[a - 34 lines; b - 33 lines]

1)[line 2]ומנא תימראU'MENA TEIMRA- and from where do you say it? This question seeks a source for a Halachah stated in a Mishnah, Beraisa, or by an Amora's. Here, the Gemara asks for the source for the ruling that l'Chatchilah a Jew may not leave his animal with a Nochri because of concern for bestiality, but b'Di'eved one who buys an animal from a Nochri may offer it as a Korban and we are not concerned for bestiality.

2)[line 5]שנחבשהSHE'NECHBESHAH- who was taken prisoner (by Nochrim)

3)[line 13]פרת חטאתPARAS CHATAS (PARAH ADUMAH)

(a)A Parah Adumah (also referred to as a Paras Chatas) is a red cow; if there are as many as two hairs of any other color it is not a Parah Adumah (see Maseches Parah 2:5). Only a cow that has never had a yoke placed upon it nor performed any other work is fit to be used as a Parah Adumah. A place is prepared for its slaughter on Har ha'Zeisim (also known as Har ha'Mishchah; "Mishchah" means oil), opposite the gate to the Azarah (the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). After it is slaughtered, its blood is sprinkled in the direction of the Beis ha'Mikdash seven times. Its carcass is then burned. A cedar branch, some Ezov (hyssop) branches, and a length of combed wool dyed crimson are thrown into the carcass of the cow as it is burning (Bamidbar 19:1-22).

(b)Should a person or utensil become Tamei by touching a Mes or being in the same room as a Mes (or a part of a Mes which is Metamei b'Ohel), he/it must wait seven days before he/it is able to immerse in a Mikvah in order to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days, Mei Chatas is sprinkled on the person or utensil. Mei Chatas is a mixture of ashes of a Parah Adumah and spring water. A person who is Tahor dips three bound Ezov branches into the mixture, using them to sprinkle Mei Chatas upon the person or utensil which is Tamei. After this process is complete, the person or utensil is immersed in a Mikvah. Once night falls, the purification process is complete (Bamidbar 19:17-19).

(c)The Torah states that Mei Chatas should be guarded (Bamidbar 19:9). Chazal interpret this to mean that no work, such as placing an item into the mixture and measuring how high it rises, may be performed with Mei Chatas. Furthermore, one may not actively divert his intention from using the mixture as Mei Chatas at any time.

4)[line 20]עודה של שקיןUDAH SHEL SAKIN- (a) a bundle of empty sacks tied together (RASHI); (b) a braided cord that is used to tie on [loaded] sacks (ARUCH); (c) a spindle that is used to spin the thread that will be used to make sacks (RASHI, second explanation, printed in the end of DH Ad she'Timshoch); (d) a cover made of sacks (RAMBAM Hilchos Parah Adumah 1:7; this explanation may be the result of a different Girsa in the Gemara (see Kesef Mishneh ibid.) or a copyist's error (Chazon Ish))

5)[line 21]עגלהEGLAH ARUFAH

(a)If a Jew is found murdered in a field in Eretz Yisrael and his killer is unknown, the Torah requires an Eglah Arufah to atone for his death (Devarim 21:1).

(b)First, five elders from the Beis Din of the Lishkas ha'Gazis (the supreme court which sat in the Beis ha'Mikdash) measure the distances between the body and the cities nearest to it in order to determine which of them is the closest.

(c)The elders of that city then bring a female calf that has never been made to perform any work to a Nachal Eisan (a swiftly flowing stream - RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach 9:2; a valley with infertile soil - RASHI). They strike the back of its neck with a cleaver (Arifah), sundering its spinal column, gullet, and windpipe. No benefit may be derived from the dead calf.

(d)The elders then wash their hands and state, "Our hands did not spill this blood, nor did our eyes see [the murder]" (Devarim 21:7). This proclamation carries with it the assertion that the dead man had not been sent from their city without provisions for his journey or proper accompaniment. The Kohanim present then beseech, "Atone for Your people Yisrael whom You have redeemed, Hash-m, and do not place [the guilt for] innocent blood in the midst of Your people Yisrael" (ibid. 21:8). Following the procedure of the Eglah Arufah, Hash-m forgives his nation for the innocent blood that had been spilled.

6)[line 23]פורתאPORTA- a little bit

7)[line 25]יצרו תוקפוYITZRO TOKFO- his Yetzer ha'Ra (evil inclination) took hold of him


8)[line 4]מאי אותיבו ליה חברוהי לר' אליעזרMAI OSIVO LEI CHAVROHI L'REBBI ELIEZER- what did his colleagues (the Rabanan) ask Rebbi Eliezer?

9)[line 8]פרה קדשי מזבח היאPARAH KODSHEI MIZBE'ACH HI - the Parah Adumah (see above entry #3) has the status of Kodshei Mizbe'ach (KEDUSHAS HA'GUF / KEDUSHAS DAMIM)

(a)There are two classifications into which all items consecrated to Hekdesh fall. These are:

1.KEDUSHAS HA'GUF - that which holds intrinsic Kedushah, such as an animal fit to be offered upon the Mizbe'ach, or a utensils fit to be used in the performance of the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash (RAMBAM Hilchos Me'ilah 6:5). This is also termed KODSHEI MIZBE'ACH.

2.KEDUSHAS DAMIM - that which is not fit to be used in its present state in the Beis ha'Mikdash, but whose value is consecrated to Hekdesh. Such items are sold, and the proceeds go toward any day-to-day needs of Hekdesh. This is also termed KODSHEI BEDEK HA'BAYIS.

(b)The Gemara here derives from the fact that a Parah Adumah becomes disqualified when a person has relations with it that it has the status of Kodshei Mizbe'ach.

10)[line 10]דחטאת קרייה רחמנאD'CHATAS KARYEI RACHMANA- that the Torah calls it (the Parah Adumah) a "Chatas." That is, the Parah Adumah does not have the status of Kodshei Mizbe'ach, but only Kodshei Bedek ha'Bayis, but bestiality nevertheless disqualifies it because the Torah calls it a "Chatas."

11)[line 11]יוצא דופןYOTZEI DOFEN

A child or animal born by a Caesarian birth is called a Yotzei Dofen (lit. it went out through the wall [of the abdomen]). Certain Halachos are associated with the Yotzei Dofen (see Background to Yevamos 84:1).

12)[line 16]ומוםU'MUM- and a blemish on an animal that invalidates it from being offered as a Korban

13)[line 33]לאפודL'EFOD - the apron of the Kohen Gadol (BIGDEI KOHEN GADOL)

(a)The Kohen Gadol must wear the eight vestments of the Kohen Gadol when he does the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash (RAMBAM Hilchos Klei ha'Mikdash 4:12-13). The eight vestments are 1. Tzitz (forehead-plate), 2. Efod (apron), 3. Choshen (breastplate), 4. Me'il (robe), 5. Kutones (long shirt), 6. Michnasayim (breeches), 7. Avnet (belt), 8. Mitznefes (turban).

(b)The Efod was essentially like a half-cape worn at the back, as wide as the body, reaching from just below the elbow to the heel. It had a belt that was an extension of the weave on top of the cape that was also woven out to the sides, long enough to be tied in the front. It also had two shoulder straps that were sewn onto the belt right over the upper corners of the cape. These straps were long enough to reach slightly over the shoulders. At the point on these straps that covered the shoulders, the settings for the Avnei ha'Efod were attached. The ends of these straps were attached to the Choshen with golden braids or chains.

(c)The two Avnei ha'Efod were possibly sardonyx or beryl. The names of six tribes were engraved on each stone. There is a Machlokes Tana'im as to which names, and in which order, were on each stone.