BECHOROS BECHOROS 30 - dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas Reb Aharon Dovid ben Elimelech Shmuel Kornfeld (Muncasz/Israel/New York), who passed away on 3 Av 5761, by his daughter Diane Koenigsberg and her husband Dr. Andy Koenigsberg. May his love for Torah and for Eretz Yisrael continue in all of his descendants.

[30a - 39 lines; 30b - 48 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 30a [line 4]:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #3

[2] Rashi 30a DH l'Olam k'Rebbi Shimon " :

The words "uv'Isura Gufei" mark the beginning of a new Dibur

[3] Gemara 30b [line 3]:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #2

[4] Ein Mishpat #1:

The words "Siman 119: Se'if 4" ' '

should be "Siman 119: Se'if 7" ' '


1)[line 1] TARBA D'ATMA B'MAR D'KANTA- [he was suspected of selling] the prohibited Chelev of the kidneys that lies upon the thighs [as though it was the permitted fat]

2)[line 2]AMGUZEI- nuts

3)[line 5] STAM DARDEKEI GARU B'AMGUZEI- average children are enticed by nuts

4)[line 5] V'AZIL U'MESHABESH L'VNEI TABACHEI- and he misleads the sons of the other butchers

5)[line 6] V'GARI LEHU B'AMGUZEI- and he entices them with nuts

6)[line 8] HA'CHASHUD AL HA'SHEVI'IS - one who is suspect to sell produce grown in Shemitah (SHEVI'IS)

(a)The Torah requires that farmers desist from working the land every seventh year, as described in Vayikra 25:1-7. The fruits that grow during the seventh (Shevi'is) year are holy to the extent that:

1.They must be considered ownerless; anyone may come into any field and pick the fruit that he intends to eat.

2.The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion (see Insights to Sukah 39:2).

3.The Torah requires that the fruits of Shevi'is be used only for eating or drinking (in the normal manner of eating for that type of fruit) or for burning to provide light (in the case of oil). They may not be wasted or used for medicinal purposes or animal fodder, etc.

(b)One may not do any work with the land or with trees growing from the land that makes improvements.

(c)When one sells fruit of Shevi'is, the Kedushah of the fruit is transferred to the money paid in exchange for it (the fruit itself remains Kadosh as well).

(d)The Shemitah year is meant to teach the Jewish people to rely on HaSh-m for their sustenance, a fact that is not always clear to them during the six years in which they work their own fields.

7)[line 9] EINO CHASHUD AL HA'MA'ASROS - is not suspected (a) of selling Tevel (produce from which tithes were not taken) as if the tithes were taken (RASHI); (b) of selling Ma'aser Sheni as if it is Chulin (regular produce) (TOSFOS) (TERUMOS / MA'ASROS)

See Background to Bechoros 11:14.

8)[line 29]' REBBI AKIVA SETIMTA'AH- Rebbi Akiva, the unnamed authority; i.e. Rebbi recorded many Mishnayos that follow the opinion of Rebbi Akiva without quoting his name

9)[line 33] DAYARA BAR DAYARTA- "you convert, son of a converted woman"


10)[line 4] DIVREI CHAVEIRUS - matters kept by Chaverim (those who observe the laws properly) (CHAVER)

(a)A Chaver is one who is meticulous in his observance of Halachah. A person is called a Chaver if he accepts upon himself four things:

1.Never to give Terumah and Ma'asros to an Am ha'Aretz;

2.Never to prepare Taharos in the vicinity of an Am ha'Aretz;

3.To always eat Chulin b'Taharah;

4.To take Ma'aser from all produce that one eats, sells and buys (Tosefta Demai 2:2-3). The Gemara here explains exactly how one goes about accepting this distinguished status.

(b)If an Am ha'Aretz attempted to become a Chaver, but then returned to his old ways, he becomes disqualified from becoming a Chaver forever. (See RASHI, TOSFOS, and RITVA.)

11)[line 14] DIKDUK ECHAD- one particular law

12a)[line 15] DIVREI LEVIYAH - matters pertaining to the responsibilities of the Leviyim (LEVIYIM: AVODAH)

The Leviyim would guard the Mikdash, open and lock its gates, and sing to HaSh-m on the Duchan (the platform with three steps that was hewn into the stone floor of the Azarah; see Background to Sotah 48:6) when any obligatory public Olah offering (and the Shelamim offering of Shavu'os) were offered. They would also accompany the singing with musical instruments. Rashi (Erchin 13b) adds that they would also clean the Azarah.

b)[line 15] DIVREI KEHUNAH- matters pertaining to the service of the Kohanim in the Beis ha'Mikdash, or to or the priestly gifts

13)[line 19] MEKABLIN L'CHENAFAYIM- we accept a person as a "partial Chaver" if he affirms that he will always wash Netilas Yadayim to make his hands Tahor before eating Chulin or Terumah. (The Rabanan decreed that hands are always considered to be Tamei unless they are washed.)

14)[line 20] EINI MEKABEL ELA L'CHENAFAYIM- "I will only eat Chulin b'Taharah in the sense that I will wash Netilas Yadayim before I eat it."

15a)[line 22]L'MASHKIN- The Chachamim decreed that all liquids of an Am ha'Aretz (i.e. one who usually eats food that is Tamei) should be considered by Perushim (i.e. those who usually eat their food in a state of Teharah) to be Tamei. We accept an Am ha'Aretz's liquids to be Tahor if he conducts himself like a Chaver for 30 days.

b)[line 22]L'CHESUS - The Chachamim decreed that all clothes of an Am ha'Aretz should be considered by Perushim to be Tamei with Tum'as Midras. We accept an Am ha'Aretz's clothes to be Tahor if he conducts himself like a Chaver for 12 months. (TUM'AS MIDRAS)

(a)A Zav (see Background to Zevachim 23:8a) can cause objects (other than Klei Cheres - earthenware objects) that are under him to become Avos ha'Tum'ah, whether he touches them or not. The objects become Tamei Midras (lit. an object that is treaded upon), otherwise known as Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav (or the Tachton, of a Zav). An object that is under him becomes a Midras only if it was made for lying, sitting, or leaning upon.

(b)A person who touches (Maga) or carries (Masa) either a Midras or the Zav himself gets the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah, and so do the clothes he is wearing and other utensils (except for earthenware utensils) that he is touching at the time.

(c)Utensils or clothes that lie above the Zav also get the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether he touches them or not. These are called the Elyon of a Zav.

(d)The Chachamim decreed that the clothes of an Am ha'Aretz (an unlearned person who usually eats food that is Tamei) are considered by the Perushim (lit. separatists, exceptionally righteous people who usually eat their food b'Taharah) to be Tamei Midras.

16)[line 33] NISHNEIS MISHNAH ZO- this Mishnah (that a Talmid Chacham must accept Divrei Chaveirus) was taught

17)[line 35] AZILU IMRU LEI L'AYEN BAH- go tell him to look into the matter (with regard to what the Halachah is)

18)[line 35] OSIV RABANAN MI'DIDEI L'GABAIHU- he placed some of his Talmidim near them to watch the Taharos

19)[line 38] KEVOD ZAKEN- the honor of a Talmid Chacham

20)[line 39]SILSUL- dignity

21)[line 40] CHATZER SHE'MOCHRIN BAH TECHELES- a courtyard in which wool dyed with Techeles is sold. Techeles, the greenish blue wool used for Tzitzis (see Insights to Menachos 44:1 for a discussion of the identity of the Techeles) is very expensive, and it was therefore often forged by using Kala Ilan (indigo, from which a cheap Techeles imitation was produced) in place of Techeles.

22)[line 47]KOMA'AS- she was binding

23)[last line] KISHREI MOCHES- the seals or written receipts of a tax- collector