ALTERNATE RENDITION OF THE QUESTION OF R. ZEIRA
Question (R. Zeira to R. Yochanan): How can a Zar be Chayav Misah for Sidur ha'Ma'arachah, given that it is not the last Avodah (Avodah Tamah)?!
Question: But by Eivarim and Pedarim a Zar is Chayav even though there is Terumas ha'Deshen which follows?
Answer: They are the end of the day's Avodah.
Question: But Terumas ha'Deshen which is followed by the Hotza'ah and yet (according to Levi) a Zar is Chayav?
Answer: It is the start of the day's Avodah (as we saw from R. Yochanan's requirement of washing).
Answer: It is a good question, and R. Yochanan should be rendered as referring to Sidur of the two Gizrei Eitzim (that a Zar is Chayav since it is Avodah Tamah).
Question (Rava): If this Sidur is so important then it should be allocated by a Payis?
Answer: It does get a Payis, as an extension of the Payis of Terumas ha'Deshen!
Question: We meant, it should get a Payis of its own.
Answer: As we said in the first Lashon. We skip to Amar Mar Zutra following Rashi.
(Mar Zutra or R. Ashi): A Mishnah supports R. Yochanan.
The coming Mishnah teaches that we check for daybreak in anticipation of Shechitah.
We do not check for Sidur Gizrei Eitzim.
Thus, they must be Kosher at night.
Perhaps not, but we only check for irreparable Avodos.
MISHNAH: CHECKING FOR DAYBREAK
The appointed Kohen calls for someone to climb up and check for daybreak to allow for the Shechitas ha'Tamid.
The observer calls out 'Barkai'!
Masia b. Shmuel says: The entire East until Hevron is lit.
He (see Gemara) says 'Hen'!
This procedure was necessitated by an incident in which the moonlight was mistaken for daybreak, and the Tamid was invalidated.
Once the call was made, the Kohen Gadol was taken down to the Mikvah.
The rule in the Mikdash requires Tevilah for one who moved his bowels and washing from the Kiyor for one who urinates.
WHO CALLED OUT WHAT
There are five opinions cited (each implying a later time) as to what was called out.
The last opinion was that the people have gone out to their labors.
Question: But that is a very late time!?
Answer: We meant the employers have gone out to hire laborers.
LEARNING FROM AVRAHAM
(R. Safra): One should pray Minchah (called here the Prayer of Avraham) when the (East side of the) walls become dark.
Question: Do we learn Halachos from Avraham?!
Answer: We find that the Tana does so (regarding Zerizus).
Question: Should we then (in contradiction to the Mishnah which mandates 6.5 hours) slaughter the Tamid right at Chatzos?!
Answer: What a question, perhaps (even though Avraham prayed at midday) the walls of the Mikdash only darkened at 6.5 (given their construction, narrowing as they rose)?!
Alternate Answer: Perhaps Avraham was particularly familiar with the skies and time?!
Third Alternate Answer: Perhaps Avraham was unique owing to his being an elder, studying in Yeshivah (as we know that from the Avos onward, the Jews never ceased intense study)!?
Mentioned are Avraham, the Jews in Mitzrayim, Yitzhok, Ya'akov, and Eliezer.
Eliezer was Moshel, meaning he was completely familiar with the Torah of Avraham.
He was Damesek, teaching the Torah of Avraham to others.
(Rav): Avraham Avinu fulfilled all of the Torah (proof text).
Question: Maybe he only fulfilled the seven Noahide laws?
But surely he also fulfilled B'ris Milah!
We meant the seven plus B'ris Milah.
Answer: "Mitzvosei ve'Sorosei" implies more than only the Mitzvos B'nei Noach.
(Rava or R. Ashi): Avraham Avinu fulfilled even Eruv Tavshilin, as "Sorosei" implies both the written and oral Torah.
ANNOUNCING THE DAWN
Question: Who said 'Hen'?
The one on the roof should not say it, lest he both dream and interpret!
The one on the ground is in no position to say it!
Answer: It could have been either one.
For the one on the roof, he called out the dawn; the one on the ground asked about Hevron, and the one on the roof said 'Hen'.
The one on the ground would say 'Hen' to confirm that, indeed, he was asking about Hevron.
CONFUSING MOONLIGHT WITH SUNLIGHT
Question: The diffusion of sunlight is broader than moonlight, precluding such an error!?
Answer: It was a cloudy day, and the moonlight diffuses broadly through the cracks between the clouds.
We learn from here that a cloudy day is all sunlight.
Question: What difference does that statement make?
Answer: One can spread the skins to dry anywhere.
Alternate Answer: Everywhere outdoors is considered in the sun to prohibit kneading the Matzah dough there.