[25a - 49 lines; 25b - 48 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 25a [line 46]:

The words "she'Lo Yazizu Es Mekomo" שלא יזיזו את מקומו

should be changed as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #8

[2] Gemara 25b [line 7]:

The words "mi'Chlal d'Asar" מכלל דאסר

should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #2

[3] Gemara [line 46]:

The words "d'Badku Lan" דבדקו לן

should be "d'Badki Lan" דבדקי לן

[4] Rashi 25b DH Es she'Nir'eh ד"ה את שנראה:

The words "v'Eino Nir'eh keshe'Piresh mi'Menah" ואינו נראה כשפירש ממנה

should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #14

[5] Rashi DH v'Rebbi Yehudah ד"ה ורבי יהודה:

The words "umid'Rabanan b'Shachtu" ומדרבנן בשחטו

should be "umidel'Rabanan b'Shachtu" ומדלרבנן בשחטו

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1)[line 2]מסוכריא דנזייתאMESOCHRAYA D'NEZAISA- the cloth used to plug the spigot on a barrel

2)[line 3]להדוקיהL'HADUKEI - to tighten or squeeze [by squeezing the

cloth plug into the barrel]

3)[line 5]בפסיק רישיה ולא ימות?PESIK REISHEI V'LO YAMUS?

An act which will certainly result in a forbidden Melachah being unintentionally performed on Shabbos or Yom Tov is called a Pesik Reishei v'Lo Yamus (literally, "[can one] cut off the head [of an animal] and it will not die?!"). See Background to Bechoros 24:6.

4)[line 12]כלאחר ידKEL'ACHAR YAD- literally, "like with the back of the hand"; doing a Melachah on Yom Tov is not forbidden [Min ha'Torah] when done in a manner in which the Melachah is not normally done

5)[line 12]עוקר דבר מגידולו כלאחר ידOKER DAVAR MI'GIDULO KEL'ACHAR YAD- uprooting something (such as hair) from its source of growth in an unusual manner is permissible only when (a) one does not have intention to uproot, or (b) one does have intention to uproot but he does it for the sake of a Mitzvah (such as Shechitah) (TOSFOS 24b DH v'Hainu)

6)[line 14]כנףKANAF- a large wing feather

7a)[line 14]הקוטמוHA'KOTMO- and one who cuts off or clips [the tip of a feather of a bird]

b)[line 14]המורטוHA'MORTO- and one who plucks the down [the fine hair along the shafts of the bird's feathers] off the root of the feather

8)[line 15]תולש חייב משום גוזזTOLESH CHAYAV MISHUM GOZEZ- one who plucks a feather is liable for transgressing the Melachah of Gozez, shearing. This proves that the act of Tolesh, plucking hair, is considered Gozez, shearing, unlike the view of Rav. (TOSFOS (DH v'Amar) points out that even though we cannot compare the laws of Shabbos to the laws of Bechor, perhaps the Gemara here is asking how plucking hair by hand can be considered kel'Achar Yad, when the Beraisa clearly says that one is Chayav for the act.)

9)[line 16]מחתךMECHATECH- cutting [a hide] to a specific size (this is an Av Melachah)

10)[line 16]ממחקMEMACHEK- scraping smooth [a hide] (this is an Av Melachah)

11)[line 20]שתי שערותSHTEI SE'AROS - two hairs of a Parah Adumah that are not red (but are completely black) invalidate the cow from being used as a Parah Adumah; if the hairs, however, are red at their base but black on top, the Parah Adumah may be used (PARAH ADUMAH)

(a)A Parah Adumah (also referred to as a Paras Chatas) is a red cow; if there are as many as two hairs of any other color it is not a Parah Adumah (see Maseches Parah 2:5). Only a cow that has never had a yoke placed upon it nor performed any other work is fit to be used as a Parah Adumah. A place is prepared for its slaughter on Har ha'Zeisim (also known as Har ha'Mishchah; "Mishchah" means oil), opposite the gate to the Azarah (the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). After it is slaughtered, its blood is sprinkled in the direction of the Beis ha'Mikdash seven times. Its carcass is then burned. A cedar branch, some Ezov (hyssop) branches, and a length of combed wool dyed crimson are thrown into the carcass of the cow as it is burning (Bamidbar 19:1-22).

(b)Should a person or utensil become Tamei by touching a Mes or being in the same room as a Mes (or a part of a Mes which is Metamei b'Ohel), he/it must wait seven days before he/it is able to immerse in a Mikvah in order to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days, Mei Chatas is sprinkled on the person or utensil. Mei Chatas is a mixture of ashes of a Parah Adumah and spring water. A person who is Tahor dips three bound Ezov branches into the mixture, using them to sprinkle Mei Chatas upon the person or utensil which is Tamei. After this process is complete, the person or utensil is immersed in a Mikvah. Once night falls, the purification process is complete (Bamidbar 19:17-19).

12)[line 39]לא שנו אלא בידLO SHANU ELA B'YAD- it was not taught [that it is permissible] except when done by hand (since Tolesh, uprooting, is not Gozez, shearing, and shearing is done only with a utensil)

13)[last line]ואחר כך שחטוV'ACHAR KACH SHACHTU- one may benefit from wool that sheared from a Bechor after it was slaughtered (and so, too, the meat and hide may be used). If it was removed after the animal died (without slaughter), however, one is forbidden from using it and it must be buried. If the wool was removed before the animal was slaughtered or before it died, it is permitted mid'Oraisa. The Tana'im of the Mishnah disagree about whether the Rabanan permitted it as well.

25b----------------------------------------25b

14)[line 5]צמר המדולדלTZEMER HA'MEDULDAL- wool that was detached from the hide but is still entangled in the animal's wool

15)[line 11]בשהתירו מומחהBESHE'HITIRO MUMCHEH- when the Mumcheh (the expert authority) permitted the Bechor; the Halachah requires that a Mumcheh examine any blemish that appears on a Bechor, and by his word (and his word only) will the Bechor be declared permitted or prohibited to be eaten

16)[line 15]יבקרYEVUKAR- it should be examined

17a)[line 22]מום קבועMUM KAVU'A - a permanent blemish; such a Mum permanently invalidates a Bechor from being offered on the Mizbe'ach so that it may be used for personal purposes (BA'AL MUM)

See Background to Zevachim 35:47.

b)[line 22]מום עוברMUM OVER- a temporary blemish that will pass; such a Mum does not allow a Bechor to be slaughtered and eaten

18)[line 26]בבלאי טפשאיBAVLA'EI TIPSHA'EI- foolish Babylonians

19)[line 27]משום דיתבי בארעא דחשוכא אמרי שמעתא דמחשכןMISHUM D'YASVI B'AR'A D'CHASHOCHA AMREI SHEMAITA D'MECHASHCHAN- because they live in a dark land they say dark (incorrect) sayings. (Bavel is called a dark land because it is situated in a large valley; Rashi to Menachos 52a.) (When they do not know the true reason, they invent false explanations; Rashi to Pesachim 34b.)

20)[line 31]כל דבר שהיה בחזקת טומאהKOL DAVAR SHE'HAYAH B'CHEZKAS TUM'AH- any [field] that had an affirmed status of Tum'ah remains in that status until the source of the Tum'ah is identified (such as the bones in a Beis ha'Peras). Every section that one checks and does not find a bone is presumed to be Tahor, until one checks the entire field and finds no bone, in which case the Chezkas Tum'ah tells us that his checking was inexact and retroactively the entire field is considered to be Tamei. This is taught by the Mishnah in Nidah (9:5; 61a), which says: "A Tamei pile (i.e., with bones mixed in it) became mixed up with two Tahor piles. If they check one pile and find it to be Tahor, that pile is Tahor and the other two are considered Tamei. If they check two piles and find them to be Tahor, those two are Tahor and the third is Tamei. If they then check the third pile and find it to be Tahor as well — all three are Tamei" [because there is a Chezkas Tum'ah that tells us that a Tamei pile is somewhere in the group].

21)[line 44]איתסיITSI- it healed

22)[line 47]מנגחי אהדדיMENAGCHEI A'HADADEI- they gore each other

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