MUMIM OF THE LEGS AND HANDS
(Mishnah): The following are Pesulim:
One whose ankles or knees knock when he walks;
Ikal, i.e. one whose knees do not touch when he sits with his feet together;
Ba'al Pikah (Rashi - flesh like a ball protrudes from his thumb or big toe; Rambam - the next Mum (a big heel) is Ba'al Pikah);
His heel sticks out in back (of where his foot connects to his leg);
His feet are wide like a goose's;
His fingers or toes overlap each other.
If his fingers or toes are connected until the (middle) joint, he is Kosher;
If they were connected past the joint, and they were cut apart, he is Kosher.
If he had an extra finger or toe and it was cut off, if it had a bone, he is Pasul. If not, he is Kosher.
R. Yehudah says, if he has six fingers on every hand and foot, 24 in all, he is Kosher;
Chachamim are Posel.
Rebbi is Posel one who is ambidextrous;
Chachamim are Machshir.
(Gemara - Beraisa) Question: "Shever Ragel" only teaches about a broken leg. What is the source to Posel one who is knock-kneed, Ikal, and Ba'al Pikah?
Answer: "Oh Shever Ragel" includes these.
(Beraisa): Ba'al Pikah and Shufnar are Pesulim.
(R. Yochanan): Ba'al Pikah is one whose ankle is big. Shufnar does not have ankles (that stick out) at all.
(Mishnah): Flesh like a ball protrudes from his thumb or big toe. His heel sticks out in back.
(R. Elazar): (In the latter,) his leg connects to the middle of his foot.
(Mishnah): His feet are wide like a goose's.
(Rav Papa): We do not require that they are thin and the toes are stuck together. Rather, if they are thin, even if the toes are apart, it is a Mum.
(Mishnah): His fingers or toes overlap each other; or, if his fingers or toes are connected...
(Beraisa) Question: "Shever Yad" teaches only about a broken hand;
What is the source to Posel one whose fingers overlap each other; or, if his fingers are connected past the joint, and they were cut apart...
Interjection: The Mishnah is Machshir if they were cut apart!
Correction: What is the source to Posel... if they were not cut apart?
Answer: "Oh Shever Yad" includes these.
AN EXTRA FINGER
(Mishnah): If he had an extra finger or toe and it was cut off, if it had a bone, he is Pasul. If not, he is Kosher.
(R. Yochanan): This is only if it is counted on the hand (i.e. it is in line with the other fingers. If not, he is Kosher in any case.)
(Even a small bone of a Mes has Tum'as Maga (touching) and Masa (moving); Tum'as Ohel applies only to a complete Ever (with flesh and sinews), or a Rova Kav (Log) of bones, or bones that comprise the majority of the height, or are the majority of bones of the body (i.e. at least 125).)
(Beraisa): If an extra finger has a bone but not a nail, it has Tum'as Maga, Masa and Ohel, and it counts towards 125 bones.
(R. Yochanan): This is only if it is counted on the hand.
(Rav Chisda citing Rav): If an extra finger has a bone but not a nail, it has Tum'as Maga and Masa, but not Ohel.
(R. Yochanan): This is only if it is not counted on the hand.
R. Yochanan: This is difficult. Chachamim did not explain it!
If it is an Ever, it should be Metamei also b'Ohel;
If it is not an Ever, it should not have Tum'as Masa or Maga!
Answer #1 (Rav Huna bar Mano'ach): (It is not an Ever.) It is like a bone no smaller than a barley seed. It has Tum'as Maga and Masa, but not Ohel.
Answer #2 (Rav Papa): (Mid'Oraisa, it is not an Ever, and it does not have Tum'as Mes.) Chachamim decreed that it has Tum'as Maga and Masa, lest people think that even if it is counted on the hand it is not Tamei.
Question: For the same reason, they should have decreed Tum'as Ohel!
Answer: They made it unlike Tum'ah mid'Oraisa in this respect, in order that people will know that its Tum'ah is only mid'Rabanan, lest they burn Terumah or Kodshim due to it.
THE NUMBER OF LIMBS
(Mishnah): Bones that comprise the majority of the height (without the head; this will be explained), or are the majority of bones of the body have Tum'as Ohel.
(Beraisa) Question: What is the majority of the height?
Answer: It is both shins and one thigh;
The majority of bones is 125.
Question (Ravina): Does the Tana merely teach that 125 is the majority (of the 248 limbs)?!
Answer (Rava): He teaches like the following Beraisa;
(Beraisa): Even if the person was missing limbs and had only 200.(e.g. he lacked eight fingers and toes, each of which has six bones) or had extra, e.g. a total of 281, even the extra limbs count towards 125;
We consider 125 to be the majority, like it is for most people.
(Rav Yehudah): A case occurred in which the king sentenced a harlot to be burned. She was cooked in water. R. Yishmael's Talmidim counted the bones.
His Talmidim: We found 252 bones in a Mes!
R. Yishmael: Perhaps it was a female. Verses teach that she has four extra limbs, i.e. two hinges and two doors.
(Beraisa - R. Eliezer): A woman has hinges, just like a house - "... Ki Nehefchu Aleha Tzireha."
R. Yehoshua says a woman has doors, just like a house - "Ki Lo Sagar Dalsei Vitni."
R. Akiva says a woman has a key, just like a house - "va'Yiftach Es Rachmah."
Question: According to R. Akiva, they should have found 253!
Answer: The key is very small. Perhaps it dissolved in cooking.
(Rava): The extra limbs of a woman are not Metamei b'Ohel. "Adam Ki Yamus b'Ohel" teaches that Tum'as Ohel applies only to limbs found in all people (but not those special to females).
Question (Abaye): Verses teach that men also have hinges. Yeshayahu said "Tzirim Achazuni k'Tzirei Yoledah"!
Answer (Rava): A man's hinges are of flesh, not of bone.
Question: Daniel said that "Adoni ba'Mar'a Nehefchu Tzirai Alai"!
Answer: A man's hinges are of flesh, not bone.
Support: We must say so. If not, neither men nor women would have (exactly) 248 limbs!
(Mishnah): If he has six fingers on every hand and foot... (R. Yehudah is Machshir, and Chachamim are Posel.)
(R. Yitzchak): Both of them expound the same verse. Regarding Galyus it says "v'Etzbe'os Yadav v'Etzbe'os Raglav Shesh va'Shesh";
Chachamim hold that the verse disgraces him (he was a Ba'al Mum);
R. Yehudah holds that the verse magnifies his might.
Question (Rabah): Why does it say "Shesh va'Shesh Esrim v'Arba Mispar"?
Answer: Had it said only Shesh va'Shesh, we would have thought that he had a total of six fingers and a total of six toes. Therefore, it says Esrim v'Arba (24);
Had it said only Esrim v'Arba, we would not know that each hand had the same number of fingers;
"Mispar" teaches that they were counted with the hand.
(Beraisa - R. Yehudah): A case occurred in which a man came in front of R. Tarfon. He had six digits on every hand and foot. R. Tarfon said "there should be more like you in Yisrael!"
R. Yosi: (This was not a praise. He meant that the Mamzerim and Nesinim in Yisrael should stand out like you (lest people marry them)!
PESULIM THAT APPLY ONLY TO PEOPLE
(Mishnah): One who is ambidextrous...
(Beraisa): If a Kohen is left handed or favors his left foot (begins walking with it), he is Pasul;
Rebbi is Posel an ambidextrous Kohen;
Chachamim are Machshir.
Rebbi holds that his right hand is weaker than it should be. Chachamim hold that his right hand is fine, and his left hand is extra strong.
(Mishnah): The following are Pesulim in a person, but not in an animal:
A Kushi, Gichor, or Lavkan (these will be explained);
One who is a Kipe'ach, midget, deaf, crazy, drunk, or has Nega'im (resembling Tzara'as) that are Tehorim.
R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, a crazy animal is not a choice Korban.
R. Elazar says, also dangling flesh is Posel a person, but not an animal.
(Gemara): A Kushi is black. A Gichor is (very) white (Albino). A Lavkan is red.
Objection: A man was saying "who wants Luvkiani," and he was found to be selling white (sheep)!
Correction: Rather, a Kushi is black, a Gichor is red, and a Lavkan is white.
(Mishnah): A Kipe'ach.
(Rav Zevid - Beraisa): This is a (very) tall person.
Objection: R. Avahu taught that Hash-m praises tall people - "v'Anochi Hishmadeti Es ha'Emori Mipneihem Asher k'Govah Arazim Gavho"!
Answer (Rav Papa): One who is too thin for his height is scorned. (He does not stand straight, for he cannot support his weight.)
(Reish Lakish): A (very) tall person should not marry another tall person, lest the children will be giants;
A midget should not marry another midget, lest the children be even smaller;
An Albino should not marry another Albino, lest the children be too white;
A black person should not marry another black person, lest the children be very black.
(Mishnah): One who is deaf, crazy, or drunk.
Question: One who is drunk is Mechalel Avodah (what he offered is Pasul). He should be listed among Pesulim that are Mechalel Avodah!
Answer: The Mishnah discusses someone drunk from things other than wine. It is unlike R. Yehudah:
(Beraisa): If one ate a date of Ke'ilah, drank much milk, or ate much honey (cooked with water) and (became drunk and) entered the Mikdash, he is liable. (We know that this Beraisa is like R. Yehudah.)
THINGS THAT DISQUALIFY ONLY ANIMALS
(Mishnah): The following are Pesulim in an animal, but not in a person:
Oso v'Es Beno, Terefah, and Yotzei Dofen.
If a Kohen married a woman forbidden to him, he is Pasul until he vows not to benefit from her (Rashi - nor she from him);
If a Kohen becomes Tamei Mes, he is Pasul until he accedes not to do so again.
(Gemara) Question: Oso v'Es Beno is not Pasul in a person. What is the case?
Answer #1: Aharon (or any other Kohen) and his children may serve together.
Objection: The corresponding case of animals is permitted!
(Beraisa): Oso v'Es Beno applies to a mother (and her child), but not to a father.
Answer #2: We may not offer a mother and her child on the same day, the corresponding case of Kohanim (a Kohenes and her son) may serve together.
Rejection: A Kohenes may not do Avodah!
Defense of Answer #1: Really, the Mishnah permits a Kohen and his son;
(R. Yosi bar Avin): Our Mishnah is like Chananya.
(Beraisa): Oso v'Es Beno applies to a mother, not to a father;
Chananya says, it applies to mothers and fathers.