CRACKING OPEN SHELLS OF SEEDS ON YOM TOV (cont.)
Answer: Rava holds that our Mishnah is subject to a Machlokes Tana'im.
(Tana Kama): One who brought in sheaves of wheat with intent to make flour, may eat from them sporadically and is exempt from separating Terumah.
(Rebbi): If he brought them in with intent to roll them and eat the kernels, he is Chayav to separate Terumah (unlike the view of our Mishnah).
(R. Yosi b. R. Yehudah): He is exempt from separating Terumah (like our Mishnah).
Question: How can our Mishnah be R. Yosi (who agrees that there is a case in which one may separate Terumah on Yom Tov)!?
One brought in sheaves of wheat with intent to make flour, and then changed his mind and decided to roll them and eat the kernels.
They become Tevel (obligated in Terumah) on Yom Tov.
Answer: When the Mishnah says that Terumah cannot be separated on Yom Tov, it means most Terumah cannot be separated on Yom Tov (and thus the Mishnah can be in accordance with both Rebbi and R. Yosi, and Rava's statement is not problematic).
THE MACHLOKES BETWEEN REBBI AND R. YOSI REGARDING TEVEL (FIRST VERSION)
(Abaye): The Machlokes (Rebbi and R. Yosi) applies only with sheaves of wheat, but everyone agrees that kernels of legumes become Tevel (and are obligated in Terumah) when one brings them inside in their bundles (since most people eat them in that state after cracking them open).
Question: Shall the following Mishnah support Abaye?
One who has bundles of Tilsan which are Tevel, may crush them (to remove the chaff), estimate how much of the mixture is seeds and how much is chaff, and separate Terumah on the estimated amount of seeds and not on the chaff.
Say that the Mishnah is R. Yosi, who says that in the case of ears of wheat, bringing them in to roll and eat the kernels does not make them Tevel (such that Terumah must be separated), while in this case, bringing the bundles of Tilsan in to eat makes them Tevel.
Answer: No, that Mishnah is Rebbi (and there is no proof that R. Yosi agrees in a case of kernels of legumes).
Question: If it is Rebbi, why does it discuss bundles of Tilsan, when Rebbi holds that even ears of wheat become Tevel when brought in to eat?!
Answer: Rather, it is R. Yosi.
Question: But if so, it should state its Din regarding other types of legumes, and then we would certainly know that Tilsan becomes Tevel?!
Answer: We might have obligated one to separate Terumah for all of the Tilsan (that even though the seed and the chaff taste the same nevertheless one only separates Terumah for the seeds).
THE MACHLOKES BETWEEN REBBI AND R. YOSI REGARDING TEVEL (SECOND VERSION)
(Abaye): The Machlokes (Rebbi and R. Yosi) applies only with sheaves of wheat, but everyone agrees that kernels of legumes do not become Tevel (and are not obligated in Terumah) when one brings them inside in their bundles (since most people do not eat them in that state after cracking them open).
Question: The following Mishnah seems to contradict Abaye?
One who has bundles of Tilsan which are Tevel...
Say that "Tevel" refers to Tevel of Terumah, and contradicts Abaye!
Answer: No, "Tevel" there refers to Tevel of Terumas Ma'aser, and the Mishnah is referring to a case like that of R. Avahu in the name of Resh Lakish.
(R. Avahu citing Resh Lakish): When a Levi took Ma'aser Rishon from the sheaves (before they became obligated in Terumah which the Kohen gets), it is obligated in Terumas Ma'aser (even though it is still in an unfinished state of processing), because the status of Ma'aser Rishon obligates it in Terumas Ma'aser.
Question: If the case of the Mishnah is Tevel of Terumas Ma'aser, then why does the Mishnah say that one "crushes" the Tilsan (the Levi may say, "Just as I received it in its raw form, so shall I give it to the Kohen in its raw form.")?!
Answer: It is a penalty (for taking Ma'aser Rishon before Terumah was given to the Kohen).
A Beraisa supports this, when it says that the Levi must give Terumas Ma'aser from the finished state, and not from the raw state.
Question: If the case of the Mishnah is Tevel of Terumas Ma'aser, then why does the Mishnah say that one estimates how much Terumah must be given (since Terumas Ma'aser requires an exact measuring)!?
Answer: That Mishnah follows Aba Elazar b. Gimel, who teaches (in a Beraisa) that Terumas Ma'aser may be given by estimation just as Terumah may be given by estimation.
Question: What is the reason for the ruling of R. Avahu in the name of Resh Lakish?
Answer: The Torah made the obligation of Terumah take effect whenever the produce acquires the title "Ma'aser."
MA'ASER RISHON WHICH WAS TAKEN BEFORE TERUMAH GEDOLAH
(Resh Lakish): When a Levi took Ma'aser Rishon from the sheaves (before they became obligated in Terumah which the Kohen gets), that which he took is exempt from Terumah Gedolah (proof text).
Question: Perhaps the verse is teaching that even when the Levi took Ma'aser Rishon from the piles (after they had become obligated in Terumah), that which he took is exempt from Terumah Gedolah?!
Answer: Another verse states that the Levi must give to the Kohen all forms of Terumah that his portion of Ma'aser contains.
Question: On the contrary, perhaps that verse obligates him to give Terumah Gedolah from the Ma'aser which he took even from the sheaves?!
Answer: When the wheat has been piled, it acquires the title of "Dagan" (grain), which the Torah obligates in Terumah, while sheaves are not yet called "Dagan."
PEELING OFF SHELLS, WITH REGARD TO MA'ASEROS AND SHABBOS
(Mishnah): One may peel barley kernels and eat them one at a time (and he does not have to separate Ma'aseros).
But if he peels them and collects them in his hand, he is obligated (to separate Ma'aseros).
(R. Elazar): That Mishnah also applies to Shabbos (one may peel the barley and eat it one at a time, but he may not collect them in a pile in his hand).
Question: But the wives of Rav and R. Chiya peeled cupfuls of barley for them on Shabbos!
Answer: Rather, R. Elazar's statement was said regarding the Seifa of the Mishnah there.
(Mishnah): One who rolls ears of wheat may blow them one at a time and eat them (and he does not have to separate Ma'aseros).
But if he rolls them and collects them in his lap, he is obligated (to separate Ma'aseros).
(R. Elazar): That Mishnah also applies to Shabbos (one may roll the wheat and eat it one at a time, but he may not collect them in a pile in his lap).
Question: In the Reisha of the Mishnah, how can peeling the barley obligate it in Ma'aseros (because it is the final Melachah), while be permitted on Shabbos (and not be considered a Melachah)?
Answer: The laws of Ma'aser and of Shabbos are different, because the Isur of Melachah on Shabbos depends on doing a "Meleches Machsheves."
(Mishnah): When onions are collected in a pile, they become obligated in Ma'aseros.
However, regarding Shabbos, one who collects onions in a pile is Patur.
HOW TO ROLL EARS OF WHEAT ON YOM TOV
Question: How does one roll (on Yom Tov)?
Answer (Abaye): Between the thumb and one finger.
Answer (R. Avya): Between the thumb and two fingers.
Answer (Rava): Since one is doing it with a Shinuy, it is permitted even between the thumb and all of the fingers.
BLOWING AWAY THE CHAFF ON SHABBOS
Question: How does one blow away the chaff (on Shabbos)?
Answer (R. Ada b. Ahavah citing Rav): He blows from the joints of his fingers and up (but not in his palms).
The Amora'im in Israel laughed in reaction to this opinion, because since one is doing it with a Shinuy, it should permitted even in the entire hand!
Answer (R. Elazar): Rather, one may blow in one hand and with all of his strength.