BECHOROS BECHOROS 31 - Dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas Mrs. Lily (Leah bas Pinchas) Kornfeld, who passed away on 8 Av 5765. Dedicated by their daughter and son-in-law, Diane and Andy Koenigsberg and family. May her and her husband's love for Torah and for Eretz Yisrael continue in all of her descendants.

[31a - 37 lines; 31b - 52 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Rashi 31a DH Zil l'Chashivusei " :

The words "Yelech l'Chashivusei, Achar ha'Chashivus she'Bachar Lo"

should be "Yelech ha'Chashivus, Achar she'Bachar Lo"

[2] Rashi DH Shadei Muma b'Chulhu " :

The words "Chal Al ha'Mum"

should be "Chal Al Ba'al Mum"

[3] Rashi 31b DH Davar ha'Nishom " :

The word "Nimkar me'Chayim"

should be "keshe'Nimkar me'Chayim" (RASHASH)


1)[line 3]B'MATMONIYUS- in seclusion

2)[line 7]", , [ ... ]""SHUVU, BANIM SHOVAVIM, [ERPAH MESHUVOSEICHEM...]"- "Return, O wayward sons, [and I will heal your waywardness ...]" (Yirmeyahu 3:22)

3)[line 12] ITZTERICHA LEI SHAITA- it was a time when he was needed to answer Halachic questions

4)[line 14] KATIR LEHU ARBA ME'AH TACHTAKEI- he prepared for them 400 seats

5)[line 26] MIPNEI SHE'HU BEIS DIN- because he is part of a Beis Din (and not alone)


6)[line 34] NIMKARIN B'ITLIZ- are sold in the marketplace

7)[line 35] V'NISHKALIN B'LITRA- and are weighed with a Roman Libra, a pound

8)[line 36] HANAYASAN L'VE'ALIM- their value belongs to the owner (in contrast to Hekdesh; see next entry). In the case of Bechor, the Kohen is considered to be the owner, and in the case of Ma'aser, the Yisrael is considered to be the owner. We prefer to uphold the respect due to Kodshim and prohibit these types of Kodshim from being sold in a public marketplace and from being weighed in the manner in which Chulin is weighed, and we are not concerned that the animals will be sold for less than their value (since the only one suffering a loss is their owner, and not Hekdesh).

9)[line 36] HANAYASAN L'HEKDESH- their value belongs to Hekdesh. Therefore, we want them to be sold at the highest possible price so that Hekdesh will benefit, and for this purpose we even compromise on the respect due to Kodshim (and permit them to be sold in the public marketplace and weighed with ordinary weights).


10)[line 5] KODSHEI MIZBE'ACH- objects dedicated to be offered on the Mizbe'ach as sacrifices, which have intrinsic sanctity


See Background to Bechoros 14:16.

12)[line 10] TAFI U'FARIK ME'IKARA- he will pay a larger sum to redeem it from Hekdesh

13)[line 17] V'SHANYEI B'KADMUSA MI'BERAISA- and he answered it early the following morning from a Beraisa

14)[line 18] MISHUM HASHAVAS AVEIDAH NAG'U VAH- they dealt with the matter in this way in order that the orphans should not suffer a loss

15)[line 19]SARSEI- [his] attendant

16)[line 22] MAN D'AKITZ LI'AKTZEI AKRABA- the person who has stung [me] shall be stung (i.e. put in Cherem)

17)[line 29]DOVEVOS- murmur (see, however, Shitah Mekubetzes #6)

18)[line 30]" ""V'CHIKECH K'YEIN HA'TOV, HOLECH L'DODI L'MEISHARIM, DOVEV SIFSEI YESHENIM."- "And your palate [words] should be like the choicest wine, that causes a sleeper's lips to murmur; I am true to my beloved!" (Shir ha'Shirim 7:10)

19)[line 33] KOMER SHEL ANAVIM- a mass of grapes that were shrunken due to exposure to the sun or by being put in the ground, before being placed in the press

20)[line 34]DOVEV- emits a sound

21)[line 40] MOCHRIN OSO B'HAVLA'AH- we sell it together with (lit. absorbed in) other objects with the stipulation that all of the money is being paid for the other objects

22)[last line] DAVAR HA'NISHOM ME'CHAYIM- a thing that is appraised during its lifetime