[45a - 50 lines; 45b - 61 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 45a [line 12]:
"Ba'al ha'Kipin" בעל הקיפין
This is the correct reading, as it appears in our Gemara, and not "ha'Pikin" (as the Tzon Kodashim proposes). This is also the way it should appear in Rashi before the words "veha'Shofnar Garsinan" (-VILNA GA'ON, printed at the end of the Mishnayos).
 Rashi DH Yeseirah ד"ה יתרה:
should be Rashi DH Yeseres ד"ה יתרת
 Rashi DH Im Yesh Bah ד"ה אם יש בה:
The words "v'Im Lav Kasher" ואם לאו כשר, are a new Dibur
 Rashi DH Tereifah ד"ה טרפה:
The word "Kelushtenv"a" קלושטנב"א
should be "Kalush, Tenv"a" קלו"ש טנב"א
 Rashi DH ve'Oleh l'Minyan Me'ah Esrim v'Chamesh ד"ה ועולה למנין מאה עשרים וחמש:
the word "uv'Nisperes"ובנספרת is a new Dibur (RASHASH)
 Rashi DH Chaser she'Ein Bo ד"ה חסר שאין בו
The words "Yeseirah Arba Etzba'os" יתרה ארבע אצבעות
should be "Yeseirah Shesh Etzba'os" יתרה שש אצבעות (RASHASH)
1)[line 1]בעל הפיקיםBA'AL HA'PIKIM- one who has a growth on his thumb
2)[line 2]פרסותיוPARSOSAV- his feet
3)[line 5]קלוטות למעלה עד הפרקKELUTOS L'MAILAH AD HA'PEREK- if the fingers are joined all the way up to the knuckles
4)[line 6]יתרתYESERES- an extra finger-like protrusion
5a)[line 12]הקישןHA'KISHAN- one whose ankles knock
b)[line 12]הקילבןHA'KILBAN- a person with a growth on his thumb
6)[line 15]יש לו כסתות הרבהYESH LO KESASOS HARBEH- (a) he has an enlarged ankle (RASHI); (b) the front and back of his foot are fattened, forming a large arch in the middle of his foot (TOSFOS, citing ARUCH)
7a)[line 18]דטריפהD'TERIFAH- (O.F tenve) that was [beaten] thin
b)[line 18]לא סדיקאLO SEDIKA- the fingers are not separated
8)[line 23]שנספרת ע''ג הידSHE'NISPERES AL GABEI HA'YAD- when the additional finger is counted [in a line] with the others
9)[line 24]מטמא במגע ובמשא ומטמא באהלMETAMEI B'MAGA UV'MASA U'METAMEI B'OHEL (TUM'AS MES)
(a)A k'Zayis of the flesh of a Mes (corpse) is an "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah" and is Metamei through Maga (contact), Masa (carrying), and Ohel (being in the same room (lit. tent). An Ohel is defined as a covered space that is at least one Tefach in length, width and height. If a person becomes Tamei with Tum'as Mes, he must wait seven days to go to the Mikvah. Furthermore, on the third and seventh days he must have Mei Chatas (water mixed with ashes of the Parah Adumah — see Background to Bechoros 25:11) sprinkled on him.
(b)In an Ohel ha'Mes, the house or room becomes Tamei even if the Mes is passing through it and does not stop moving. A person who enters an Ohel ha'Mes becomes Tamei even if only a bit of his body enters, even when entering backwards. A Mechitzah (partition) in an Ohel ha'Mes prevents the spread of Tum'ah only if the partition reaches the ceiling. (RASH to Kelim 1:4)
(c)The Atzamos (bones) of a Mes are only Metamei through Ohel under one of three conditions: 1. They constitute a quarter of a Kav (Rova ha'Kav); 2. They are the majority of the human body (whether they are the majority of the build (Rov Binyano) of the body or the majority of the number (Rov Minyano) of 248 bones; 3. The bone is a complete skull or a complete spinal column. In order to be Metamei through Maga and Masa, it is enough for the bone to be the size of a Se'orah (a grain of barley).
(d)There are 248 Evarim (limbs) in the human body. (It appears that this count is found in the body of a seventeen-year-old, when all the bones have been formed and the cartilage has not yet begun to harden — ENCYCLOPEDIA TALMUDIS.) If a limb has an amount of flesh that, had it been part of a living body the limb would heal, it is Metamei through Maga, Masa and Ohel, no matter how small it is. If it does not have that amount of flesh, it is only Metamei through Maga and Masa.
10)[line 28]עשו דבריהם כדברי נביאותASU DIVREIHEM K'DIVREI NEVI'US- (a) they did not feel that it was necessary to explain their words (RASHI); (b) do they think that their rulings should be accepted like the words of the prophets? (TOSFOS)
11)[line 34]שני שוקיים וירך אחדSHNEI SHOKAYIM V'YERECH ECHAD- two legs and one thigh
12)[line 46]אתמוחי מתמחISMUCHEI MISMACH- they were dissolved
13)[line 49]"[והנה כדמות בני אדם נגע על שפתי, ואפתח פי ואדברה, ואמרה אל האמר לנגד,] 'אדני, במראה נהפכו צירי [עלי, ולא עצרתי כח.]""[V'HINEH K'DEMUS BNEI ADAM NOGE'A AL SEFASAI,VA'EFTACH PI VA'ADABRAH, VA'OMRAH EL HA'OMED L'NEGDI,] 'ADONAI, BA'MAR'AH NEHEFCHU TZIRAI [ALAI,V'LO ATZARTI KOACH.]" - "[Behold, [one] with the likeness of a human being touched my lips; I (Daniel) opened my mouth and spoke and I said to the one standing opposite me,] 'My lord, during the vision my joints shuddered [and I could not retain my strength.]" (Daniel 10:16) (DANIEL AND THE ANGEL)
(a)In the third year of the reign of Koresh, king of Persia, Daniel mourned and fasted for three weeks because he foresaw that Koresh was going to stop the building of the second Beis ha'Mikdash that he had originally permitted to be rebuilt. Daniel are neither good-quality bread nor meat, and he drank no wine or anointed himself for 21 days.
(b)On the 24th of Nisan, Daniel was standing on the banks of the River Chidekel together with his friends Chananyah, Mishael and Azaryah, when he saw an awesome angel. "And [standing] there was a man clothed in linen, his loins girded in fine gold; his body resembled dark-blue marble; his face, a flash of lightning; his eyes, fire-brands; his arms and legs like the color of tarnished copper, and his voice sounded like a multitude of people." Daniel saw the angel, but his friends did not. However, they did sense his frightening presence and they fled in terror.
(c)Terror-stricken, Daniel fell to the ground but the angel strengthened and reassured him that he would be none the worse for what he had seen. The angel then went on to reveal to Daniel what would happen to Yisrael in future generations. Even as the angel spoke to him, he lowered his face to the ground and was dumb-struck. The angel helped Daniel to his feet and assured him that HaSh-m had accepted his fasting and prayers from the first moment. The angel told him that he would have appeared immediately, but that he had been busy countering the angel of Persia's request for an extension of their dominance over Yisrael. It was only now that the great angel Micha'el came to assist him that he was able to descend to earth and convey the current message to Daniel, as well as another message concerning what would happen to Yisrael over a long period of time.
(d)Due to the terrifying appearance of the angel, Daniel once again fell on his face, terror-stricken The angel then assumed the semblance of a human being (to soothe Daniel's fears) and came and touched him on the mouth (to give him the strength to respond).
(e)With the help of the second angel, Daniel recovered from his initial shock. After the angel assured Daniel that he had nothing to fear, the angel told him that he had come merely to reveal to him the historical events that were about to unfold. He told Daniel that he would succeed in his battle against the angel of Persia. However, due to the increase in Yisrael's sins, 304 years into the period of the second Beis ha'Mikdash, Antiyochus, king of Greece, would take over the kingship and would subjugate Yisrael, and he (the angel) would be powerless to stop him.
(f)Finally, the angel informed Daniel categorically that of all the myriads of angels in heaven, the only one that would join him in Yisrael's defense in heaven was Micha'el, Yisrael's guardian angel.
14)[line 3]איש מדוןISH MADON- a man of measure, huge; this is referring to one of the giants of the Pelishtim
15)[line 7]שית דידיה ושית דכרעיהSHIS D'YADEI V'SHIS D'KAR'EI- only one hand and foot had an extra limb (RASHI); both hands together had six fingers (RASHI on the verse)
16)[line 17]איטרITER- a person whose left hand or foot is stronger than his right
17)[line 19]כחישותא אתחלא בימיןKECHISHUSA ASCHALTA B'YEMIN- weakness has started to develop in his right limb
18a)[line 21]הכושיHA'KUSHI- a person with a dark complexion
b)[line 21]הגיחורHA'GICHOR- a person with a reddish complexion
c)[line 21]הלבקןHA'LAVKAN- and an albino
19a)[line 21]הקפחHA'KIPE'ACH- and a tall, hunchback person
b)[line 21]הננסHA'NANAS- and a dwarf whose limbs are too small for his body
19)[line 25]דלדוליןDILDULIN- large warts
20a)[line 27]אוכמאUCHMA- black
b)[line 27]חיווראCHIVRA- white
c)[line 27]סומקאSUMKA- red
21)[line 30]סומקא גיחיאSUMKA GICHYA- flame-red
22)[line 36]אריכא שמיטה סניאARICHA SHEMITA SANYA- a tall person whose vertebrae appear disconnected (from bending over) and who is ungainly
23a)[line 38]תורןTOREN- a child who resembles a ship's mast
b)[line 39]אצבעיETZBA'I- a dwarf of the smallest size, resembling a small finger
24a)[line 40]בוהקBOHAK- a very light-skinned child
b)[line 41]טפוחTAFU'ACH- a child that is black as a pot
25)[line 44]דבילה קעיליתDEVEILAH KE'ILIS- preserved figs from Ke'ilah (which are intoxicating)
26)[line 45]דבשDEVASH- an intoxicating drink made by boiling water with honey
27)[line 52]אילימא אהרן ובניוILEIMA AHARON U'VANAV- if you will say that [the corresponding case of "Oso v'Es Beno" with regard to Kohanim is that it is permitted for] Aharon to serve in the Mishkan together with his sons
28)[line 52]תיישTAYISH- a male goat
29)[line 55]עדא אמרהADA AMRAH- this proves
30)[line 58]מדרינן ליה ברביםMADRINAN LEI B'RABIM- we make him take a vow in public, i.e. in the presence of at least ten adult Jewish males