AVODAH ZARAH 59 - dedicated by Mrs. G. Kornfeld in honor of the marriage of Eli and Nechama Turkel. May they have many happy and healthy years together with Mazel, Berachah and Hatzlachah until 120, and much Nachas from all of their children

1)

HELPING IN TUMAH (Yerushalmi Halachah 10 Daf 30a)

[דף ל עמוד א] משנה נחתום שהוא עושה בטומאה לא לשין ולא עורכין עמו אבל מוליכין עמו פת לפלטר:

(a)

(Mishnah): If a baker is working in a state of tumah, one may not knead or roll dough with him, but one may take bread with him to the store (for sale).

גמרא ותני עלה לא ליתתון ולא טוחנין ולא בוללין עמו

(b)

(Gemara) (Baraisa): (For the same reason as our Mishnah) One may not soak the wheat in hot water and grind them (to remove the bran) for him, nor grind the wheat, nor soak them in water.

אמר ר' הילא כאן דחולין כאן דתרומה

(c)

Answer (R. Hila): (The unspoken question of the Gemara is - why, in the Mishnah in Gittin - Perek 5, is it permitted to help the wife of an Am HaAretz to select, grind and winnow?) The Mishnah there was referring to Chulin (non-sanctified) produce; the Mishnah here is referring to Terumah produce.

והתנינן נחתום אית לך מימר נחתום בתרומה.

(d)

Question: But the Mishnah spoke about a baker - is there a baker who bakes for everyone using Terumah?

חברייא אמרי כאן בלותת כאן בשאינו לותת והא תנינן אבל משתטיל למים לא תגע אצלה שאין מחזקין ידי עוברי עבירה.

(e)

Answer #2 (Yeshiva students): Our Mishnah refers to first soaking the wheat (to clean off any dust) - therefore, it now becomes capable of contracting Tumah. The Mishnah in Gittin did not refer to soaking them first. This can be seen later in the Mishnah there (in Gittin) where it says - 'but once she puts the flour into water, it is prohibited to help (the Am HaAretz's wife) in order not to strengthen her in her sin' - this shows that the first part referred to before the wheat had been soaked.

רבי חייה ורבי אמי חד אמר חרוש בה טבאות ואנא נסב לה מינך בתר שמיטתה וחד אמר אישר.

(f)

(The end of the Mishnah in Gittin teaches that one may encourage gentiles during the Shemita year but one may not encourage Jews. And one may greet people for the sake of peaceful relations.) R. Chiya and R. Ami disagreed - one said that in the Shemita year, one may tell a gentile, "Plow the field well and I will buy the field from you after Shemita". The other opinion said that one may not say this, but one say to him, "You should be strong (in your plowing)".

מאן דאמר חרוש בה טבאות ואנא נסב לה מינך בתר שמיטתה מהו שואלין בשלומן אישר.

(g)

According to the first opinion, he explains the Mishnah's phrase 'one may greet people for the sake of peaceful relations' to refer to greeting Jews who are plowing in Shemita.

ומאן דאמר לנכרי אישר מהו שואלין בשלומן של [בשלום] ישראל שלום עליכם.

(h)

The second opinion explains that it refers to greeting Jews who are suspected of not keeping the laws of Shemita, but saying, 'Shalom Aleichem' as he does to observant Jews.

דילמא רבי חנינה בר פפא ורבי שמואל בר נחמן עברון על חד מן חורשי שיביעת א"ל רבי שמואל בר נחמן אישר.

(i)

It once happened, that R. Chanina bar Papa and R. Shmuel bar Nachman were walking and they saw a Jew plowing in Shemita. R. Shmuel bar Nachman told him, "Be strong!"

א"ל ר' חנינה בר פפא לא כן אלפן רבי ולא אמרו העוברים וגו' שאסור לומר לחורשי שביעית אישר.

(j)

Question (R. Chanina bar Papa to R. Shmuel): Didn't you teach us, Rebbi, that the pasuk (Tehillim 129:8), "And the passers-by did not say, (May the blessing of Hash-m be to you; we have blessed you in the name of Hash-m)" - teaches that it is prohibited to say "Be strong" to those that plow in Shemita...?

אמר לקרות את יודע לדרוש אי את יודע ולא אמרו העוברים אילו האומות העכו"ם שהן עוברין מן העולם שלא אמרו לישראל ברכת ה' עליכם ומה ישראל אומר להם ברכנו אתכם בשם ה'

(k)

Response (R. Shmuel bar Nachman to R. Chanina bar Papa): You know how to read, but you don't know to interpret - "And the passers-by did not say" - these are the idolatrous nations, who pass from the world, that they did not say to Yisrael, "May the blessing of Hash-m be to you". And what does Yisrael say to them? "We have blessed you in the name of Hash-m".

וישראל אומרים להם לא דייכם כל הטובות והנחמות הבאים לעולם בשבילינו ואין אתם אומרים לנו בואו ושאו לכם מן הברכות ולא עוד אלא שאתם מגלגלין עלינו פיסים וזימיות וגילגליות וארנונות

1.

Yisrael says to them - it is not enough, that all of the goodness and comforts that comes to the world is for our sake, and you don't invite us to also partake of them; not only that, but you actually obligate us to pay taxes, monetary penalties, head taxes and Arnona taxes!

הורי ר' אמי לרדות עמו אסור ודכוותה לזלוף עמו אסור:

(l)

R. Ami ruled (concerning the baker in our Mishnah) that one may not remove bread from the oven with him and similarly, if a Jew is suspected of making wine in Tumah, one may not spray wine (into containers) with him.

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