The reference numbers below that appear in parentheses (e.g., TY #43) represent vessels or parts of the structure of the Beis ha'Mikdash. The labeling follows that of the diagram of the Tiferes Yisrael. This diagram, which has been included in a separate mailing and can also be found on our site (at, is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).

[48a - 54 lines; 48b - 55 lines]

1)[line 1]ואנן קא יהבינן לכהניםV'ANAN KA YAHAVINAN L'CHOHANIM- and we give [Ma'aser Rishon] to Kohanim (as a result of Ezra's decree (see Ezra 8:15), who fined the Leviyim of his time and decreed that Ma'aser Rishon be given to the Kohanim instead of the Leviyim)


(a)After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen (Bamidbar 18:12; Devarim 18:4). Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi (Bamidbar 18:21). The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen (Bamidbar 18:26).

(b)The produce may not be eaten until all Terumos and Ma'asros have been removed. The punishment for eating Tevel (untithed produce) is Misah b'Yedei Shamayim.

(c)A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor (Devarim 14:28-29).

(d)The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim (Devarim 14:22-27).

(e)Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed, in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is exempt from the additional fifth (Vayikra 27:30-31).

3)[line 14]מע''הME'AM HA'ARETZ (AM HA'ARETZ)

An Am ha'Aretz is an unlearned Jew who is lax in his Torah-observance (see Berachos 47b) who usually eats food that is Tamei. Terumas Ma'aser and Ma'aser Sheni must be separated from the produce bought from an Am ha'Aretz (which is known as Demai - "Da Mai?" - "What is this?") since a minority of Amei ha'Aretz cannot be trusted to have separated them before selling the produce. We presume that Terumah Gedolah, however, has been separated because of its stringency.

4)[line 18]המוציא מחבירו עליו הראיהHA'MOTZI ME'CHAVERO ALAV HA'RE'AYAH

(a)The general rule in monetary claims is that the burden of proof rests with the one who wishes to extract payment or other items of value from the other person. Hence, when there is a doubt, all money remains with the one who has possession.

(b)In our Gemara, the Levi who receives Ma'aser Rishon or the pauper who receives Ma'aser Ani must prove that the produce was not tithed in order for them to receive these tithes.

5)[line 19]דחביריםCHAVERIM

A person is called a Chaver if he accepts upon himself four things:

1.never to give Terumah and Ma'asros to an Am ha'Aretz;

2.never to prepare Taharos in the vicinity of an Am ha'Aretz; always eat Chulin b'Taharah; take Ma'aser from all produce that one eats, sells, and buys (Tosefta Demai 2:2-3). The Gemara in Bechoros 30b explains exactly how one goes about accepting this distinguished status.

6)[line 23]דוכןDUCHAN

(a)The Duchan was a platform with three steps, which was hewn into the stone floor of the Azarah. Each step was half an Amah high and half an Amah wide. The bottom step rose one Amah above Ezras Yisrael. The highest step was level with the floor of Ezras Kohanim. The distance from the beginning of the lowest step until the Mizbe'ach was 11 Amos, all of which was Ezras Kohanim. The Duchan extended for the entire width of the Azarah (135 Amos).

(b)The main purpose of the Duchan was for the Leviyim to stand upon it facing the Sanctuary (their backs to the people) while singing to HaSh-m, when the Kohanim offered the obligatory public Korbenos Olah (burnt offerings) or the Shelamim (peace offering) of Shavuos. They also played musical instruments to accompany the singing.

(c)The Duchan was also used for Birkas Kohanim (see Background to Sotah 37:19) when there were too many Kohanim standing on the steps of the Heichal, the usual place for Birkas Kohanim. (They would face the people, with their backs towards the sides of the Azarah, in order that their backs should not be turned towards the Heichal.) (Notes of the TIFERES YISRAEL on the Beis ha'Mikdash Diagram TY #25 and TIFERES YISRAEL to Midos 2:6)

7a)[line 27]בנחתB'NACHAS- with quiet, satisfaction

b)[line 27]ושלוהV'SHALVAH- and peace, tranquility

8)[line 29]מסרטיןMESARTIN- scratch

9)[line 32]שהיו חובטין אותו במקלותSHE'HAYU CHOVTIN OSO V'MAKLOS- that they would beat the calf with sticks

10)[line 34]שמא ניקב קרום של מוחSHEMA NIKEV KERUM SHEL MO'ACH- lest the cranial membrane become pierced, rendering the animal a Tereifah. A Tereifah is an animal with one of the 18 signs described in Chulin 42a. There is a Machlokes Tana'im as to whether an animal with one of these defects can live for twelve months or not.

11)[line 34]טבעותTABA'OS- TY #46; 24 rings, set into the floor of the Azarah to the north of the Mizbe'ach. They were used during Shechitah; the animal's neck was held firmly by the ring that opened and closed on a hinge.

12)[line 36]"בשיר לא ישתו יין; ימר שכר לשתיו""BA'SHIR LO YISHTU YAYIN; YEMAR SHECHAR L'SHOSAV"- "They shall not drink wine with a song; strong drink shall be bitter to those who drink it" (Yeshayah 24:9).

13)[line 37]אורים ותומיםURIM V'TUMIM

(a)A Kohen who becomes the Kohen Gadol must wear the eight vestments of the Kohen Gadol and do the Avodah for seven consecutive days to indicate his consecration, as stated in Shemos 29:30, "Shiv'as Yamim..." (RAMBAM Hilchos Klei ha'Mikdash 4:13).

(b)The eight vestments are:

1.Tzitz (forehead-plate),

2.Efod (apron),

3.Choshen (breastplate),

4.Me'il (robe),

5.Kutones (long shirt),

6.Michnasayim (breeches),

7.Avnet (belt),

8.Mitznefes (turban).

(c)The Choshen contained a parchment that was called the Urim v'Tumim (Shemos 28:30) upon which a Name of HaSh-m was written. It was possible for a king of Yisrael to ask HaSh-m questions regarding the people of Yisrael and receive an answer using the letters engraved upon the gemstones of the Choshen. Letters containing the answer to his question would stick out in their places (in the order of the answer - MAHARSHA to Yoma 73b) or would come together to form the words and sentences of the answer. The Kohen Gadol would assist the Urim v'Tumim in the process of receiving an answer through his power of Ru'ach ha'Kodesh (Divine inspiration).

(d)The Gemara (Yoma 73b) gives two reasons as to why the parchment was called Urim v'Tumim: either they were Me'irin (similar to "Urim") Es Divreihen, they clarify their words, or they were Mashlimin ("Tumim" means Shalem, complete) Es Divreihen, they fulfill their words.

14)[line 37]השמירHA'SHAMIR- the Shamir worm that Shlomo ha'Melech used in the construction of the Beis ha'Mikdash (Gitin 68a)

15)[line 37]ונופת צופיםNOFES TZUFIM- (the Amora'im argue below (Daf 48b) as to what this is - see below, entries 69-74)

16)[line 37]אנשי אמנהANSHEI AMANAH- people who have full trust in the Creator that He will give them everything they need

17)[line 38]"הושיעה ה' כי גמר חסיד [כי פסו אמונים מבני אדם]""HOSHI'AH HASH-M KI GAMAR CHASID; [KI FASU EMUNIM MI'BNEI ADAM]"- "Save [us,] HaSh-m, for the pious man is no more; [for people of faith have vanished from mankind]" (Tehilim 12:2).

18)[line 40]הטהרהHA'TAHARAH- [the lack of] ritual purity

19)[line 42]"זקנים משער שבתו בחורים מנגינתם""ZEKENIM MI'SHA'AR SHAVASU; BACHURIM MI'NEGINASAM"- "The elders are gone from the gate; the young men from their music" (Eichah 5:14) - The elders refer to the wise men. The courts of each city were located at its gate (as in Ruth 4:1), and the elders were the judges. They taught the Torah and settled disputes there.

20)[line 42]אודנא דשמעא זמרא תעקרUDNA D'SHAMA ZIMRA, TE'AKER- the ear that hears song should be uprooted (see Insights)

21)[line 43]זמרא בביתא חורבא בסיפאZIMRA B'VEISA, CHURVA BI'SEYAFA- when there is song in a house, destruction is at the doorstep

22)[line 43]"קול ישורר בחלון חרב בסף, כי ארזה ערה""KOL YESHORER BA'CHALON, CHOREV BA'SAF, KI ARZAH ERAH"- "[And flocks shall lie down in her midst, all the beasts of the nations, both the little owl and the great owl shall lodge in its capitals;] their voice shall sing in the window, desolation shall be in the threshold, for he shall destroy the cedar work" (Tzefanyah 2:14).

23)[line 44]בארזיםB'ARAZIM- with cedars

24)[line 44](המסובך) [המסוכך](HA'MESUBACH) [HA'MESUCHACH]- that is roofed

25)[line 44]מתרועעMISRO'E'A- will be destroyed

26)[line 45]"[נשאר בעיר שַׁמָּה] ושאיה יֻכַּת שער""[NISH'AR BA'IR SHAMAH;] U'SH'IYAH YUKAS SHA'AR"- "[In the city is left desolation;] and the gate is struck with destruction" (Yeshayah 24:12).

27a)[line 46]לדידי חזי ליהL'DIDI CHAZI LI- I saw it (the result of the force of destruction on an abandoned house)

b)[line 46]ומנגח כי תוראU'MENA'GE'ACH KI SORA- and it gores like a bull

28a)[line 46]דנגדיD'NAGADEI- that the men who drag ships through canals

b)[line 46]ודבקריUD'BAKAREI- and cattle-drivers who sing to bulls as they pull the plow

c)[line 47]דגרדאיD'GARDA'EI- (a) that the weavers; (b) According to the Girsa GILDA'EI - tanners (ARUCH)

29)[line 47]אווזיAVAZEI- geese

30)[line 47]ולא איבעיV'LO IBA'I- and it was not sought (there were no purchasers)

31)[line 48]זלזיל ביהZALZIL BEI- he treated it lightly [the singing, by not rebuking the singers]

32)[line 48]ולא משתכחV'LO MISHTAKE'ACH- and there were none to be found

33)[line 48]זמרי גברי ועני נשיZAMREI GAVREI V'ANEI NASHEI- when men sing and the women answer

34)[line 49]כאש בנעורתK'ESH B'NE'ORES- like fire that consumes thoroughly beaten flax

35)[line 50]"הוי משכימי בבקר שכר ירדפו; מאחרי בנשף יין ידליקם. והיה כנור ונבל תוף וחליל ויין משתיהם; ואת פועל ה' לא יביטו [ומעשה ידיו לא ראו]""HOY MASHKIMEI VA'BOKER, SHECHAR YIRDOFU; ME'ACHAREI VA'NESHEF, YAYIN YADLIKEM. V'HAYAH CHINOR VA'NEVEL TOF V'CHALIL VA'YAYIN MISHTEIHEM; V'ES PO'AL HASH-M LO YABITU, [U'MA'ASEH YADAV LO RA'U]"- "Woe to those who rise up early in the morning, that they may go after strong drink; and continue until night, till wine inflames them! And the lyre, and the lute, the tambourine, and pipe, and wine, are in their feasts; but they regard not the work of HaSh-m, [neither consider the operation of His hands]" (Yeshayah 5:11-12).

36)[line 51]"לכן גלה עמי מבלי דעת; וכבודו מתי רעב והמונו צחה צמא""LACHEN GALAH AMI MI'BELI DA'AS; U'CHVODO MESEI RA'AV, VA'HAMONO TZICHEI TZAMA"- "Therefore my people are gone to exile, because they have no knowledge; and their honorable men are famished, and their multitude dried up with thirst" (Yeshayah 5:13).

37)[line 53]"וישח אדם וישפל איש; ועיני גבהים השפלנה. ויגבה ה' צ-בקות במשפט והק-ל הקדוש נקדש בצדקה""VA'YISHACH ADAM, VA'YISHPAL ISH; V'EINEI GEVOHIM TISHPALNAH. VA'YIGBAH HASH-M TZEVAKOS BA'MISHPAT; VEHA'KEL HA'KADOSH NIKDASH BI'TZDAKAH"- "And the wicked man shall be brought down, and the mighty man shall be humbled, and the eyes of the lofty shall be humbled. But HaSh-m Tze-vakos shall be exalted in judgment, and G-d Who is holy shall be sanctified in righteousness" (Yeshayah 5:15-16).

38)[last line]ומה כתיב אחריו?MAH KESIV ACHARAV?- (actually, this verse is in between the past two quotes)

39)[last line]"לכן הרחיבה שאול נפשה ופערה פיה לבלי חק; וירד הדרה והמונה ושאונה, ועלז בה""LACHEN HIRCHIVAH SHE'OL NAFSHAH, U'FA'ARAH FIHA LI'VLI CHOK; V'YARAD HADARAH VA'HAMONAH U'SH'ONAH, V'ALEZ BAH"- "Therefore, the depths (Gehinom) has widened its desire and opened wide its mouth without measure; and into it will descend her (Yerushalayim's) glory and her multitude and her pomp and he who frolics within her" (Yeshayah 5:14).


40)[line 5]סליקSALIK- it worked (lit. "went up"); the Urim v'Tumim answered them

41)[line 6]ועלתה לוV'ALSAH LO- and it worked (lit. "went up") for him; the Urim v'Tumim answered him

42)[line 8]"ויעל אביתר""VA'YA'AL EVYASAR"- "and Evyasar came up" (Shmuel II 15:24); i.e. he was removed from the Kehunah Gedolah

43)[line 8]"ויהי לדרוש א-לקים כל ימי זכריה[ו] המבין בראות [ה]א-לקים""VA'YEHI LIDROSH E-LOKIM B'YMEI ZECHARYAHU, HA'MEVIN BI'R'OS HA'E-LOKIM"- "He would seek out E-lokim in the days of Zecharyahu, one who understood the visions of G-d" (Divrei ha'Yamim II 26:5).

44)[line 12]ערי מגרשAREI MIGRASH- the cities of the Leviyim, which the Torah gave to them together with the cities' open spaces (which extended one thousand Amos from the wall of the city)

45)[line 13]לחשך אדםLACHSHECHA ADAM- [if] a person whispers to you

46a)[line 13]"... ויאמר התרשתא להם אשר לא יאכלו מקדש הקדשים, עד עמוד כהן לאורים ו[ל]תומים""... VA'YOMER HATIRSHASA LAHEM ASHER LO YOCHLU MI'KODESH HA'KODASHIM; AD AMOD KOHEN L'URIM UL'SUMIM"- "[And of the sons of the Kohanim were the sons of Chavayah... They searched for their documents of lineage but they were not found, and they were banished from the Kehunah.] Hatirshasa (Nechemyah) said to them that they may not eat from Kodshim until a Kohen arises to the Urim v'Tumim (to find out if they are genuine Kohanim)" (Ezra 2:61-63).

b)[line 14]התרשתאHATIRSHASA- Nechemyah, who lived at the beginning of the period of Bayis Sheni

47)[line 22]בת קולBAS KOL - a heavenly voice, a minor form of prophecy

One of the lower forms of prophecy is called Bas Kol (lit. echo), where certain individuals of a high spiritual status hear a Heavenly voice. The Gemara in numerous places cites instances when a Bas Kol was heard, relaying information from the heavens to the earth.

48)[line 27]הי חסיד הי עניוHEI CHASID HEI ANAV- (a) "Where is the pious one?! Where is the humble one?!" ("Hei" means "where" according to RASHI to Berachos 31a, DH Lishri Lan); (b) "What a pious one! What a humble one!" (c) "Woe, the pious one [is gone]! Woe, the humble one [is gone]!" (the word "Hei" appears in Megilah 28b and means "Woe," or "alas").

49)[line 32]שמעון וישמעאל לחרבאSHIMON V'YISHMAEL L'CHARAVA- "Shimon and Yishmael to the sword" (a prophecy that Rebbi Shimon ha'Nasi and Rebbi Yishmael ben Elisha, the Kohen Gadol, would be killed by the Romans)

50)[line 32]וחברוהי לקטלאV'CHAVROHI LI'KETALA- and "their colleagues to [other forms of] death"

51)[line 33]לביזאL'BIZA- to plunder

52)[line 33]ועקן סגיאין עתידין למיתי על עמאV'AKAN SAGI'IN ASIDIN L'MEISEI AL AMA- and many tribulations are going to come upon the nation

53)[line 34]שנטרפה שעהSHE'NITREFAH SHA'AH- that the time was troubled [from the persecutions]

54)[line 35]"והבית בהבנותו אבן שלמה מסע נבנה; ומקבות והגרזן כל כלי ברזל לא נשמע בבית בהבנתו""VEHA'BAYIS B'HIBANOSO, EVEN SHELEMAH, MASA NIVNAH; U'MAKAVOS VEHA'GARZEN, KOL KELI VARZEL, LO NISHMA BA'BAYIS B'HIBANOSO"- "When the House (the Beis ha'Mikdash) was being built, it was built of complete hewn stone, and hammers and the ax - any iron tools - were not heard in the House (the Beis ha'Mikdash) when it was being built" (Melachim I 6:7).

55)[line 36]"כל אלה אבנים יקרות כמדת גזית, מגוררות במגרה מבית ומחוץ""KOL ELEH AVANIM YEKAROS K'MIDOS GAZIS MEGORAROS BA'MEGERAH MI'BAYIS UMI'CHUTZ..."- "All of these (parts of the palace of Shlomo ha'Melech) were of valuable stones, like the size of hewn stones, smoothed down with a file, inside and outside, and from the foundation until the roofbeams..." (Melachim I 7:9).

56)[line 39]אבנים הללוAVANIM HALALU- these stones (of the Efod, the apron, and of the Choshen, the breastplate, which were two of the eight vestments of the Kohen Gadol)

57)[line 39]בדיוB'DEYO- with ink

58)[line 39]"[מעשה חרש אבן] פתוחי חתם [תפתח את שתי האבנים על שמות בני ישראל; מוסבות משבצות זהב תעשה אותם]""[MA'ASEH CHARASH EVEN,] PITUCHEI CHOSAM [TEFATACH ES SHTEI HA'AVANIM AL SHEMOS BNEI YISRAEL; MUSABOS MISHBETZOS ZAHAV TA'ASEH OSAM]"- "[The work of an engraver of stone,] like the engravings of a signet [you shall engrave the two stones (of the Efod) according to the names of Bnei Yisrael; enclosed in settings of gold you shall make them]" (Shemos 28:11).

59)[line 40]באיזמלIZMEL- a cutting tool, knife

60)[line 40]"[... משבצים זהב יהיו] במלואתם""[MESHUBATZIM ZAHAV YIHEYU] B'MILU'OSAM"- "[enclosed in gold they (the stones of the Choshen) shall be in their settings] in their entirety" (Shemos 28:20).

61)[line 40]נבקעותNIVKA'OS- they split open (as if they are engraved)

62)[line 43]כורכין אותוKORCHIN OSO- they wrap it up

63)[line 43]בספוגין של צמרB'SEFUGIN SHEL TZEMER- with tufts of wool

64)[line 43]באיטני של אברB'ITNI SHEL AVAR- with a tube made of lead

65)[line 43]סובי שעוריןSUBEI SE'ORIN- bran of barley

66)[line 44]שירא פרנדאSHIRA PARANDA- a fine silk (called "Paranda silk")

67)[line 44]וזכוכית לבנהZECHUCHIS LEVANAH- white glass; crystal

68)[line 45]ורכב ברזלRECHEV BARZEL- iron chariots

69)[line 45]יין קרושYAYIN KARUSH- congealed wine

70)[line 45]משנירSENIR- the name of place which is part of Mount Hermon

71)[line 45]כעיגולי דבילהK'IGULEI DEVEILAH- like round pressed cakes of dry figs

72)[line 46]סולת שצפה על גבי נפהSOLES SHE'TZAFAH AL GABEI NAPAH- flour that [comes from wheat that is so rich with fat that it] sticks to the sides of the sieve

73)[line 47]הנדבקות בתנורHA'NIDBAKOS B'SANUR- that were affixed to the sides of the oven (to bake)

74)[line 47]ותופחות ובאותTOFCHOS U'VA'OS- keep swelling towards each other

75)[line 48](הציפיא) [הצופים](HA'TZIPIYA) [HA'TZOFIM]- (the clear or fluid parts of the cells of a honeycomb) [the area of Mount Scopus, in the north of Yerushalayim]

76)[line 48]כדמתרגם רב ששתKED'METARGEM RAV SHESHES- like Rav Sheshes (RASHI: Rav Yosef) translates into Aramaic [the words "Ka'asher Ta'asenah ha'Devorim" in the verse, "va'Yetzei ha'Emori ha'Yoshev ba'Har ha'Hu Likraschem, va'Yirdefu Eschem Ka'asher Ta'asenah ha'Devorim" - "And the Emori that dwell on that mountain went out against you, and chased you as bees do" (Devarim 1:44)]

77a)[line 48]כמא דנתזן דבריאתהKEMA D'NAT'ZAN DABRIYASAH- like the bees spread out

b)[line 48]ושייטן ברומי עלמאV'SHAITAN B'RUMEI ALMA- and fly in the heights of the world

c)[line 49]ומתיין דובשא מעישבי טוראU'MASYAN DUVSHA ME'ISBEI TURA- and bring honey from the grasses of the mountain

78)[line 49]הנצוקHA'NITZOK- the column of liquid that is being poured from one utensil to another

79)[line 49]מדבש זיפיםMI'DEVASH ZIFIM- from very thick honey

80)[line 49]והצפיחיםTZAPICHIM- (O.F. bresches) honeycombs (RASHI)

81)[line 50]שמזייפיןSHE'MEZAIFIN- that dishonest people (Mezaifin) mix with water since the water is not noticeable in it

82)[line 50]"זיף וטלם ובעלות""ZIF VA'TELEM U'V'ALUS" (Yehoshua 15:24)- these are names of cities at the far southern part of the territory of Yehudah, at the border of Edom

83)[line 51]"בבוא הזיפים ויאמרו לשאול הלא דוד מסתתר עמנו""B'VO HA'ZIFIM VA'YOMRU L'SHAUL; HALO DAVID MISTATER IMANU"- "When the people of Zif came and said to Shaul, 'Is not David hiding with us?'" (Tehilim 54:2).

84)[line 51]המזייפין דבריהםHA'MEZAIFIN DIVREIHEM- that falsify their words

85)[line 53]מאמיניןMA'AMININ- trust

86)[line 54]"כי מי בז ליום קטנות""KI MI VAZ L'YOM KETANOS"- "For who shames on the day of the small ones" (Zecharyah 4:10).

87)[last line]שיתבזבז שולחנןYISBAZBEZ SHULCHANAN- they plunder (diminish) their table (i.e. their ultimate reward in the World to Come)

88)[last line]קטני בני רשעי ישראלKETANEI VENEI RISH'EI YISRAEL- the young children, the children of the wicked ones of Yisrael