[13a - 34 lines; 13b - 44 lines]

1)[line 2]שבליןSHIBOLIN- stalks of wheat


(a)According to Torah Law, one is required to tithe his grain (see below, entry # 14) only after harvesting it in a normal manner. This includes removing the chaff in the field, piling the grain there, and afterwards bringing it through the front door of his house (Berachos 35b). It is then Hukba l'Ma'aser (designated for tithing).

(b)Even if one of these steps is missing, the produce may not be eaten mid'Rabanan until Terumos and Ma'asros are separated. The Rabanan did not prohibit eating such produce, however, in an irregular fashion (Achilas Ara'i). Examples of Achilas Ara'i include eating the produce as a snack while it is still in the field and feeding it to one's livestock.

3)[line 3]רבי מחייבREBBI MECHAYEV- a) Rebbi requires one to separate Terumah before eating it even in a temporary fashion, since when one wishes to eat the kernels raw it is considered finished in its present state. This is the opinion expressed in the Beraisa (RASHI); b) Rebbi requires one to separate Terumah immediately from such stalks, since there is no finishing procedure to wait for. Therefore, Terumah is assumed to have been separated from before Yom Tov. This is the opinion expressed in the Mishnah (TOSFOS; according to this understanding, the next words of the Gemara read "ul'Rebbi Nami ...")

4)[line 7]דטבלא ביומיהD'TAVLA B'YOMEI- that they became Tevel (reached the state from which one is obligated to separate Terumos and Ma'asros from them) on that day [of Yom Tov]. This is because a) according to Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah, once they were brought into the silo with the intention of piling them (a Kri) in storage until they would be ground into flour, they reached a state in which they would be Tevel as soon as their processing was finished. When the plan was changed to eat them raw, their processing finished on the spot and they became Tevel (RASHI); b) according to Rebbi, they are Tevel as soon as one decides to eat them in a raw state (TOSFOS)

5a)[line 7]מאי תרומה?MAI TERUMAH?- what [does the Mishnah mean when it says that we do not merit to perform the Mitzvah of separating] Terumah [on Yom Tov]?

b)[line 7]רוב תרומהROV TERUMAH- [that] most Terumah [may not be separated on Yom Tov, as it could have been done from before Yom Tov]

6)[line 8]מחלוקתMACHLOKES- the disagreement [between Rebbi and Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah]

7)[line 9]אסורייתא טבלאASURYASA TAVLA- they have the status of Tevel while still in bundles [since they are eaten raw more often than wheat]

8)[line 10]חבילי תלתןCHAVILEI TILTAN- bundles of fenugreek

9)[line 11]כותשKOSESH- crush [the stalk so as to get to the seeds]

10)[line 11]מחשבMECHASHEV- estimate

11)[line 17]וכ"ש תלתןV'CHOL SHE'KEN TILTAN- and all the more so fenugreek [whose stalks have the same taste as its seeds and is therefore stored in bundles more often than other Kitniyos]

12)[line 18]טעם עצו ופריו שוהTA'AM ETZO U'FIRYO SHAVEH- its stalk and fruit (seeds) have the same taste

13)[line 20]אסורייתא לא טבלאASURYASA LO TAVLA- they do not have the status of Tevel while still in bundles [since they are eaten raw less often than wheat]


(a)After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify an amount that must be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at between one fortieth and one sixtieth of the total crop.

(b)Once Terumah is separated from the produce, the first tithe is separated. One tenth of the remaining produce is given to a Levi; this is known as Ma'aser Rishon. The Levi, in turn, separates one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon and give it to a Kohen. This is called Terumas Ma'aser (Bamidbar 18:26).

(c)Once Terumah Gedolah and Ma'aser Rishon have been separated from the crop, it is time to separate the second tithe. In the third and sixth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle this tithe is called Ma'aser Ani, and it is given to the poor.

(d)During the first, second, fourth and fifth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle, the second tithe is called Ma'aser Sheni. Ma'aser Sheni must be brought to Yerushalayim and eaten there while one is in a state of purity (Devarim 13:22-28).

(e)Until Terumah and Ma'asros have been properly separated, the produce is termed "Tevel" and may not be eaten. The word "Tevel" means a mixture, and can be used to refer to any produce that one is required to separate part of, such as dough from which one must separate Chalah (see Background to 12:12:b). If one intentionally eats Tevel, then he receives Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (see Background to Sukah 25:25).

15)[line 27]מעשר ראשוןMA'ASER RISHON- see previous entry

16)[line 27]שהקדימו בשבליןSHE'HIKDIMO B'SHIBOLIN

(a)According to Torah Law, one is required to tithe his grain only after harvesting it in a normal manner. This includes removing the chaff in the field, piling the grain there, and afterwards bringing it through the front door of his house (Berachos 35b). It is then Hukba l'Ma'aser (designated for tithing). Following this, one must first give Terumah Gedolah to a Kohen, then Ma'aser Rishon to a Levi, and then Ma'aser Sheni or Ma'aser Ani (see previous entry).

(b)Should a Levi come to the field and claim Ma'aser Rishon from the wheat before it is processed (Hikdimo b'Shibolin), then he has acted contrary to a positive commandment. However, he need not separate Terumah Gedolah from it (13b).

(c)Should a Levi come to the silo and claim Ma'aser Rishon from the pile of wheat after it is processed but before Terumah has been given (Hikdimo b'Kri), then he has acted contrary to a positive commandment. In this case, however, he is required to separate Terumah Gedolah from it (13b).

17)[line 28]שמו טובלו לתרומת מעשרSHEMO TOVLO L'TERUMAS MA'ASER- its name (i.e., that which it is termed "Ma'aser") causes it to be Tevel of Terumas Ma'aser

18)[line 29]לימא ליהLEIMA LEI- let the Levi say to the Kohen

19)[line 31]עושה אותן גורןOSEH OSAN GOREN- he should process them [until they are threshed, winnowed, and lying in a pile on] the threshing floor


20)[line 1]יקבYEKEV- the pit that collects wine or oil from the press

21)[line 2]מחשב! הא מדידה בעי?MECHASHEV? HA MEDIDAH BA'I!- (the Gemara asks further on the second version of Abaye,) [he should] estimate [the amount of seed produced by the fenugreek]? [If it is Terumas Ma'aser and not Terumah Gedolah under discussion, then] it requires a precise measurement [of one tenth of the Ma'aser Rishon]!

22a)[line 5]"וְנֶחְשַׁב לָכֶם תְּרוּמַתְכֶם [כַּדָּגָן מִן-הַגֹּרֶן, וְכַמְלֵאָה מִן-הַיָּקֶב.]""V'NECHSHAV LACHEM TERUMASCHEM [KA'DAGAN MIN HA'GOREN, VECHA'MELE'AH MIN HA'YAKEV.]"- "Your gifts shall be considered for you as grain from the threshing floor, and like ripe [wine] from the pit beneath the wine press" (Bamidbar 18:27). This verse teaches that Terumas Ma'aser has the status of Terumah Gedolah.

b)[line 5]בשתי תרומות הכתוב מדברB'SHTEI TERUMOS HA'KASUV MEDABER- the verse is discussing two Terumos ("v'Nechshav ..." refers to Terumas Ma'aser, and "ka'Dagan ..." refers to Terumah Gedolah)

23a)[line 8]באומדB'OMED- through estimation

b)[line 8]במחשבהB'MACHSHAVAH- through thought. This refers to that which one may designate Terumah a) to be in a certain portion of the produce (i.e., the right side), even though it will not be actually separated until later (RASHI); b) mentally as opposed to verbally (this point is added additionally by TOSFOS to Bechoros 59a DH b'Machshavah)

24)[line 18]הקדימו בכריHIKDIMO BA'KRI- See above, entry #16

25)[line 20]ומה ראית?U'MAH RA'IS?- and what did you see [that made you decide that the Levi must give Terumah Gedolah if he was Makdim b'Kri, but not if he was Makdim b'Shibolin]?

26)[line 20]האי אדגןHAI IDGAN- this [Terumah that has been heaped in a pile in the silo for storage] has the status of "Dagan" (grain) [which is how the Torah refers to wheat when commanding the Mitzvah of Terumah (Devarim 18:4)]

27)[line 21]המקלף שעוריןHA'MEKALEF SE'ORIN- one who peels [a) the outer husk (RASHI); b) the inner chaff (TOSFOS DH v'Im) of] barley (See Insights)

28)[line 22]ואוכלV'OCHEL- and he may eat [without separating Ma'aser]

29)[line 24]דביתהוDEBISHU- his wife

30)[line 24]כסי כסיKASEI KASEI- cupfuls [of barley on Shabbos]

31)[line 28]לתוך חיקוL'SOCH CHEIKO- into his lap

32)[line 33]גרנן למעשרGARNAN L'MA'ASER- [the following produce that is considered] finished to the degree that one must separate Ma'aser [from it as a result of certain actions, even though such actions are not prohibited on Shabbos]

33a)[line 34]קשואיןKISHU'IN- cucumbers

b)[line 34]דלועיןDELU'IN- gourds

34)[line 35]משיפקסוMISHE'YIPAKSU- from when the yellow flower at their end falls off

35)[line 35]משיעמיד ערמהMISHE'YA'AMID AREIMAH- from when they are piled into a heap

36)[line 38]מלאכת מחשבת אסרה תורהMELECHES MACHASHEVES ASRAH TORAH

(a)The actions prohibited by the Torah on Shabbos (Melachos) are decribed in the Torah as Meleches Machasheves. This terminology implies that a) they must require a certain degree of skill, and that b) they must be performed with intent (as opposed to accidentally).

(b)Piling vegetables in a heap does not require any skill, and is therefore permitted on Shabbos.

37)[line 40]כיצד מולל?KEITZAD MOLEL?- how should one roll wheat between his fingers to remove the Chaff on Yom Tov? Although this is permitted (12b), it clearly must be done in a somewhat unusual fashion so as to differentiate between that which is performed on Yom Tov and Uvda d'Chol (that which is performed on a regular weekday).

38)[line 41]חדא אחדאCHADA A'CHADA- one [finger] (the thumb) on one [other finger, but not with the whole hand

39)[line 42]כיון דמשניKEIVAN D'MESHANEI- since he is [already removing the kernel of wheat] in an unusual manner (i.e., by rolling it in his hand)