[14a - 36 lines; 14b - 47 lines]

1)[line 1]מקשרי אצבעותיו ולמעלהMI'KISHREI ETZBE'OSAV UL'MA'LAH- using his fingers only [and not his palm]

2)[line 1]מחכו עלה במערבאMECHACHU ALAH B'MA'ARAVA- in Eretz Yisrael they scorn this [ruling]

3)[line 3]בכל כחוB'HOL KOCHO- [even] with all of his strength

4)[line 5]נדוכיןNIDOCHIN- may be ground [with a mortar and pestle on Yom Tov]

5)[line 5]מדוךMADOCH- a pestle

6)[line 5]פךPACH- an earthenware flask

7)[line 5]בעץ הפרורETZ HA'PARUR- (O.F. poje) a) a wooden ladle (RASHI); b) a mixing stick (RAMBAM)

8)[line 9]כל הקדרות כולן צריכות מלחKOL HA'KEDEROS KULAN TZERICHOS MELACH- all cooked food requires salt [and one should therefore have had the foresight to grind the salt prior to Yom Tov]

9)[line 11]מפיגין טעמןMEFIGIN TA'AMAN- their taste a) changes (RASHI); b) weakens (RAMBAM)

10)[line 14]מוריקאMORIKA- saffron

11)[line 19]ומלח עמהןU'MELACH IMAHEN- and salt along with them (i.e., immediately following or preceding their grinding)

12)[line 21]לצליL'TZLI- [and even then, one may only crush the small amount of salt necessary] for roasted meat

13)[line 22]בכל דבר סלקא דעתך?B'CHOL DAVAR SALKA DAITACH?- is it really possible that [Beis Hillel allows one to use] any object [-- even that which is Muktzah (see Background to 11:18)]?

14)[line 23]לכל דברL'CHOL DAVAR- for any purpose [including that of koshering meat that one intends to cook, which requires large amounts of salt]

15a)[line 24]כי דייכתKI DAICHAS- when you grind [salt with a mortar and pestle on Yom Tov]

b)[line 24]אצלי אצלויי ודוךATZLEI ATZLUYEI V'DOCH- tilt [the mortar on its side] and grind [since a small change from the norm is necessary]

16)[line 25]קל בוכנאKAL BUCHNA- the sound of a pestle

17)[line 25]מגוויה דביתאיMI'GAVEI D'VEISA'I- from inside my house

18)[line 26]דהוה צליל קליהD'HAVAH TZALIL KALEI- that it was making a clear sound [as opposed to the obstructed sound made by a pestle and mortar operating on their side]

19)[line 27]נבוחי מנבח קלייהוNEVUCHEI MENABACH KALAIHU- produce a crunching (O.F. croissant - barking) sound [as their kernels are crushed]

20a)[line 28]אין עושין טיסניEIN OSIN TISNEI- one may not crush wheat kernels into fourths (also known as "Zariz"; see Berachos 37a and Background to Berachos 37:3d). This implies that one may crush wheat into larger pieces.

b)[line 28]ואין כותשין במכתשתV'EIN KOSESHIN B'MACHTESHES- and one may not pound [wheat] with a mortar. This implies that one may not crush wheat in any way on Yom Tov.

21)[line 29]תרתי?TARTI?- [how can] both [of these statements be true]?

22)[last line]מכתשת גדולה תניאMACHTESHES GEDOLAH TANYA- it taught [that one may not crush wheat kernels with] a large mortar [under any circumstance, and that one may not crush wheat kernels into fourths using any size mortar]


23a)[line 1]הא לןHA LAN- this [ruling that one may crush wheat kernels with a small mortar] applies to us [in Bavel, where a) we can rely upon our servants to do our bidding (RASHI); b) the grain loses flavor when ground a day before it is used (RAMBAM Hilchos Yom Tov 3:13); c) we are accustomed to eating large amounts of porridge, and therefore usually pound the wheat kernels with a large mortar (an opinion cited by the ME'IRI)]

b)[line 1]והא להוV'HA LEHU- and this [ruling that one may not crush wheat kernels even with a small mortar] applies to them [in Eretz Yisrael, where a) they cannot rely upon their servants to listen to them (RASHI); b) the grain does not lose flavor when ground a day before it is used (RAMBAM Hilchos Yom Tov 3:13); c) they are accustomed to eating small amounts of porridge, and therefore usually pound the wheat kernels with a small mortar (an opinion cited by the ME'IRI)]

24)[line 2]אקלעIKLA- went

25)[line 2]אייתי ליה דייסאAISI LEI DAISA- they brought him [a bowl of] porridge [made from wheat grits]

26)[line 4]דייק טפיDAYIK TEFEI- finely ground

27)[line 5]קליף צהריהKALIF TZAHAREI- shiny in appearance [which indicated that it was freshly pounded]

28)[line 6]פריצותא דעבדיPERITZUSA D'AVDEI- a disregard [for Halachah] on the part of the servants

29a)[line 8]בורר אוכלBORER OCHEL- he must select the food

b)[line 8]ואוכלV'OCHEL- and eat it [immediately]

30)[line 9]בחיקוB'CHEIKO- into his lap

31a)[line 9]קנוןKANON- a utensil fashioned from reeds used to shell beans

b)[line 10]תמחויTAMCHUY- a large tray used in shelling legumes

c)[line 10]טבלאTAVLA- a board

d)[line 10]נפהNAPAH- a sieve

e)[line 11]כברהKEVARAH- a basket [used as a sieve]

32a)[line 11]מדיחMEDI'ACH- submerge [the mixture] in water

b)[line 11]ושולהV'SHOLEH- and skim [the waste from the surface of the water]

33)[line 13]פסולתPESOLES- the non-edible components of the mixture

34)[line 16]מי איכא מאן דשרי?MI IKA MAN D'SHAREI?- is there anyone who allows [one to touch it]? Since it is mostly non-edible, the whole mixture is Muktzah!

35a)[line 16]דנפיש בטרחאD'NAFISH B'TIRCHA- [what Raban Gamliel intended was] that it is more difficult [to remove the Pesoles from the food than vice versa]

b)[line 17]וזוטר בשיעוראV'ZUTAR B'SHI'URA- although there is less [Pesoles than food]

36)[line 20]דליDLI- a pitcher

37)[line 20]עדשיםADASHIM- lentils

38)[line 20]מציפיןMETZIFIN- lit. cause to float; cover

39a)[line 22]עפראAFRA- dirt [that falls to the bottom]

b)[line 22]בגיליGILEI- straw [that floats above the lentils]

40)[line 24]מנותMANOS- portions of prepared food

41)[line 26]סלתותSALASOS- types of fine flour

42)[line 26]לא תבואהLO TEVU'A- not grain [since one may not grind it on Yom Tov]

43)[line 28]שלא יעשנו בשורהSHE'LO YA'ASENU B'SHURAH- one does not send the food in a procession [since that would appear as if they are going to the marketplace]

44)[line 30]מיניMINEI- types [of food]

45)[line 32]לודיותLUDIYOS- a food made of crushed wheat kernels

46)[line 34]רסיסיןRESISIN- a food made of crushed lentils; groats

47)[line 34]כליםKEILIM- articles of clothing

48)[line 35]תפוריןTEFURIN- sewn

49)[line 36]כלאיםKIL'AYIM (SHA'ATNEZ)

(a)Sha'atnez is the term for cloth woven from a prohibited mixture of wool and linen (Devarim 22:11 and Vayikra 19:19). Chazal explain that the word "Sha'atnez" is a contraction of the three words "Shu'a" (combed), "Tavi" (spun), and "Noz."

(b)The Rishonim disagree over the meaning of the term "Noz":

1.RASHI (Nidah 61b and Horayos 11a DH Noz) and the RASH (Mishnayos Kil'ayim 9:8) interpret Noz to mean "woven together."

2.TOSFOS (Nidah 61b DH Shu'a Tavi v'Noz) understands that Noz implies that the threads are twisted. That which Sha'atnez is prohibited only when the strands of the wool and linen are woven together is derived from its description as "Yachdav" - "together."

(c)An additional question dealt with by the Rishonim is how many of these stages must be performed on the linen and wool together in order to transgress the prohibition of Sha'atnez. RASHI (ibid.) maintains that the Torah forbids one to comb, spin, and weave wool and linen together. If they are joined after any of these processes are complete, then the resulting garment is not Sha'atnez mid'Oraisa. TOSFOS (ibid.) rules that Torah prohibition applies even to a case in which the wool and linen are combed, spun, and twisted separately, provided they are afterward joined by as few as two stitches. The RASH (ibid.) agrees with this assertion that any preparatory stages need not be carried out on the wool and linen together in order for one to transgress the prohibition of Sha'atnez.

50)[line 36]סנדל המסומרSANDAL HA'MESUMAR- a wooden sandal with spikes protruding from its sole (see Graphic #1 to Shabbos 60a)

51)[line 37]מנעלMIN'AL- a shoe

52)[line 38]אומןUMAN- a craftsman [to blacken it]

53)[line 39]שנאותין בוSHE'NE'OSIN BO- that people benefit through [wearing] it

54)[line 41]למימך תותיהL'MEIMACH TUSEI- to fold beneath him

55)[line 41]"[... וּבֶגֶד כִּלְאַיִם שַׁעַטְנֵז] לֹא יַעֲלֶה עָלֶיךָ""U'VEGED KIL'AYIM SHA'ATNEZ] LO YA'ALEH ALECHA"- "... and you shall not place upon yourself a garment made of a combined fibers" (Vayikra 19:19).

56)[line 42]להציעוL'HATZIO- to spread

57)[line 43]תכרך לו נימאTIKARECH LO NIMA- a thread shall double over

58)[line 43]ביני ביניBEINI BEINI- between [him and the Kil'ayim]

59)[line 45]מצעותMATZA'OS- sheets

60)[last line]וילוןVILON- a curtain

61)[last line]טמאTAMEI (TUM'AS KLI)

(a)All objects belong to one of the following three categories:

1.Sources of Tum'ah

2.Objects that can become Tamei

3.Objects that cannot become Tamei

(b)A source of Tum'ah is called an Av ha'Tum'ah. The exception to this is a corpse, which is referred to as the "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah," due to the fact that it can generate more Tum'ah than any other object. When an object becomes Tamei from coming into contact with an object which is Tamei, that object does not receive the same Tum'ah as that of the first object, but rather a level of Tum'ah one degree weaker than the first. If an object came into contact with an Av ha'Tum'ah, it is called a Rishon l'Tum'ah, or Vlad ha'Tum'ah. Tum'ah received from a Rishon creates a Sheni l'Tum'ah, and that from a Sheni creates a Shelishi (in certain cases), etc.

(c)A metal utensil can become an Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah, an Av ha'Tum'ah, or a Rishon l'Tum'ah (see Insights to Pesachim 14b); a person and all utensils other than earthenware can become an Av ha'Tum'ah or Rishon l'Tum'ah (although Chazal decreed that one's hands sometimes have the status of a Sheni l'Tum'ah); Earthenware utensils can only become a Rishon l'Tum'ah; food and liquids which are Chulin can become a Rishon l'Tum'ah or a Sheni l'Tum'ah; Terumah can become a Shelishi l'Tum'ah as well; and Hekdesh can receive the status of a Revi'i l'Tum'ah.

(d)Articles of clothing are Kelim that can receive Tum'ah. Ula taught that a curtain is considered a Kli as well, and will become Tamei should it come into contact with Tum'ah equal to or greater than an Av ha'Tum'ah.

62)[last line]השמש מתחמם כנגדוHA'SHAMASH MISCHAMEM KENEGDO- the steward warms [himself] by [wrapping] it [around himself]