[43a - 40 lines; 43b - 51 lines]
1)[line 1]דאפיק חמור בהדהD'APIK CHAMOR BA'HADAH- that a donkey was brought out with it. According to Rebbi, this is prohibited by the decree of "Osah"; Rebbi Shimon, however, would allow it. Since no one would think that the donkey was slaughtered, this is obviously not what the Torah is referring to.
2)[line 5]לאהדוריה לאלעזרL'AHADUREI L'ELAZAR- to return [the subject of the Parshah] to Elazar [ha'Kohen, as opposed to a Zar]
3)[line 6]אין מיעוט אחר מיעוט אלא לרבותEIN MI'UT ACHAR MI'UT ELA L'RABOS
(a)Sometimes a word or phrase in the Torah that implies the exclusion of a particular situation, item, etc. is followed by an additional word or phrase that implies the same exclusion. In such a case the law of "Ein Mi'ut Achar Mi'ut Ela l'Rabos" is applied. This means that the limitation of a limitation results in an expansion of the Halachah to include additional cases.
(b)The logical basis for this rule is that since the Torah could have written just one Mi'ut had it wanted to limit the Din, the fact that there are two written must mean that the Torah desired to include the Halachah instead of excluding it. (This rule is closely related to that of "Shnei Chesuvim ha'Ba'im k'Echad Ein Melamdim" [see Background to 60:2], as well as to the converse rule of "Ein Ribuy Achar Ribuy Ela l'Ma'et [see Background to Menachos 60:1].)
(d)In nearly every situation in which this rule applies, the obvious question is why the Torah found it necessary to express itself in such a roundabout way? Without either Mi'ut we would have reached the same conclusion! TOSFOS (to Yoma 60a DH Trei) explains that in such situations there was a reason such as a Binyan Av (see Background to 60:2) or a Kal va'Chomer (see Background to Avodah Zarah 46:22) that would have taught us to exclude what the Mi'ut was addressing even without the Mi'ut. The Torah therefore included a double Mi'ut in order to teach us that the exclusion in question should not be excluded.
4)[line 11]קא משמע לןKA MASHMA LAN- RASHI explains that this is the only example given in our Sugya that is an illustration of "Mashma Memeila." According to Rav, there is no contradiction in terms; rather, the Torah stresses that a Kohen is necessary at this stage as well. According to the way in which Rabeinu Chananel appears to understand the phrase "Mashma Memeila," it is not a separate clause. Rather, every time that there are two contradictory phrases in the verses of the Parshah of Parah Adumah, the second one is meant to be taken literally (Mashma Memeila), while modifying the meaning of the first (Motzi mi'Yad Mashma).
5a)[line 12]בכיהונוB'CHIHUNO- [this teaches us that the those Mitzvos related to the preparation of the Parah Adumah which must be performed by a Kohen must be done] while he is wearing his Bigdei Kehunah (see Background to 39:57)
b)[line 12]כהן בכיהונו לדורותKOHEN B'CHIHUNO L'DOROS- - [this teaches us that the those Mitzvos related to the preparation of the Parah Adumah] in subsequent generations [that must be performed by a Kohen must be done] while he is wearing his Bigdei Kehunah
6)[line 19]טהור להכשיר את האשהTAHOR L'HACHSHIR ES HA'ISHAH- The Torah need not specify that the Mitzvos related to the preparation of the Parah Adumah must be performed by one who is Tahor, since the verse then goes on to refer to the Parah as a Chatas. Just as a Chatas, which is Kodshei Kodashim, must remain Tahor, so too must the Parah Adumah. Rather, it must be that with the word "Tahor" the Torah is revealing to us that even someone else who is Tahor - whom we otherwise would not have known was fit to gather the ashes of the Parah - may do so.
7)[line 20]חרשCHERESH- a deaf-mute
8)[line 22]לקדשL'KADESH- to mix the ashes of the Parah Adumah with spring water in a clay container
9)[line 24]אנדרוגינוסANDROGINUS- a hermaphrodite (one with both male and female reproductive organs). (An Androginus is prohibited from Kidush since he/she may be a woman.)
10)[line 25]"וְלָקְחוּ לַטָּמֵא מֵעֲפַר שְׂרֵפַת הַחַטָּאת, [וְנָתַן עָלָיו מַיִם חַיִּים אֶל-כֶּלִי.]""V'LAKCHU LA'TAMEI ME'AFAR SEREIFAS HA'CHATAS ..."- "And they shall take from the ashes of the burnt Chatas for the Tamei, and he shall place spring water upon them in a vessel" (Vayikra 19:17). Although this verse does not immediately follow that which details the gathering of the ashes, it does conceptually. The "and" at the beginning of the verse implies a continuation from the previous stage.
11)[line 31]עד דשקיל חד ויהיב חדAD D'SHAKIL CHAD V'YAHIV CHAD- that the same person must take [the ashes] and place [water over them]
12)[line 35]"וְלָקַח אֵזוֹב וְטָבַל בַּמַּיִם אִישׁ טָהוֹר, [וְהִזָּה ...]""V'LAKACH EZOV V'TAVAL BA'MAYIM ISH TAHOR ..."- "And a man who is Tahor shall take an Ezov branch, dip it into the water, [and sprinkle ...]" (Vayikra 19:18). The words "Ish Tahor" are extraneous, as they were already mentioned in the previous stage (Vayikra 19:9).
13)[line 36]לרבנן ...L'RABANAN ...- Since these words are extra, they fall into the category of "Mashma Motzi mi'Yad Mashma." Therefore, they imply the opposite of what they implied the previous time they appeared. What this implication is depends upon how each respective opinion understood the phrase the previous time.
14)[line 1]כיון דאמר מרKEIVAN D'AMAR MAR ...- Since there is no way to understand the verses in this Parshah as a logical progression, it must be that Rebbi Yehudah understands the implications of "Ish Tahor" to mean the opposite of how he interpreted them earlier.
15)[line 3]מכלל שהוא טמאMI'CHLAL SHE'HU TAMEI- [Since the word "Tahor" is extraneous (see above, entry #6)] it implies one who has [some degree of] Tum'ah [and whom we therefore would not have thought fit to sprinkle Mei Chatas]
16)[line 4]טבול יוםTEVUL YOM
(a)A Tevul Yom is a person or vessel that were Tamei and then immersed in a Mikvah. This is the first stage in the process of purification from any Tum'ah. The second stage requires waiting for the following night to fall, at which point the person or utensil will become completely Tahor. The Tum'ah level of a Tevul Yom is minimal; he or it is only considered a Sheni l'Tum'ah. This means that if he or it touches Terumah or Kodesh, the Terumah or Kodesh become Pasul and must be burned. Chulin that he or it touches does not become Tamei whatsoever.
17)[line 5]כי הוו בהKI HAVU BAH- when they delved into [the verses in the Parshah of the Parah Adumah]
18)[line 6]לא מסקי מינה אלא כמאי דמסיק תעלא מבי כרבאLO MASKEI MINAH ELA K'MAI D'MASIK TE'ALA MI'BEI KERAVA- they were unable to extract from it but as much as a fox raises [from the ground when walking through] a plowed field (i.e., nothing but dust. That is, they were unable to understand it as one smooth, logical progression, and were therefore forced to conclude that it was composed of a series of Mashma Motzi mi'Yad Mashma u'Mashma Mimela)
19)[line 10]פוק תני לברא!PUK TANI L'VARA!- go teach your Beraisa outside [of the Beis ha'Midrash]! (that is, Rebbi Yochanan was of the opinion that this Beraisa is incorrect)
20)[line 12]לא מיבעיא לתנא דלא צייתLO MIBA'I L'TANA D'LO TZAYIS- not only did he not listen to (i.e., accept the opinion stated by) the Tana [of the Beraisa]
21)[line 19]כך היא מדת הדין נותנתKACH HI MIDAS HA'DIN NOSENES- this is the way in which justice is served
22)[line 20]זכאיZAKAI- one who is righteous [since he has already achieved atonement through his earlier confession]
23)[line 21]שחטוSHACHTO- he slaughters [his bull; see Background to 42:6:b)]
24)[line 22]מזרקMIZRAK- a [sanctified] bowl [from which the blood would later be sprinkled in the Kodesh and Kodesh ha'Kodashim]
25)[line 23]ממרסMEMARES- stirs
26)[line 23]הרובד הרביעיHA'ROVED HA'REVI'I- the fourth row [of marble tiles]
27)[line 24]יקרושYIKROSH- congeal
28)[line 24]מחתהMACHTAH- shovel
29)[line 25]פנה גחלים אילך ואילךPINAH GECHALIM EILACH V'EILACH- he turned coals this way and that
30)[line 25]חותהCHOTEH- fill [the shovel]
31)[line 26]המעוכלות הפנימיותHA'ME'UKALOS HA'PENIMIYOS- the consumed inner [coals]
32)[line 28]מערהME'AREH- pour
33)[line 28]והיום ...VEHA'YOM ...- The reason why the following changes are made on Yom ha'Kipurim is due to the weakness of the Kohen Gadol, who was up the entire previous night, is fasting, and must perform the entire Yom Kipur service on his own.
34)[line 36]ירוקYAROK- yellowish (see Insights to Nidah 19:1a)
35)[line 38]פרסPERAS- half a Maneh (approximately 212.5 grams or 6.83 oz.)
36)[line 39]מלא חפניוMELO CHAFNAV (CHAFINAH)
(a)Chafinah, performed once a year on Yom ha'Kipurim by the Kohen Gadol, is one of the most difficult Avodos performed in the Beis ha'Mikdash (Yoma 47b, Menachos 11a). The Kohen Gadol enters the Kodesh ha'Kodashim for the first time in order to place Ketores (incense) over burning coals there. He takes with him a Kaf (a bowl with a handle) of Ketores in his left hand and a pan of burning coals in his right. He then places the pan of coals on the floor, empties the double-handful (Melo Chafnav) of Ketores in the Kaf into his hands, and covers the coals with Ketores (Vayikra 16:12-13).
(b)The Kohen Gadol holds the Kaf in his hands and uses his thumbs to slide the handle of the Kaf back toward his body until it was positioned between his elbows, with the edge of the bowl in his fingertips (and the bottom of it resting on the fleshy part of his palm). Then, with the help of his elbows, he rotates the bowl above his hands and empties the Ketores into his palms, all the while being careful not to spill any of it (RASHI, as explained by the ME'IRI on the Mishnah on 49b).
(c)According to the RAMBAM (Hilchos Avodas Yom ha'Kipurim 4:1), who has a slightly different text on 49b, the Kohen Gadol tilts the Kaf at an angle such that he is able to sweep the Ketores into his palms with his thumbs. He accomplishes this using his fingertips or by holding the handle of the Kaf in his teeth. (See Insights to 49b for other possible ways in which the Kohen Gadol performed Chafinah.)
37a)[line 40]דקהDAKAH- finely ground
b)[line 40]דקה מן הדקהDAKAH MIN HA'DAKAH- especially finely ground (it was put through the grinder a second time
38)[line 41]מזרחו של כבשMIZRACHO SHEL KEVESH- on the eastern edge of the ramp [leading up to the outer Mizbe'ach]
39)[line 44]מקדש ידיו ורגליו מן הכיורMEKADESH YADAV V'RAGLAV MIN HA'KIYOR (KIDUSH YADAYIM V'RAGLAYIM)
(a)It is a Mitzvas Aseh for a Kohen to wash his hands and feet whenever he enters the Heichal of the Beis ha'Mikdash, as well as prior to the performance any part of the Avodah (Divine service), (Shemos 30:19).
(b)The manner of washing is as follows: The Kohen bends down and places his right hand on his right foot and his left hand on his left foot. A different Kohen sprinkles water from the Kiyor (the large basin of water in the Azarah; TY #52) on his hands and feet. (If he is alone, he places his hands and feet under a faucet of the Kiyor). Kidush Yadayim v'Raglayim is an Avodah, and therefore must be performed while standing.
(c)A Kohen need not wash his hands and feet more than once a day, as long as he makes certain that they do not become Temei'im or dirty, and as long as he has not left the Azarah. There is a disagreement as to whether or not a Kohen who spent the entire night performing Avodah must wash his hands and feet again in the morning.
(d)A Kohen who intentionally performs Avodah without washing his hands and feet is liable to receive Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, and his Avodah is disqualified (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #106).
40)[line 45]קיתוןKITON- a pitcher
41)[line 48]מערכותMA'ARACHOS- piles of firewood atop the Mizbe'ach
42)[line 50]"וְכָל-אָדָם לֹא-יִהְיֶה בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד [בְּבֹאוֹ לְכַפֵּר בַּקֹּדֶשׁ עַד-צֵאתוֹ ...]""V'CHOL ADAM LO YIHYEH ..."- "And no person should be in the Ohel Mo'ed when he comes to atone for the Beis ha'Mikdash until he leaves ..." (Vayikra 16:17). This verse refers to the burning of the Ketores in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim by the Kohen Gadol on Yom ha'Kipurim, as the Gemara (44a) will explain. Our Gemara asks how a Kohen stirred the blood of the Kohen Gadol's bull on the fourth row of tiles in the Heichal during the burning of the Ketores, if the verse explicitly does not allow anyone else in the Ohel Mo'ed (which includes, at the very least, the Kodesh ha'Kodashim and the Heichal)?
43)[last line]תני של היכלTNI SHEL HEICHAL- learn [our Mishnah to be referring to the fourth row of tiles in the Azarah when counting] from the Heichal