DIFFERENCES BETWEEN A DEFINITE AND SAFEK SERIS
Answer #1 (Rava): If he is only a Safek Seris, if there are other brothers and he did Chalitzah, this forbids them to do Yibum. (Perhaps he is healthy, and the Chalitzah was Kosher);
Answer #2 (Rava): If he is only a Safek Seris, and he is the only brother, he must do Chalitzah. (A definite Seris is exempt.)
MUMIM THAT DISQUALIFY PEOPLE
(Mishnah): These Mumim (taught regarding animals) disqualify people (Kohanim from Avodah), whether they are temporary or permanent;
The following Mumim apply only to people (they will be explained): Kilon, Liftan, Makvan, his head is slanted, Sekifas.
R. Yehudah is Machshir a humpback;
Chachamim are Posel.
A bald person is Pasul;
Question: What is considered bald?
Answer: This is if he does not have a row of hair from one ear to the other;
If he has a row, he is Kosher.
(Gemara) Question #1: Why should Yabeles (a wart) disqualify people? The Torah mentions it only regarding animals!
Question #2: What is the source that Dak and Tavlul disqualify animals? The Torah writes them only regarding people!
Answer: We learn Mumim of people and animals from each other:
(Beraisa): Yabeles is not written regarding people. Dak and Tavlul are not written regarding animals;
Question: What is the source to apply Mumim of each to the other?
Answer: We learn from a Gezeirah Shavah, "Garav" and "Yalefes" are written regarding both of them.
We must say that this is Mufneh (the words are superfluous, they are written only for the Gezeirah Shavah). If not, we could challenge it!
We cannot learn man from animals, for animals are themselves offered on the Mizbe'ach. (Perhaps the Torah is more particular about their Mumim);
We cannot learn animals from man, for the Torah gave many Mitzvos to people. (Perhaps it is more particular about their Mumim.)
Question: Which of the words are Mufneh?
Answer: The Torah could have written only "Yalefes," and we would know that all the more so "Garav" is a Mum, for it is more repulsive. (Rashi - it is dry, and it makes cracks; R. Gershom - it is moist and runny);
"Garav" was written solely to make the verse Mufneh for the Gezeirah Shavah.
Question: (Why are some Mumim mentioned regarding people and animals?) The Torah could have listed all Mumim regarding one of them, and repeated "Garav" and "Yalefes" regarding the other for the Gezeirah Shavah!
Answer: Had it listed the Mumim regarding people (and only Garav and Yalefes regarding animals), we would have thought that only these two disqualify animals, but Mumim that do not apply to people, such as uncloven feet or Mumim of the Chutim (gums, or teeth), do not apply to animals;
Had it listed the Mumim regarding animals (and only Garav and Yalefes regarding people), we would have thought that only these two disqualify people, but Mumim that do not apply to animals, such as Giben (his eyebrows are too long) and Charum (the nose is sunken between the eyes), do not apply to people.
Question: The Torah could have listed all Mumim regarding one of them, and regarding the other, only those not mentioned in the first!
It could list the Mumim regarding animals, and also teach about the Mumim that disqualify only people regarding people, and "Garav" and "Yalefes" in both, to teach the Gezeirah Shavah!
Answer: Even though the Torah did not need to write the Mumim common to both in both places, this is not a problem;
(Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael): A Parshah can be repeated to teach one Chidush. We need not expound extra words that are repeated.
Question (Rava): Why did the Torah need to write the Mumim regarding people, Bechor and other Kodshim?
Answer: We cannot learn (Mumim of) Bechor or Kodshim from (those of) man, for the Torah gave many Mitzvos to people;
We cannot learn man from Bechoros (or Kodshim), for Bechoros (and Kodshim) are themselves offered on the Mizbe'ach;
We cannot learn Kodshim from Bechor, for Bechor is Kadosh from the moment of birth;
We cannot learn Bechor from Kodshim, for the Kedushah of Kodshim is more encompassing. (It applies to males and females, and there are various kinds of Korbanos.)
Conclusion: We could not learn any one from one of the others.
Suggestion: Perhaps we could learn one from the other two!
Suggestion #1: Perhaps we can learn Bechor from Kodshim and people.
Rejection: We cannot learn from them, for their Kedushah is more encompassing, and applies even to Peshutim (non-firstborns).
Suggestion #2: Perhaps we can learn Kodshim from the others.
Rejection: We cannot learn from them, for they become Kadosh automatically.
Suggestion #3: Perhaps we can learn people from the others.
Rejection: We cannot learn from them, for they themselves are offered on the Mizbe'ach.
Conclusion: We could not learn any one from the others. Therefore, Mumim must be written regarding each.
THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF PESULIM
(Mishnah): The following Mumim apply only to people...
Question: What is the source of this?
Answer (R. Yochanan): "Kol Ish Asher Bo Mum mi'Zera Aharon" - Mumim disqualify one who is similar to the descendants of Aharon (but one who is unlike Zera Aharon is disqualified without a Mum).
Question: What is the difference between a Kohen Ba'al Mum and one who is unlike Zera Aharon?
Answer: Avodah of a Ba'al Mum is Pasul (even b'Di'eved) - "Mum Bo v'Lo Yechalel."
Question: What is the difference between a Kohen who is unlike Zera Aharon and one who is Pasul due to Mar'is ha'Ayin (he looks repulsive)?
Answer: The former transgresses a Mitzvas Aseh if he serves, but the latter does not.
MUMIM OF THE HEAD
Kilon (in the Mishnah) is one whose head is cone-shaped.
Lifta (in the Mishnah) is one whose head is turnip-shaped. (It is wide on top, and narrow on bottom.)
(Beraisa): His neck is in the middle of his head (the back of his head protrudes outward like the front).
Makvan is one whose head resembles an axe. (The back is round, and the front is narrow).
'His head is slanted' refers to the front. (The forehead recedes.)
Sekifas is one whose head looks like Shakul Pisa. (A piece was taken away (from the back)).
(Beraisa): His neck is Shakut or Shamut.
Shakut is sunken. The head is hidden between the shoulders;
Shamut is long and thin.
(Mishnah - R. Yehudah): A humpback is Kosher...
All agree that a hump with a bone is a Mum;
They argue about a hump without a bone. Chachamim say that he is unlike normal descendants of Aharon. R. Yehudah says that it is a mere protruding piece of flesh.
(Mishnah): One who is bald (is Pasul).
Version #1A - Rashi - (Rava): This is only if he does not have hair in back (of the bald spot) and has hair in front of it;
If he has hair in back (and front) he is Kosher, and all the more so if he has in back and not in front. (This is not as bad as a bald patch in the middle.)
Version #1B - Shitah - (Rava): This is only if he has hair in back and in front;
If he has no hair in back or front he is Kosher, all the more so if he has in back but not in front.
Version #2 (Seifa): If he has a row of hair from one ear to the other, he is Kosher.
(Rava): This is only if he has such a row in back and not in front;
If he has a row in back and front he is Pasul, all the more so if he has in front and not in back or not at all. (end of Version #2)
(R. Yochanan): The following are Pasul because they do not resemble (most of) Zera Aharon:
A bald person, midget or Zavlagan (Rashi - one whose eyes are always tearing; R Gershom - one who drools).
Question: The Mishnah already teaches about a bald person or midget!
Answer: R. Yochanan must teach about Zavlagan. One might have thought that he is Pasul only due to Mar'is ha'Ayin.
Question: The Mishnah explicitly teaches which Pesulim are due to Mar'is ha'Ayin, e.g. if his eyelashes fell out (the last Mishnah on this Daf)!
Answer #1: One might have thought that the previous Pesulim are due to Mar'is ha'Ayin (i.e. the Pesulim after the argument about a hunchback. The first Pesulim are surely because they do not resemble Zera Aharon.)
Rejection: The Mishnah explicitly teaches which other Pesulim are due to Mar'is ha'Ayin, e.g. if his teeth fell out (44a)!
Answer #2: Rather, R. Yochanan teaches that the Halachah is unlike the following Beraisa:
(Beraisa): A bald person, midget or Zavlagan is Kosher. He is Pasul only due to Mar'is ha'Ayin. (Perhaps "Kosher" hints that if he did Avodah, it is Kosher, and he is not lashed.)
Question: Who is the Tana of this Beraisa?
Answer: It is R. Yehudah:
(Beraisa - R. Yehudah): "Ha'Kohanim" includes a bald Kohen. (He is Kosher.)
(Mishnah): "Giben" refers to one with no eyebrows, or only one;
R. Dosa says, it refers to one whose eyebrows rest on his eyes;
R. Chanina ben Antigonus says, it refers to one with two backs and two spines.
(Gemara) Inference: The first Tana explains that Giben refers to one lacking eyebrows;
Contradiction (Beraisa): "Giben" is one with big eyebrows (they reach each other);
Question: What is the source to disqualify one with no or only one eyebrow?
Answer: "Oh Giben" includes this.
Answer (Rava): The first Tana of our Mishnah teaches what we learn from "Oh Giben";
(Mishnah - R. Chanina): It refers to (one with two backs and two spines).
Inference: If a verse calls this a Mum, it must be that such a person can live;
Question: Rav taught that if a woman miscarried a baby with two backs and two spines, it is not a child; if an animal miscarried such a creature, one may not eat it.
Answer: Rav Simi already challenged Rav from our Mishnah. Rav answered that R. Chanina refers to one whose back is bent. It looks like he has two backs and two spines.
(Mishnah): Charum is Pasul. This is one who can paint his eyes without interrupting (because his nose is entirely below his eyes.)
The following are Pesulim --
Both of his eyes are above; both are below; one is above and one is below; he can see the first and second floors at the same time;
Sachei Shemesh, Zagdan, Tziran. (These will be explained below.)
One whose eyelashes fell out is Pasul due to Mar'is ha'Ayin.
(Gemara - Beraisa): Charum is one whose nose is recessed;
Question: What is the source to include one whose nose is short, or his nostrils are closed, or his nose reaches below his lip?
Answer: "Oh Charum" includes these.
R. Yosi says, Charum is one who can paint his eyes without interrupting.
Chachamim: It need not be so recessed.