MUMIM OF THE EYES
(Mishnah): Both of his eyes are above; both are below... (these are Pesulim).
Question: What does this mean?
Suggestion: "His eyes are above" means that (when his eyes are straight,) he sees above. "His eyes are below" means that he sees below. "One is above and one is below" means, one eye sees above and one sees below.
Rejection: If so, this (third) case is identical to the fourth "he can see the first and second floors at the same time"!
Answer: Rather, "his eyes are above (or below)" means that his eyes are higher (or lower) on his face than is normal;
Even if his eyes are in the usual place, if he sees the first and second floors at the same time; he is Pasul.
Question: What is the source of this?
Answer (Beraisa): "B'Eino" (is extra. This) includes any abnormality in the eye:
Both eyes are above, or both are below, or one is above and one is below, or he can see the first and second floors at the same time, or if he talks with Reuven (and looks at him) and Shimon says "He is looking at me."
(Beraisa): "Iver" refers to one who is blind in one or both eyes;
Question: What is the source for Chavarvar and a constant drip?
Answer: It says "Ish Iver."
Question (Rava): Why must the Torah say "Ish Iver... Dak Oh Tevalul b'Eino"?
Answer: All of these are needed:
Had it said only "Iver," we would be Posel only one who lacks an eye, but not Chavarvar and a constant drip, for he has two eyes. Therefore, it says "Ish";
Had it added only "Ish," we would be Posel only one who cannot see at all, but not one whose vision is impaired. Therefore, it says "Dak";
Had it added only "Dak," we would be Posel only one whose vision is impaired, but not if the a protrusion of white enters the black. (The vision is not impaired.) Therefore, it says "Tevalul";
Had it added only "Tevalul," we would Posel only a protrusion into the black, but not a mere abnormality (of their location, or the ability to see different places at once) - therefore, it says "b'Eino."
Conclusion (Rava): Anyone who cannot see at all is Pasul due to "Ish";
Anyone whose vision is impaired is Pasul due to "Dak". Any protrusion into the black is Pasul due to "Tevalul". Any abnormality is Pasul due to "b'Eino."
(Mishnah): Sachei Shemesh, (Zagdan,... )
(Rav Yosef): The text should say "Sanei Shemesh" (one who hates sunlight. He cannot look where the sun shines.)
To illustrate "Zagdiyan," Rav Huna said "one of my eyes, and one of his" (Rav Yehudah was sitting in front of him); Rav Yehudah was upset. (Rashi - Rav Huna's eyes were normal, Rav Yehudah's eyes were not; Tosfos - Rav Yehudah's eyes were understandably bigger than Rav Huna's, for Rav Yehudah was much taller.)
Question (Beraisa): "Shechevna" is one whose eyebrows rest on his eyes;
Zagdum is when one eyebrow is black, and the other is white.
Answer: The Tana calls any difference between a pair (that should be identical) "Zagdum."
(Beraisa): (The following are Pesulim:)
(Tziran -) his eyes are round; Tziraniyos (Rashi - they are very round; R. Gershom - the socket is round);
His eyes tear, drip, or constantly drip.
(Beraisa): (The following are Pesulim:)
Zavir - his eyes constantly move (alternatively - twitch);
Lufin - his eyelashes are very long;
Tamir - he has no eyelashes.
Question: This Beraisa discusses (proper) Mumim. Our Mishnah disqualifies one without eyelashes only due to Mar'is ha'Ayin!
Answer: The Mishnah discusses when there is a remnant of the hairs. The Beraisa discusses when there is no remnant.
(Mishnah): The following are Pesulim:
His eyes are as big as a calf's eyes, or (see Insights) as small as a goose's eyes;
His body is (disproportionately) big compared to his limbs (arms and legs), or too small;
His nose is big compared to his limbs, or too small.
Tzome'a - his ears are too small;
Tzomem - his ears are spongy (shrivelled and closed).
If the upper jaw extends past the lower jaw, or vice-versa, it is a Mum;
If his teeth fell out, he is Pasul due to Mar'is ha'Ayin.
(Gemara - Rav): Moshe was 10 Amos tall - "va'Yifros Es ha'Ohel Al ha'Mishkan";
To spread the curtains over the boards, he had to be as tall as them, i.e. 10 Amos.
Question (Rav Simi): If so, he was a Ba'al Mum!
(Mishnah): His body is big compared to his limbs. (A normal person's shoulder is three times as tall as his Amah (lower arm). Rav Simi understood that Moshe's height was 10 times his own (normal sized) Amah.)
Answer (Rav): Moshe's height was 10 (standard) Amos. (Surely, this was three times his own Amah.)
(Mishnah): His nose is big (compared to his limbs, or too small).
Version #1 - Rambam - (Beraisa): It should be the length of his pinky.
Version #2 - Rashi - (Beraisa): If it is too big or small (compared to noses of other people of his size), and the excess or deficit is the width of his pinky (he is Pasul).
(Mishnah): Tzimem and Tzome'a...
(Beraisa): Also Tzime'ach is Pasul.
Rabanan did not know what this is. They heard a merchant announce "who wants Tzime'ach?" He was selling a goat.
We learn that Tzime'ach refers to long droopy ears.
AN ANIMAL MISSING HORNS
(Rav Chisda): If a goat lacks horns, or if a ewe has horns, this does not disqualify it for a Korban.
Support (Beraisa): The following resemble Mumim but are not Mumim. Such a Korban may be offered on the Mizbe'ach, but it may not be slaughtered outside;
If a goat lacks horns, or if a ewe has horns;
Tzime'ach, Tzimem or Tzome'a. (We must say that the Mishnah disqualified such Kohanim only because they are unlike Zera Aharon.)
(Rav Chisda): If a Korban's horns were removed with the inner bone, it is Pasul, but it may not be redeemed (until it gets a proper Mum);
If its hooves were removed with the inner bone, it is Pasul, and it may be redeemed.
Question (Beraisa): If its horns or hooves were removed with the inner bone, it is Pasul, and it may be redeemed.
Answer: The Beraisa discusses when they were totally uprooted, and there is no remnant. Rav Chisda discusses when they were cut, and the roots remain.
Question: If the roots remain it is Kosher!
(Mishnah): If the horns or hooves of a Parah Adumah were black (this disqualifies it), they may be cut.
Answer (Ze'iri): If the outermost part of the horns or hooves are cut, without cutting the inner bone, it is Kosher.
ONE MAY NOT DELAY URINATING
(Mishnah): The following are Pasul:
A man who has humps like breasts, or his stomach is swollen, or his navel sticks out;
He has epileptic fits, even once in a while (R. Gershom - at predictable times), or if a spirit of Kaztris (this will be explained) overcomes him;
He is Me'ushvan or Ba'al Gever (this will be explained).
(Gemara - R. Aba brei d'R. Chiya bar Aba): One may pass water (urinate) in public. One should not drink water in public. (Rashi - it is improper for a Chacham to eat or drink in public. Tosfos - even if one does not drink water in public (only water is forbidden, people do not drink it together), he may pass water in public. Iyun Yakov - even though one may drink urine for a cure, one may not do so in public.)
Support (Beraisa): One may pass water in public, but one should not drink water in public;
A case occurred in which a man needed to urinate, but he delayed. His stomach swelled.
Once, Shmuel needed to urinate while he was teaching. They spread a sheet to give him privacy.
His father: I will pay you 400 Zuz to reverse what you did (i.e. urinate in front of them - R. Gershom; Rashi - teach that one may not delay until he can urinate with privacy);
You were able to urinate with privacy, but your Talmidim would not be able to (while you are teaching). Perhaps they will endanger themselves!
Mar bar Rav Ashi was crossing a bridge. He needed to urinate. They told him that his mother-in-law was coming; he said, even if he had to urinate in her ear (Maharsha - right next to her), he would do so and not endanger himself.
Question: The Beraisa said that once, a man's stomach swelled because he needed to urinate, but he delayed. Perhaps it swelled because he drank a leech!
Answer: Afterwards, he could not urinate normally. Only drops would come out.
(Beraisa): There are two holes in the Ever. One of them is for urine, and the other is for semen. They are separated by the thickness of a garlic peel;
If a man delays urinating, the separation could be broken, and make him sterile.
Question (Reish Lakish): Why does it say "Lo Yihyeh Vecha Akar v'Akarah uvi'Vhemtecha"?
Answer #1 (Reish Lakish): You will not be sterile if you are like an animal (unashamed to urinate in public if necessary).
Answer #2 (R. Yehoshua ben Levi): You will not be barren of Talmidim, and your prayers (Rashi - for children) will not be rejected. if you make yourself (Tosfos - humble) like an animal.
(Rav Papa): (In Bavel, even today, after the Churban,) one should not urinate in a urinal (which people empty into the river) or on a hard place (where it will not be absorbed, and will flow into the river);
(R. Chani): The inclined places of Bavel lead water to Ein Eitam (a spring that runs through the Mikdash. The Kohen Gadol would immerse in it on Yom Kipur. R. Gershom - people in Eretz Yisrael drink from it.)
(Abaye): A woman should not urinate right in front of a baby. (Even if she does not expose herself, it is brazenness.)
(Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Gamliel): If a bowel movement started to leave and returned to the body, this can cause Hidrokan (swelling of the stomach);
If urine started to leave and returned, this can cause jaundice.
(Rabah bar Rav Huna): If one has too much blood (does not let blood enough), this can cause boils;
Too much semen (a married man who does not have relations with his wife) can cause Tzara'as;
Containing one's self from defecating or urinating until his body had an excess of waste material can cause Hidrokan or jaundice, respectively.
(Mishnah): A spirit of Kaztris overcomes him.
Question: What is this?
Answer (Beraisa): It is insanity due to a Shed (demon).
(Mishnah): Me'ushvan or Ba'al Gever.
(Beraisa): Meshuvan has large Beitzim. Ba'al Gever has a big Ever.
(Beraisa): Meshuvan is Kayin. Garavtan is Ba'al Gever.
Question: How big is Posel?
Answer (Rav Yehudah): The Shi'ur (Rashi - for the Ever; Rambam - or for the sac that holds the Beitzim) is until the knee.
(Beraisa - R. Eliezer ben Yakov): If it reaches to the knee, he is Pasul. If it does not reach the knee, he is Kosher.
Some say, if it reaches no further than the knee, he is Kosher. If it reaches below the knee, he is Pasul.
(Mishnah): Meru'ach Ashech is one who has no Beitzim or only one;
R. Yishmael, says it is one whose Beitzim were dissolved;
R. Akiva says, it is one whose Beitzim are inflated;
R. Chanina ben Antignos says, it is one of dark appearance.
(Gemara): R. Yishmael does not learn like the first Tana, for if so it should have said "Chaser Ashech";
R. Akiva does not learn like R. Yishmael, for if so it should have said "mi'Miru'ach Ashech";
R. Chanina does not learn like R. Akiva, for if so it should have said "Ru'ach Ashech";
R. Chanina expounds through switching letters from one word to another. (He puts the letter Ches of "Meru'ach" at the beginning of "Ashech," and the Aleph of "Ashech" at the end of "Meru'ach". We read it like "Mar'av Chashech," i.e. his appearance is dark).
Question: If so, this is a Kushi (negro, which is taught in the Mishnah on 45b)!
Answer: That Mishnah is unlike R. Chanina. (He would not list Kushi below, for he already taught it here.)