]

3)[line 2]שריאSHARYA- may a) be sat upon (RASHI); b) be worn [since it is hard and is not Sha'atnez mid'Oraisa] (TOSFOS; See Insights)

4a)[line 3]ערדליןARDELIN- socks with leather or woolen heels

b)[line 3]אין בהן משום כלאיםEIN BA'HEM MISHUM KIL'AYIM- do not have a problem of Sha'atnez [even if the sock is made from linen and the heel from wool, since the material is hard]

5)[line 4]צררי דפשיטיTZERAREI D'PESHITEI- a cloth money-belt [whose material becomes flattened when the coins rattle about]

6)[line 5]בזרניD'BIZRANEI- seeds

7)[line 9]מעשה שהיהMA'ASEH SHE'HAYAH- that which occurred. The Gemara (Shabbos 60a) relates that Jews were hiding in a cave from their attackers. Under the mistaken impression that they had been discovered, they panicked and crowded deeper into the cave. Some were trampled under the spiked shoes of their comrades. More Jews perished in this incident than were killed by the enemy.

8)[line 10]ומותר לטלטלוU'MUTAR L'TALTELO- and it is permitted to move it [for the same reasons that one may move any Kli she'Melachto l'Isur (see Background to 11:18); namely, to make use of it for a permissible purpose or because one has need of the space that it is occupying]

9)[line 15]נקיט בסיכיD'NAKIT B'SICHEI- that [the front, back, and sides of the shoe] are held [in place] by a) wooden pins; b) a single stitch

10)[line 17]ביצת הגירBEITZAS HA'GIR- a lump of black earth used to blacken leather shoes

11)[line 18]לצחצחוL'TZACHTZECHO- to smooth it

12)[line 19]מר כי אתריהMAR KI ASREI- one Tana ruled in accordance with the custom of where he lived

13a)[line 20]בשרא לתחתBISRA L'SACHAS- the [side of the leather that had lain against the] meat [of the animal and was cracked and scaly] was turned inward

b)[line 20]בשרא לעילBISRA L'EIL- the [side of the leather that had lain against the] meat [of the animal and was cracked and scaly] was turned outward [and therefore required smoothing]

14)[line 22]לשדוריL'SHEDUREI- to send

15a)[line 28]שקעה עליו חמהSHAK'A ALAV CHAMAH- the sun set on a) Erev Shabbos [meaning that Shabbos, a time during which Tefilin are not worn, had begun] (RASHI); b) any night [which is a time during which Tefilin are not worn] (TOSFOS)

b)[line 30]קדש עליו היוםKIDESH ALAV HA'YOM- the day of Shabbos began

16)[line 37]הא דמנטראHA D'MINTERA- that [which one must remove his Tefilin is referring to a situation] in which [that structure] will guard [the Tefilin well]

17)[line 39]מחתן בארעאMECHASAN B'AR'A- lying on the ground

18)[line 40]מכניסן זוג זוגMACHNISAN ZUG ZUG- he should bring them [into the city] pair by pair [through placing the Shel Rosh on his head and the Shel Yad on his arm]

19)[line 40]לא קשיא; הא דמנטרא מחמת גנבי ומחמת כלבי...LO KASHYA; HA D'MINTERA MACHMAS GANAVEI U'MACHMAS KALBEI...- This "Lo Kashya" is to be understood as "Ela"; that is, the Gemara redefines its resolution of the two Beraisos. One must leave Tefilin on Shabbos in the house nearest the city limits when that structure provides protection both thieves, who will steal them, and dogs, who will disgrace them. One may wear them home when the nearer house will provide protection from dogs but not from thieves. One may not, however, move Tefilin on Shabbos from where they are protected from dogs even if they are not protected from thieves, assuming that most thieves in that area are Jewish and will know to treat Tefilin with respect (RASHASH).



20)[line 4]עושה תבשילOSEH TAVSHIL (ERUVEI TAVSHILIN)

(a)Although the Torah prohibits cooking or performing Melachah on Yom Tov for a weekday, it is permitted mid'Oraisa to cook or perform Melachos on Yom Tov in preparation for Shabbos when Yom Tov falls on Erev Shabbos (Pesachim 46b). The Rabanan, however, prohibited these Melachos unless an Eruv Tavshilin is made on Erev Yom Tov.

(b)The Amora'im disagree as to the reason why the Rabanan prohibited preparing for Shabbos without an Eruv Tavshilin (15b). Rava maintains that it is to honor Shabbos, by serving as a reminder that one should save food for the Shabbos meals. Rav Ashi contends that it is meant to honor Yom Tov, so that one should say, "If it is prohibited to cook on Yom Tov even for Shabbos (without an Eruv Tavshilin), all the more so on Yom Tov for a weekday (whatsoever)!"

(c)An Eruv Tavshilin is made as follows: a k'Zayis of cooked food (Beitzah ibid.) is set aside on Erev Yom Tov to be eaten on Shabbos. When setting it aside, one recites the appropriate blessing and then says, "Through this Eruv we shall be able to bake, cook and do other necessary preparations on Yom Tov for Shabbos". The prevalent custom is to set aside a baked item as well; see Insights to 17:2.

21)[line 4]לשבתL'SHABBOS- [in order to cook] for Shabbos

22)[line 6]ביצה שעליוBEITZAH SHE'ALAV- the egg that [has been brushed] over it

23)[line 9]מנה"מ?MINA HANEI MILEI?- upon what verse [did the Chachamim base their enactment of Eruv Tavshilin]?

24)[line 11]זכרהו מאחר שבא להשכיחוZACHREHU ME'ACHAR SHE'BA L'HASHKICHO- remember it [through preparing food in its honor] when you are likely to forget it (i.e., when it follows Yom Tov)

25)[line 11]כדי שיברור מנה יפה לשבת ומנה יפה ליום טובKEDEI SHE'YIVROR MANEH YAFEH L'SHABBOS U'MANEH YAFEH L'YOM TOV- in order that he should set aside a worthy portion [of food] for Shabbos just as he sets aside a worthy portion [of food] for Yom Tov

26a)[line 12]אין אופין מיום טוב לשבתEIN OFIN ME'YOM TOV L'SHABBOS- [if] one may not cook [food] on Yom Tov [in preparation] for Shabbos [without an Eruv Tavshilin]

b)[line 13]קל וחומר מיום טוב לחול!KAL V'CHOMER ME'YOM TOV L'CHOL!- all the more so that one may not cook [food] on Yom Tov [in preparation] for a weekday [whatsoever]! Rav Ashi disagrees with Shmuel and Rava, and maintains that the rationale behind the enactment of Eruv Tavshilin is to honor Yom Tov, not Shabbos.

27)[line 16]יפשעYIFSHA- one will be negligent [and neglect to prepare an Eruv Tavshilin]

28)[line 17]"[שַׁבָּתוֹן שַׁבַּת קֹדֶשׁ לַה' מָחָר;] אֵת אֲשֶׁר תֹּאפוּ אֵפוּ, וְאֵת אֲשֶׁר תְּבַשְּׁלוּ בַּשֵׁלוּ""[SHABASON SHABBAS KODESH LA'SH-M MACHAR;] ES ASHER TOFU EFU, V'ES ASHER TEVASHELU BASHELU..."- "[... it will be a holy Shabbos for Hash-m tomorrow;] bake that which you shall bake, and cook that which you shall cook..." (Shemos 16:23). This verse discusses the Man, of which a double portion fell before Shabbos. Rebbi Eliezer infers a reference to Eruv Tavshilin from that which the verse did not simply state, "... today, bake and cook...."

29)[line 20]כל היום כולוKOL HA'YOM KULO- most of the day; until beyond noon (Maharsha, based upon the end of this account)

30)[line 20]כתKAT- group

31a)[line 21]פטסיןPATISIN- large wine vats [that they plan on finishing during their Yom Tov meal]

b)[line 21]חביותCHAVIYOS- barrels [of wine]

c)[line 22]כדיןKADIN- pitchers [of wine]

d)[line 22]לגיניןLAGININ- flasks [of wine]

e)[line 23]כוסותKOSOS- cups [of wine]

32)[line 23]מארהME'EIRAH- a curse (see Insights)

33)[line 24]תלמידיםTALMIDIM- [those] students [who remained]

34)[line 24]משתניןMISHTANIN- to change [in color]. Thinking that Rebbi Eliezer was upset at the previous group for leaving late and deferring his Yom Tov meal, those students who yet remained whitened in fear.

35a)[line 25]שמניחים חיי עולםSHE'MANICHIM CHAYEI OLAM- that they have left eternal life (i.e., Torah) behind

b)[line 25]ועוסקים בחיי שעהV'OSKIM B'CHAYEI SHA'AH- and are involving themselves in temporal pleasures

36)[line 25]פטירתןPETIRASAN- of their leaving [at the end of the discourse]

37)[line 26]"[וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם] לְכוּ אִכְלוּ מַשְׁמַנִּים, וּשְׁתוּ מַמְתַקִּים, וְשִׁלְחוּ מָנוֹת לְאֵין נָכוֹן לוֹ, כִּי קָדוֹשׁ הַיּוֹם לַאֲדֹנֵינוּ; וְאַל תֵּעָצֵבוּ, כִּי חֶדְוַת ה' הִיא מָעֻזְּכֶם""[VA'YOMER LA'HEM] LECHU ICHLU MASHMANIM, U'SHESU MAMSAKIM, V'SHILCHU MANOS L'EIN NACHON LO, KI KADOSH HA'YOM LA'ADONEINU; V'AL TE'ATZEVU, KI CHEDVAS HASH-M HI MA'UZECHEM" - "[And he said to them,] 'Go eat rich foods, drink sweet beverages, and send portions to those who do not have, for this day is holy to our Master. Do not be sad; for the enjoyment of Hash-m is your strength!'" (Nechemyah 8:10) (THE PROPER WAY TO CELEBRATE ROSH HASHANAH)

(a)Following the destruction of the first Beis ha'Mikdash, Klal Yisrael were resettled in Bavel. After seventy years of exile, many returned to Yerushalayim, led by Ezra ha'Sofer.

(b)Ezra first set about rebuilding the walls of Yerushalayim. As the Torah had largely been neglected during the years of exile, the unlearned people then clamored to hear what the Torah said. Ezra gather everyone to the square before the Water Gate of the Beis ha'Mikdash on the first day of Rosh Hashanah and read the section of the Torah pertaining to Rosh Hashanah aloud. The assembled wept as they realized that they had forsaken the teachings of the Torah. Ezra exhorted the assembled not to mourn, but rather to rejoice in the sanctity of HaShm's holy day (Nechemyah 8:10).

38)[line 29]רשותRESHUS- an allowance

39)[line 30]שונהSHONEH- learn [Torah]

40)[line 32]עצרתATZERES- a) a day upon which all Melachah is to cease; b) a day upon which all manner of good food and drink is assembled (RASHI to Devarim 16:8); c) a day of assembly (TARGUM ONKELUS to Devarim 16:8)

41)[line 35]שלא היה לוSHE'LO HAYAH LO- who was not able to [due to pressing circumstances]

42a)[line 38]לוו עליLEVU ALAI- borrow on my account

b)[line 38]וקדשו קדושת היוםV'KIDSHU KEDUSHAS HA'YOM- and celebrate the holiness of the day [with good food and drink]

43)[line 38]פורעPORE'A- repay

44)[line 39]יטע בהן אדרYITA BA'HEN EDER- a) he should plant a certain species of cedar (prob. Spanish Juniper) [along the border of his fields, as this both physically protects it and singles it out, making it harder to steal] (RASHI, first explanation); b) he should plant a certain species of plant in [his fields which both protects his crops from disease as well as singling it out, making it harder to steal] (RASHI, second explanation); c) he should donate to charity from [his possessions] (RABEINU CHANANEL)

45a)[line 40]שנאמרSHE'NE'EMAR- a) [the reason why this tree/plant is called an Eder is] based on the [term used in the following] verse (RASHI)

b)[line 40]"... אַדִּיר בַּמָּרוֹם ה'""... ADIR BA'MAROM HASH-M"- "... HaSh-m is mighty in heaven" (Tehilim 93:4).

46)[line 40]אי נמי אדרא כשמיהIY NAMI IDRA KI'SHEMEI- a) alternatively [this tree/plant is termed] an Eder based upon [the way in which] its name [is explained] (RASHI); b) According to the Girsa, IKA D'AMREI IDRA KI'SHEMEI - some say [not that one should donate to charity from his possessions, but that he should plant] a certain species of cedar (prob. Spanish Juniper) [along the border of his fields, as this both physically protects it and singles it out, making it harder to steal] (RABEINU CHANANEL)

47)[line 41]דקיימא לדרי דריD'KAIMA L'DAREI DAREI- that it lasts for many generations

48)[last line]נחמסתNICHMESES- forcibly bought

49)[last line]אחוהACHVA- the brother of

50)[last line]חוזאהCHOZA'AH- the seer